Sections
Subchapter 1 Definitions for Chapter 2001
Subchapter 2 Jitneys and Taxis 2031 – 2032
Subchapter 4 Radio-Television Interference 2091 – 2093
Subchapter 5 Nuisances 2121
Subchapter 6 Curfew 2151
Subchapter 7 Sale of Produce 2181
Subchapter 8 Rubbish and Garbage 2201 – 2206
Subchapter 10 Salvage Yards 2241 – 2283
Subchapter 11 Miscellaneous Regulatory Powers 2291 – 2296
Subchapter 12 Solid Waste Ordinances 2297 – 2297b
Subchapter 13 Condemnation; Solid Waste Management Districts 2299a – 2299k

Terms Used In Vermont Statutes > Title 24 > Chapter 61 - Regulatory Provisions; Police Power of Municipalities

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act: means the federal Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and rules and regulations made thereunder, as amended at any time. See
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • At risk: means those children from birth to age 72 months who have a diagnosed physical or mental condition that has a high probability of resulting in a developmental delay, or who have a high probability of experiencing failure in school due to biological, medical, or environmental factors. See
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Balance bill: means to charge to or collect from a Medicare or General Assistance beneficiary any amount in excess of the reasonable charge for that service as determined by the U. See
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Basic telecommunications service: means that a customer has available at his or her location:

  • Benchmarking: means measuring the energy performance of a single building or portfolio of buildings over time in comparison to other similar buildings or to modeled simulations of a reference building built to a specific standard such as an energy code. See
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • biennially: shall mean the year in which a regular session of the General Assembly is held. See
  • Board: means the State Labor Relations Board established under 3 V. See
  • Board of civil authority: means , unless otherwise provided by municipal charter, in the case of a town, the selectboard and town clerk and the justices residing therein; in the case of a city, the mayor, aldermen, city clerk, and justices residing therein; in the case of a village, the trustees, village clerk, and the justices residing therein; and, in any case, such suitable member or members of unrepresented or insufficiently represented political parties as may be appointed members of the board of civil authority under the provisions of section 2143 of this title. See
  • burial: means the final disposition of human remains, including interring or cremating a decedent and the ceremonies directly related to that cremation or interment at the gravesite; "Department" means the Department for Children and Families; and "funeral" means the ceremonies prior to burial by interment, cremation, or other method. See
  • Campaign: means any organized or coordinated activity undertaken by two or more persons, any part of which is designed to influence the nomination, election, or defeat of any candidate or the passage, defeat, or modification of any public question. See
  • Candidate: means an individual who has taken any affirmative action to become a candidate for public office. See
  • Child or adolescent with a severe emotional disturbance: means a person who:

  • Childhood adversity: means experiences that may be traumatic to children and youths during the first 18 years of life, such as experiencing violence or other emotionally disturbing exposures in their homes or communities. See
  • Claim: means any request or demand, whether under a contract or otherwise, for money or property, and whether or not the State has title to the money or property, that:

  • Commercial Working Group: means the Commercial and Multiunit Building Energy Labeling Working Group established by subsection 62(b) of this title. See
  • Commission: means the Public Utility Commission. See
  • Commission: means the Public Utility Commission under section 3 of this title. See
  • Commissioner: means the Commissioner of Disabilities, Aging, and Independent Living. See
  • Commissioner: means the Commissioner of Buildings and General Services. See
  • Commissioner: means the Commissioner of Finance and Management. See
  • Commissioner: means the Commissioner of Disabilities, Aging, and Independent Living. See
  • Commissioner: means the Commissioner for Children and Families and "Department" means the Department for Children and Families. See
  • commissioning: means the first time a plant is put into operation following initial construction or modernization if the costs of modernization are at least 50 percent of the costs that would be required to build a new plant including all buildings and structures technically required for the new plant's operation. See
  • Committee membership: Legislators are assigned to specific committees by their party. Seniority, regional balance, and political philosophy are the most prominent factors in the committee assignment process.
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Communication or language mode: means verbal or nonverbal communication that includes listening, speaking, American Sign Language (ASL), Signed English, Signed Support, reading, and writing in all domains of a language. See
  • companies: means and includes individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, and municipalities owning or conducting any public service business or property used in connection therewith and covered by the provisions of this chapter. See
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Council: means the Children and Family Council for Prevention Programs. See
  • Court: means the Family Division of the Superior Court. See
  • CPI: means the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers, designated as "CPI-U" in the northeast region, as published by the U. See
  • Crime related to public office: means any of the following criminal offenses if the offense is a felony and is committed in connection with employment as a member:

  • Custodial parent: means any person with whom a dependent child actually resides, whether or not the parent is receiving public assistance benefits under chapter 11 of this title, or the Commissioner for Children and Families if the dependent child is under the care and control of that Department. See
  • Customer: means a retail electric consumer. See
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Deaf: means having a severe or complete absence of auditory sensitivity that impairs processing of linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification or cochlear implants. See
  • DeafBlind: means having concomitant hearing and visual impairments. See
  • debt service obligations: is a s defined in section 951a of this title. See
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Vermont Department for Children and Families. See
  • Department: means the Department of Disabilities, Aging, and Independent Living. See
  • Department: means the Department of Public Service. See
  • Department: means the Department of Public Service under section 1 of this title, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. See
  • Department: means the Department of Disabilities, Aging, and Independent Living. See
  • Department: means the Department of Disabilities, Aging, and Independent Living. See
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Dependent child: means any child receiving assistance under chapter 11 of this title or any minor child for whose benefit the Office of Child Support has been authorized and requested to collect support. See
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Distribution company: means a company under the jurisdiction of the Commission that distributes electricity or natural gas for consumption by end users. See
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Domestic: when applied to a corporation, company, association, or copartnership shall mean organized under the laws of this State; "foreign" when so applied, shall mean organized under the laws of another state, government, or country. See
  • Early care and education provider: means a licensed child care home provider, a registered child care home provider, or a legally exempt child care home provider, which is defined by the Legally Exempt Child Care Provider Requirements set forth by the Vermont Department for Children and Families, Child Development Division, who provides child care services as defined in subdivision 3511(4) of this title. See
  • Election: means the procedure whereby the voters of this State, or any of its political subdivisions, select persons to fill public offices or act on public questions. See
  • Electric vehicle supply equipment: means a device or system designed and used specifically to transfer electrical energy to a plug-in electric vehicle as defined in 23 V. See
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Energy: means not only the traditional scientific characteristic of "ability to do work" but also the substances or processes used to produce heat, light, or motion, including petroleum or other liquid fuels, natural or synthetic fuel gas, solid carbonaceous fuels, solar radiation, geothermal sources, nuclear sources, biomass, organic waste products, wind, or flowing water. See
  • Energy conversion efficiency: means the effective use of energy and heat from a combustion process. See
  • Energy efficiency utility: means an energy efficiency entity appointed under subdivision 209(d)(2) of this title. See
  • Energy label: means the visual presentation in a consistent format of an energy rating for a building and any other supporting and comparative information. See
  • Energy rating: means a simplified mechanism to convey a building's energy performance. See
  • Energy storage facility: means a system that uses mechanical, chemical, or thermal processes to store energy for export to the grid. See
  • Energy transformation project: means an undertaking that provides energy-related goods or services but does not include or consist of the generation of electricity and that results in a net reduction in fossil fuel consumption by the customers of a retail electricity provider and in the emission of greenhouse gases attributable to that consumption. See
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Environmental attributes: means the characteristics of a plant that enable the energy it produces to qualify as renewable energy and include any and all benefits of the plant to the environment such as avoided emissions or other impacts to air, water, or soil that may occur through the plant's displacement of a nonrenewable energy source. See
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Exclusive representative: means the labor organization that has been elected or recognized and certified by the Board under this chapter and consequently has the exclusive right under section 3608 of this chapter to represent early care and education providers for the purpose of collective bargaining and the enforcement of any contract provisions. See
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Existing renewable energy: means renewable energy produced by a plant that came into service prior to or on June 30, 2015. See
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Fee:

  • Fees: shall mean earnings due for official services, aside from salaries or per diem compensation. See
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • following: when used by way of reference to a section of the law shall mean the next preceding or following section. See
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • gender identity: means an individual's actual or perceived gender identity, or gender-related characteristics intrinsically related to an individual's gender or gender-identity, regardless of the individual's assigned sex at birth. See
  • General election: means the election held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, in even-numbered years. See
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Grievance: means the exclusive representative's formal written complaint regarding an improper application of one or more terms of the collective bargaining agreement. See
  • Group net metering system: means a net metering system serving more than one customer, or a single customer with multiple electric meters, located within the service area of the same retail electricity provider. See
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Hard of Hearing: means a reduced level of functional hearing and reliance on residual hearing and technology, including hearing aids, cochlear implants, FM listening systems, and other types of assistive listening devices to communicate via verbal language, with or without use of ASL. See
  • Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court.
  • Home care services: include room, board, safety services, household services, and any specialized services to meet the unique needs of the individual. See
  • home- and community-based services: includes all home-based services and Enhanced Residential Care. See
  • Household: means any individual or group of individuals who live together as one economic unit:

  • Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Independent monitor: means a nonprofit organization that is neither funded nor controlled, in whole or in part, by businesses that sell or manufacture apparel, footwear, or textiles. See
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Interactive: means that a communications medium is regularly used to transmit information in two directions. See
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Justice: when applied to a person, other than a Justice of the Supreme Court, shall mean a justice of the peace for the county for which he or she is elected or appointed. See
  • knowingly:

  • kWh: means kW hour or hours. See
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legislative body: means the legislative body of a town, city, or incorporated village. See
  • Legislative body: means the board of supervisors, board of commissioners, or other governing board of a solid waste management district. See
  • Legislative session: That part of a chamber's daily session in which it considers legislative business (bills, resolutions, and actions related thereto).
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Line in service: means a circuit or channel connecting a customer to the public switched network or to the Internet. See
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Long-term care: means services and supports received by an individual in a long-term care facility or provided to an individual through the Choices for Care program contained within Vermont's Global Commitment to Health Section 1115 demonstration. See
  • Long-term care facility: means a residential care home, an assisted living residence or nursing home as defined by section 7102 of this title, or any other similar adult care home that is licensed or required to be licensed pursuant to chapter 71 of this title. See
  • Magistrate: shall mean any Supreme Court Justice, Superior judge, District judge, or Probate judge. See
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • Material: means having a natural tendency to influence, or be capable of influencing, the payment or receipt of money or property. See
  • Medicaid: means the medical assistance program authorized under chapter 19 of this title. See
  • Medicare: means the health insurance programs authorized under Title XVIII of the Social Security Act. See
  • Medicare beneficiary: means a person who is a beneficiary of health insurance under Title XVIII of the Social Security Act. See
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Month: shall mean a calendar month and "year" shall mean a calendar year and be equivalent to the expression "year of our Lord. See
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Multiunit building: means a building that contains more than one independent dwelling unit or separate space for independent commercial use, or both. See
  • Municipality: shall include a city, town, town school district, incorporated school or fire district or incorporated village, and all other governmental incorporated units. See
  • MWH: means MW hour or hours. See
  • Necessity: means a reasonable need which considers the greatest public good and the least inconvenience and expense to the condemning party and to the property owner. See
  • Net metering: means measuring the difference between the electricity supplied to a customer and the electricity fed back by the customer's net metering system during the customer's billing period:

  • Net metering system: means a plant for generation of electricity that:

  • New renewable energy: means renewable energy produced by a specific and identifiable plant coming into service after June 30, 2015. See
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • Oath: shall include affirmation where by law an affirmation may be substituted. See
  • Obligation: means an established duty, whether or not fixed, arising from an express or implied contractual, grantor-grantee, or licensor-licensee relationship, from a fee-based or similar relationship, from statute or regulation, or from the retention of any overpayment after the deadline for reporting and returning the overpayment under subdivision 631(a)(10) of this chapter. See
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Office: means the Office of the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman. See
  • Older Americans Act: means the federal Older Americans Act of 1965 and rules and regulations adopted thereunder, as amended at any time. See
  • Older person: means an individual who is 60 years of age or older. See
  • Older persons: means individuals who have attained the age of 60 years. See
  • Ombudsman: means the individual selected from among individuals with expertise and experience in the fields of long-term care and advocacy who heads the Office of the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman and is responsible personally, or through representatives of the Office, to fulfill the functions, responsibilities, and duties set forth in 45 C. See
  • Original source: means an individual who:

  • Overpayment: means any State or federal funds that a person receives or retains to which the person, after applicable reconciliation, is not entitled. See
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: means any individual, business entity, labor organization, public interest group, or other organization, incorporated or unincorporated. See
  • Person: shall include any natural person, corporation, municipality, the State of Vermont or any department, agency, or subdivision of the State, and any partnership, unincorporated association, or other legal entity. See
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Persons with disabilities: means individual Vermonters who have functional limitations by virtue of physical, psychiatric, cognitive, or psychological conditions. See
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plant: means an independent technical facility that generates electricity from renewable energy. See
  • Plant capacity: means the rated electrical nameplate for a plant, except that, in the case of a solar energy plant, the term shall mean the aggregate AC nameplate capacity of all inverters used to convert the plant's output to AC power. See
  • Plant owner: means a person who has the right to sell electricity generated by a plant. See
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Political party: is a ny group of individuals that has organized and filed its certificate of organization with the Secretary of State, pursuant to chapter 45 of this title. See
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • Presentence report: A report prepared by a court's probation officer, after a person has been convicted of an offense, summarizing for the court the background information needed to determine the appropriate sentence. Source: U.S. Courts
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Primary: means any election that precedes a general or special election, for the purpose of permitting political parties to nominate, from among all of the candidates for any office, only that number of candidates equal to the number of persons to be elected to that office at the succeeding general or special election. See
  • Primary prevention: means efforts to reduce the likelihood of juvenile delinquency, truancy, substance abuse, child abuse, and other socially destructive behaviors before intervention by authorities. See
  • Private network: means a telecommunications system entirely owned and operated by a single corporate or individual person other than a telecommunications service provider and not available to the general public. See
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • provider: means a company engaged in the distribution or sale of electricity directly to the public. See
  • Public assistance: means money payments furnished to or on behalf of dependent children by the Department. See
  • public documents: as used in this chapter , shall include the acts and resolves and journals of the General Assembly, the reports of State officers or of any commission, board, or person authorized by law to make reports. See
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Public switched network: means the communications network owned and operated by telecommunications service providers, some of whom are common carriers. See
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • real estate: shall include lands, tenements, and hereditaments and all rights thereto and interests therein, and pews or slips in places of public worship shall be treated as real estate. See
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • Rehabilitation Act: means the federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and rules and regulations adopted thereunder, as amended at any time. See
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Renewable energy: means energy produced using a technology that relies on a resource that is being consumed at a harvest rate at or below its natural regeneration rate. See
  • Renewable pricing: shall mean an optional service provided or contracted for by an electric company:

  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • representatives of the Office: means the employees or volunteers designated by the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman to carry out the duties of the Office, regardless of whether supervision is provided by the Ombudsman, his or her designee, or an agency hosting a local Ombudsman entity designated by the Ombudsman. See
  • RES: means the Renewable Energy Standard established under sections 8004 and 8005 of this title. See
  • Resident: means an older person or an individual with disabilities who is 18 years of age or older who resides in a long-term care facility or receives long-term care through the Choices for Care program contained within Vermont's Global Commitment to Health Section 1115 demonstration. See
  • Resident representative: means any of the following:

  • Residential Working Group: means the Residential Building Energy Labeling Working Group established by subsection 62(a) of this title. See
  • Resilience: means the ability to respond to, withstand, and recover from serious hardship with coping skills and a combination of protective factors, including a strong community, family support, social connections, knowledge of parenting and child development, concrete support in times of need, and social and emotional competence of children. See
  • Respondent: means a person alleged to have violated a solid waste ordinance. See
  • Responsible parent: means the natural or adoptive parent or stepparent, to the extent the stepparent owes a duty of support under 15 V. See
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • road: shall include bridges thereon and their approaches. See
  • said: when used by way of reference to a person or thing shall apply to the same person or thing last mentioned. See
  • Savings: means the difference remaining at the conclusion of each fiscal year between the amount of funds appropriated for Choices for Care and the sum of expended and obligated funds, less an amount equal to one percent of that fiscal year's total Choices for Care expenditure. See
  • School failure: means failure to develop essential skills in reading, writing, and mathematics appropriate to age level. See
  • seal: shall include an impression of the official seal made upon paper alone or by means of a wafer or wax affixed thereto. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of State. See
  • selectboard: as used in this chapter , shall include the mayor and board of aldermen of a city and the president and trustees of an incorporated village. See
  • Service area: means :

  • Service location: means a business or residential geographic point of contact of a telecommunications service for purposes of the Enhanced 911 network. See
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • sexual orientation: means female or male homosexuality, heterosexuality, or bisexuality. See
  • Social Security Act: means the federal Social Security Act and rules and regulations adopted thereunder, as amended at any time. See
  • Solid waste ordinance: means an ordinance adopted pursuant to subdivision 2291(12) of this title. See
  • special fund: is a fund created to account for specific revenues earmarked to finance particular or restricted programs and activities, or created by expressed enactment of the General Assembly or created by the Commissioner of Finance and Management to account for and manage such proceeds as those of court settlements or private bequests, transfers between State and local governments, monies of State institution inmate or patient operations, monies resulting from the disposal of State property, grants and other awards accepted by the General Assembly or in accordance with section 5 of this title, transfers of a general services nature between State agencies, or financial transactions by State government on behalf of nonstate entities. See
  • Standard Offer Facilitator: means an entity appointed by the Commission pursuant to subsection 8005a(a) of this title. See
  • State: means the State of Vermont, a county, a municipality or other subdivision thereof and commission, board, department, or agency thereof or any other governmental entity authorized or created by State law, including public corporations and authorities. See
  • State: when applied to the different parts of the United States may apply to the District of Columbia and any territory and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • sworn: shall include affirmed. See
  • Telecommunications service: means the transmission of any interactive electromagnetic communications that passes through the public switched network. See
  • Telecommunications service provider: means a company required by law to hold a certificate of public good from the Public Utility Commission to offer telecommunications service for intrastate service, or is authorized by the Federal Communications Commission to offer interstate telecommunications service. See
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testate: To die leaving a will.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Town: includes "city. See
  • town: shall mean village or city. See
  • Town: shall include city and wards or precincts therein; "selectboard members" and "board of civil authority" shall extend to and include the mayor and aldermen of cities; "trustees" shall extend to and include bailiffs of incorporated villages; and the laws applicable to the inhabitants and officers of towns shall be applicable to the inhabitants and similar officers of all municipal corporations. See
  • Town clerk: means a town officer elected pursuant to section 2646 of this title or otherwise elected or appointed by law and performing those duties prescribed by 24 V. See
  • Toxic stress: means strong, frequent, or prolonged experience of adversity without adequate support. See
  • Tradeable renewable energy credits: means all of the environmental attributes associated with a single unit of energy generated by a renewable energy source where:

  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trauma-informed: means a type of program, organization, or system that recognizes the widespread impact of trauma and potential paths for recovery; recognizes the signs and symptoms of trauma in clients, families, staff, and others involved in a system; responds by fully integrating knowledge about trauma into policies, procedures, and practices; and seeks actively to resist retraumatization and build resilience among the population served. See
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Unit holder: means the tenant or owner of an independent dwelling unit or separate space for independent commercial use within a multiunit building. See
  • User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
  • Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Vermont composite electric utility system: means the combined generation, transmission, and distribution resources along with the combined retail load requirements of the Vermont retail electricity providers. See
  • Village: shall mean an incorporated village. See
  • Vote tabulator: means a machine that registers and counts paper ballots and includes optical scan tabulators. See
  • Voter: means an individual who is qualified to vote in an election in this State or a political subdivision of this State, and whose name is registered on the checklist of a political subdivision of the State. See
  • Willful interference: means an individual's action taken or failure to act in an intentional attempt to prevent, interfere with, or impede the Ombudsman or a representative of the Office from performing any of his or her functions, responsibilities, or duties. See