Terms Used In Wisconsin Statutes 100.37
- Following: when used by way of reference to any statute section, means the section next following that in which the reference is made. See Wisconsin Statutes 990.01
- in writing: includes any representation of words, letters, symbols or figures. See Wisconsin Statutes 990.01
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- Minor: means a person who has not attained the age of 18 years, except that for purposes of investigating or prosecuting a person who is alleged to have violated a state or federal criminal law or any civil law or municipal ordinance, "minor" does not include a person who has attained the age of 17 years. See Wisconsin Statutes 990.01
- Person: includes all partnerships, associations and bodies politic or corporate. See Wisconsin Statutes 990.01
- State: when applied to states of the United States, includes the District of Columbia, the commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the several territories organized by Congress. See Wisconsin Statutes 990.01
- Year: means a calendar year, unless otherwise expressed; "year" alone means "year of our Lord". See Wisconsin Statutes 990.01
(1) In this section:
(a) “Corrosive” means any substance which in contact with living tissue will cause destruction of tissue by chemical action, but does not refer to action on inanimate surfaces.
(b) “Extremely flammable” applies to any substance which has a flash point at or below 20 degrees Fahrenheit as determined by the Tagliabue open cup tester, and “flammable” applies to any substance which has a flash point of above 20 degrees to 80 degrees Fahrenheit, as determined by the Tagliabue open cup tester; “combustible” applies to any substance which has a flash point above 80 degrees Fahrenheit to 150 degrees as determined by the Tagliabue open cup tester, except that flammability or combustibility of solids and of the contents of self-pressurized containers shall be determined by methods as prescribed under the federal hazardous substances act (15 USC 1261 et seq) or found by the department to be generally applicable to such materials or containers, and established by rules adopted by the department, which shall also define “flammable”, “combustible” and “extremely flammable” in accordance with such methods.
(c) “Hazardous substance” means:
1. Any substance or mixture of substances, including a toy or other article intended for use by children, which is toxic, is corrosive, is an irritant, is a strong sensitizer, is flammable or combustible, or generates pressure through decomposition, heat or other means, if such substance or mixture of substances may cause substantial personal injury or substantial illness during or as a proximate result of any customary or reasonably foreseeable handling or use, including reasonably foreseeable ingestion by children.
2. Any substances which the department by rule finds, pursuant to sub. (2) (a), meet the requirements of subd. 1.
2m. Any substance included under sub. (2) (e) 2.
3. Any radioactive substance, if, with respect to such substance as used in a particular class of article or as packaged, the department determines by rule that the substance is sufficiently hazardous to require labeling in accordance with this section in order to protect the public health.
4. Any toy or other article intended for use by children which the department by rule determines in accordance with this section to present an electrical, mechanical or thermal hazard or to contain a toxic substance either in or on the toy or other article.
5. Except as otherwise provided in this section, “hazardous substance” does not apply to pesticides subject to ss. 94.67 to 94.71, to foods, drugs and cosmetics, to bullets or other ammunition, or gun powder for reloading ammunition, nor to substances intended for use as fuels when stored in containers and used in the heating, cooking or refrigeration system of a house, nor does it include any source material, special nuclear material or by-product material as defined in the atomic energy act of 1954, as amended, and regulations of the nuclear regulatory commission under such act.
(d) “Highly toxic” means any substance which falls within any of the following categories: Produces death within 14 days in half or more of a group of 10 or more laboratory white rats each weighing between 200 and 300 grams, at a single dose of 50 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight, when orally administered; or produces death within 14 days in half or more of a group of 10 or more laboratory white rats each weighing between 200 and 300 grams, when inhaled continuously for a period of one hour or less at an atmosphere concentration of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or vapor or 2 milligrams per liter by volume or less of mist or dust, provided such concentration is likely to be encountered by persons when the substance is used in any reasonably foreseeable manner; or produces death within 14 days in half or more of a group of 10 or more rabbits tested in a dosage of 200 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight, when administered by continuous contact with the bare skin for 24 hours or less. If the department finds that available data on human experience with any substance indicate results different from those obtained on animals in the above named dosages or concentrations, the human data shall take precedence.
(e) “Immediate container” does not include package liners.
(f) “Irritant” means any substance not corrosive which on immediate, prolonged or repeated contact with normal living tissue will induce a local inflammatory reaction.
(g) “Label” means a display of written, printed or graphic matter upon the immediate container of any substance or upon an article or tag attached thereto in the case of unpackaged articles; and a requirement made by or under authority of this section that any word, statement or other information appear on the label shall not be considered to be complied with unless such word, statement or other information also appears on the outside container or wrapper, if there is any, unless it is easily legible through the outside container or wrapper, and on all accompanying literature where there are directions for use, written or otherwise.
(h) “Misbranded package” or “misbranded package of a hazardous substance” means a hazardous substance in a container intended or suitable for household use, and includes a toy or other article intended for use by children whether or not in package form, which, except as otherwise provided under sub. (2), fails to bear a label:
1. Which states conspicuously the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, distributor or seller; the common or usual name, or the chemical name if there is no common or usual name, of the hazardous substance or of each component which contributes substantially to its hazard, unless the department by rule permits or requires the use of a recognized generic name; the signal word “DANGER” on substances which are extremely flammable, corrosive or highly toxic; the signal word “WARNING” or “CAUTION” on all other hazardous substances; an affirmative statement of the principal hazards, such as “Flammable”, “Combustible”, “Vapor harmful”, “Causes burns”, “Absorbed through skin” or similar wording descriptive of the hazard; precautionary measures describing the action to be followed or avoided, except when modified by rule of the department pursuant to sub. (2); instruction, when necessary or appropriate, for first-aid treatment; the word “poison” for any hazardous substance which is highly toxic; instructions for handling and storage of packages which require special care in handling or storage; and the statement “Keep out of the reach of children”, or its practical equivalent or, if the article is intended for use by children and is not a banned hazardous substance, adequate directions for the protection of children from the hazard; and
2. On which any statements required under subd. 1. are located prominently and are in the English language in conspicuous and legible type in contrast by typography, layout or color with other printed matter on the label.
(hm) “Practitioner” has the meaning given in s. 961.01 (19).
(i) “Radioactive substance” means a substance which emits ionizing radiation.
(j) “Strong sensitizer” means a substance which will cause on normal living tissue, through an allergic or photodynamic process, a hypersensitivity which becomes evident on reapplication of the same substances and which is designated as such by the department. Before designating any substance as a strong sensitizer, the department, upon consideration of the frequency of occurrence and severity of the reaction, shall find that the substance has a significant potential for causing hypersensitivity.
(k) “Toxic” applies to any substance, other than a radioactive substance, which has the capacity to produce personal injury or illness to persons through ingestion, inhalation, or absorption through any body surface.
(a) An article may be determined to present an electrical hazard if, in normal use or when subjected to reasonably foreseeable damage or abuse, its design or manufacture may cause personal injury or illness by electric shock.
(b) An article may be determined to present a mechanical hazard if, in normal use or when subjected to reasonably foreseeable damage or abuse, its design or manufacture presents an unreasonable risk of personal injury or illness from any of the following:
1. Fracture, fragmentation or disassembly of the article.
2. Propulsion of the article, or any part or accessory of the article.
3. Points or other protrusions, surfaces, edges, openings or closures.
4. Moving parts.
5. Lack or insufficiency of controls to reduce or stop motion.
6. Self-adhering characteristics of the article.
7. Aspiration or ingestion of the article, or any part or accessory of the article.
8. Instability of the article.
9. Any other aspect of the article’s design or manufacture including the capability of producing sounds at a level of 138 decibels or higher.
(c) An article may be determined to present a thermal hazard if, in normal use or when subjected to reasonably foreseeable damage or abuse, its design or manufacture presents an unreasonable risk of personal injury or illness because of heat as from heated parts, substances or surfaces.
(a) Whenever in the judgment of the department such action will promote the objectives of this section by avoiding or resolving uncertainty as to its application, the department may by rule declare to be a hazardous substance, for the purposes of this section, any substance or mixture of substances which it finds meets the requirements of sub. (1) (c) 1.
(b) If the department finds that the requirements of this section are not adequate for the protection of the public health and safety in view of the special hazards presented by any particular hazardous substance, it may by rule establish such reasonable variations or additional requirements as it finds necessary for the protection of the public health and safety.
(c) If the department finds that, because of the size of the package involved or because of the minor hazard presented by the substance contained therein, or for other good and sufficient reasons, full compliance with the labeling requirements otherwise applicable under this section is impracticable or is not necessary for the adequate protection of the public health and safety, it may exempt such substances from these requirements to the extent it determines to be consistent with adequate protection of the public health and safety.
(d) The department may by rule prohibit the sale of a hazardous substance if it finds that notwithstanding cautionary labeling that is or may be required the degree or nature of the hazard involved in the presence or use of such substance is such that the public health and safety can only be protected by keeping such substance out of the channels of commerce in this state.
1. The department may summarily ban the sale or distribution of any hazardous substance or article if it finds that the hazard to public health or safety is so great that such hazard should not be permitted to continue. The department shall follow the procedure specified in s. 93.18 (3).
2. In addition to subd. 1. and except as provided in subd. 3., all of the following are hazardous substances, possess such a degree of hazard that adequate cautionary labeling cannot be written and may not be sold or distributed:
a. Propyl nitrite, isopropyl nitrite and mixtures containing propyl nitrite or isopropyl nitrite.
b. The nitrous acid esters of all alcohols having the formula of 5 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom including 1-pentyl nitrite, 2-pentyl nitrite, 3-pentyl nitrite, 2-methyl-1-butyl nitrite, 3-methyl-1-butyl nitrite (also known as isoamyl nitrite or isopentyl nitrite), 2-methyl-2-butyl nitrite (also known as tertiary pentyl nitrite), 3-methyl-2-butyl nitrite, 2, 2-dimethylpropyl nitrite (also known as neopentyl nitrite) and mixtures containing more than 5 percent of 1-pentyl nitrite, 2-pentyl nitrite, 3-pentyl nitrite, 2-methyl-1-butyl nitrite, 3-methyl-1-butyl nitrite, 2-methyl-2-butyl nitrite, 3-methyl-2-butyl nitrite or 2, 2-dimethyl nitrite.
c. Ethyl chloride and ethyl nitrite.
d. Any toy containing elemental mercury.
3. Subdivisions 1. and 2. do not apply to the sale or distribution of isoamyl nitrite (3-methyl-1-butyl nitrite) or ethyl chloride as prescription drugs obtained from, or pursuant to a valid prescription or order of, a practitioner while acting in the course of professional practice.
(f) The department may by rule prescribe the methods of sale of hazardous substances, including but not limited to glues, cements and hobby kit fuels, and may regulate the manner of display and restrict access by the general public to hazardous substances.
(g) The department may by rule prescribe package safety standards, including type of package material and safety closures for hazardous substances and pesticides, and may prohibit the sale of noncomplying or defective packages.
(h) The department may by rule limit or ban the use of any ingredient or combination of ingredients in any hazardous substance if it finds such action necessary to adequately protect the public health and safety.
(3) The following acts and the causing thereof are prohibited:
(a) The sale, or offering or exposing for sale of any misbranded package of a hazardous substance.
(b) The alteration, mutilation, destruction, obliteration or removal of the whole or any part of the label of, or the doing of any other act with respect to, a hazardous substance, if such act is done while the substance is held for sale, and results in the hazardous substance being in a misbranded package.
(c) The sale, or offering or exposing for sale of a hazardous substance in a reused food, drug or cosmetic container or in a container which, though not a reused container, is identifiable as a food, drug or cosmetic container by its labeling or by other identification. The reuse of a food, drug or cosmetic container as a container for a hazardous substance shall be deemed to be an act which results in the hazardous substance being in a misbranded package.
(d) The sale or offering for sale of any hazardous substance contrary to this section or to any rule or order of the department issued under this section.
(e) The sale or offering for sale, in violation of this section, of any article or substance which is a hazardous substance within the meaning of this section or the federal hazardous substances act (15 USC 1261 et seq).
(4) The department may apply to any court of competent jurisdiction for a temporary or permanent injunction restraining any person from violating sub. (3); irrespective of whether or not there exists an adequate remedy at law.
(5) If the department has reasonable cause to believe that any substance is in violation of this section or poses an imminent hazard to public health or safety, it may deliver to the owner or custodian thereof an order prohibiting the sale or movement of such substance until an analysis or examination has been completed. Such holding order is not effective for more than 14 days from the time of delivery thereof. The substance described in any such holding order may not be sold or moved for any purpose without the approval of the department. If the department, after analysis or examination, determines that the substance described in such order is not in violation of this section, it shall promptly notify the owner or custodian thereof and such notice shall terminate the holding order. If the analysis or examination shows that the substance is in violation of this section, the owner or custodian thereof shall be so notified in writing within the effective time of the holding order. Upon receipt of such notice the owner or custodian may dispose of the substance only as authorized by the department. The owner or custodian of the substance or article may within 10 days of receipt of such notice petition for a hearing as provided in s. 93.18.
(6) Nothing in this section shall affect the application of any law of this state specifically regulating any substance regulated by this section.
(7) Any manufacturer, distributor or retailer of a misbranded or banned package containing a hazardous substance shall, on demand of any person purchasing such products from it, if the package is misbranded at the time of sale or banned, repurchase such product and refund the full purchase price thereof to the purchaser making the demand for refund. If the purchaser is required to return the product to the manufacturer, distributor or retailer as a condition to the repurchase and refund, the purchaser shall be reimbursed for any reasonable and necessary charges incurred in its return.
(8) Whoever violates this section may be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than one year in the county jail or both.