6-9A-1 Declaration of legislative policy
6-9A-2 Definitions
6-9A-3 Proceedings to be open; public notice of meetings
6-9A-4 Exceptions
6-9A-5 Minutes
6-9A-6 Enforcement by injunctions; actions in violation of article voidable; voidability of bond issues
6-9A-7 Violation of article; criminal penalties; attorney fees and expenses in civil actions
6-9A-8 Acting by reference; written ballots
6-9A-9 Broadcasting or recording meetings
6-9A-10 Open governmental meetings committee
6-9A-11 Request for advisory opinion; maintaining confidentiality
6-9A-12 Duty of Attorney General, Secretary of State, clerks of the county commissions and city clerks or recorders

Terms Used In West Virginia Code > Chapter 6 > Article 9A

  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Asset: means property of a debtor, but the term does not include:

    (1) Property to the extent it is encumbered by a valid lien. See West Virginia Code 40-1A-1

  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-at-law: A person who is legally qualified and licensed to practice law, and to represent and act for clients in legal proceedings.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequeath: To gift property by will.
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts.
  • Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
  • claim for relief: means a right to payment, whether or not the right is reduced to judgment, liquidated, unliquidated, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, legal, equitable, secured or unsecured. See West Virginia Code 40-1A-1
  • Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • Creditor: means a person who has a claim. See West Virginia Code 40-1A-1
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Debt: means liability on a claim. See West Virginia Code 40-1A-1
  • Debtor: means a person who is liable on a claim. See West Virginia Code 40-1A-1
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Decision: means any determination, action, vote or final disposition of a motion, proposal, resolution, order, ordinance or measure on which a vote of the governing body is required at any meeting at which a quorum is present. See West Virginia Code 6-9A-2
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Descendent: One who is directly descended from another such as a child, grandchild, or great grandchild.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Electronic: means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities. See West Virginia Code 40-1A-1
  • Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
  • Emergency meeting: means any meeting called by a governing body for the purpose of addressing an unexpected event which requires immediate attention because it poses:

    (A) An imminent threat to public health or safety. See West Virginia Code 6-9A-2

  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Executive session: means any meeting or part of a meeting of a governing body which is closed to the public. See West Virginia Code 6-9A-2
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Governing body: means the members of any public agency having the authority to make decisions for or recommendations to a public agency on policy or administration, the membership of a governing body consists of two or more members. See West Virginia Code 6-9A-2
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • in writing: include any representation of words, letters or figures, whether by printing, engraving, writing or otherwise. See West Virginia Code 2-2-10
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Insider: includes :

    (1) If the debtor is an individual:

    (i) A relative of the debtor or of a general partner of the debtor. See West Virginia Code 40-1A-1

  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • judgment: includes decrees and orders for the payment of money or the conveyance or delivery of land or personal property, or some interest therein, or any undertaking, bond or recognizance which has the legal effect of a judgment. See West Virginia Code 2-2-10
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Lien: means a charge against or an interest in property to secure payment of a debt or performance of an obligation, and includes a security interest created by agreement, a judicial

    lien obtained by legal or equitable process or proceedings, a common-law lien or a statutory lien. See West Virginia Code 40-1A-1

  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Meeting: means the convening of a governing body of a public agency for which a quorum is required in order to make a decision or to deliberate toward a decision on any matter which results in an official action. See West Virginia Code 6-9A-2
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • oath: shall be deemed to include an affirmation and the word "swear" or "sworn" to be complied with if the person referred to make solemn affirmation. See West Virginia Code 2-2-7
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • offense: includes every act or omission for which a fine, forfeiture or punishment is imposed by law. See West Virginia Code 2-2-10
  • Official action: means action which is taken by virtue of power granted by law, ordinance, policy, rule, or by virtue of the office held. See West Virginia Code 6-9A-2
  • Organization: means a person other than an individual. See West Virginia Code 40-1A-1
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: means an individual, partnership, association, trust, business or nonprofit entity, public corporation, government or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust or any other legal or commercial entity. See West Virginia Code 40-1A-1
  • personal property: include goods, chattels, real and personal, money, credits, investments and the evidences thereof. See West Virginia Code 2-2-10
  • personal representative: include the executor of a will, the administrator of the estate of a deceased person, the administrator of such estate with the will annexed, the administrator de bonis non of such estate, whether there be a will or not, the sheriff or other officer lawfully charged with the administration of the estate of a deceased person, and every other curator or committee of a decedent's estate for or against whom suits may be brought for causes of action which accrued to or against such decedent. See West Virginia Code 2-2-10
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Property: means anything that may be the subject of ownership. See West Virginia Code 40-1A-1
  • Public agency: means any administrative or legislative unit of state, county or municipal government, including any department, division, bureau, office, commission, authority, board, public corporation, section, committee, subcommittee or any other agency or subunit of the foregoing, authorized by law to exercise some portion of executive or legislative power. See West Virginia Code 6-9A-2
  • real property: include lands, tenements and hereditaments, all rights thereto and interests therein except chattel interests. See West Virginia Code 2-2-10
  • Record: means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form. See West Virginia Code 40-1A-1
  • Regular meeting: means a meeting of a governing body at which the regular business of the public is conducted. See West Virginia Code 6-9A-2
  • Revocable trust: A trust agreement that can be canceled, rescinded, revoked, or repealed by the grantor (person who establishes the trust).
  • Right of survivorship: The ownership rights that result in the acquisition of title to property by reason of having survived other co-owners.
  • Select or special committee: A committee established by the legislature for a limited time period to perform a particular study or investigation. These committees might be given or denied authority to report legislation to the legislature.
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Special meeting: means a meeting of a governing body other than a regular meeting or an emergency meeting. See West Virginia Code 6-9A-2
  • state: when applied to a part of the United States and not restricted by the context, includes the District of Columbia and the several territories, and the words "United States" also include the said district and territories. See West Virginia Code 2-2-10
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Transfer: means every mode, direct or indirect, absolute or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, of disposing of or parting with an asset or an interest in an asset, and includes payment of money, release, lease, license, and creation of a lien or other encumbrance. See West Virginia Code 40-1A-1
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Trustor: The person who makes or creates a trust. Also known as the grantor or settlor.
  • Valid lien: means a lien that is effective against the holder of a judicial lien subsequently obtained by legal or equitable process or proceedings. See West Virginia Code 40-1A-1
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.