Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 15 > Chapter 41
- account: means a demand deposit, savings deposit, or other asset account (other than an occasional or incidental credit balance in an open end credit plan as defined in section 1602(i) 1 of this title), as described in regulations of the Bureau, established primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, but such term does not include an account held by a financial institution pursuant to a bona fide trust agreement. See 15 USC 1693a
- Administration: means the Small Business Administration. See 15 USC 662
- Administrator: means the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. See 16 USC 670k
- Administrator: means the Administrator of the Small Business Administration. See 15 USC 662
- Administrator: means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. See 15 USC 2602
- Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
- Annual percentage rate: The cost of credit at a yearly rate. It is calculated in a standard way, taking the average compound interest rate over the term of the loan so borrowers can compare loans. Lenders are required by law to disclose a card account's APR. Source: FDIC
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- Appraisal: A determination of property value.
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- articles: means articles of incorporation for an incorporated body and means the functional equivalent or other similar documents specified by the Administrator for other business entities. See 15 USC 662
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
- Bequest: Property gifted by will.
- Board: means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. See 15 USC 1693a
- Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
- Bureau: means the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. See 15 USC 1692a
- Bureau: means the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. See 15 USC 1693a
- business day: means any day on which the offices of the consumer's financial institution involved in an electronic fund transfer are open to the public for carrying on substantially all of its business functions. See 15 USC 1693a
- Chairman: means the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission. See 16 USC 670k
- chemical substance: means any organic or inorganic substance of a particular molecular identity, including--
(i) any combination of such substances occurring in whole or in part as a result of a chemical reaction or occurring in nature, and
(ii) any element or uncombined radical. See 15 USC 2602
- commerce: means trade, traffic, transportation, or other commerce (A) between a place in a State and any place outside of such State, or (B) which affects trade, traffic, transportation, or commerce described in clause (A). See 15 USC 2602
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- communication: means the conveying of information regarding a debt directly or indirectly to any person through any medium. See 15 USC 1692a
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- conditions of use: means the circumstances, as determined by the Administrator, under which a chemical substance is intended, known, or reasonably foreseen to be manufactured, processed, distributed in commerce, used, or disposed of. See 15 USC 2602
- conservation: means the use of methods and procedures necessary or desirable to sustain healthy populations of wildlife, including all activities associated with scientific resources management such as research, census, monitoring of populations, acquisition, improvement and management of habitat, live trapping and transplantation, wildlife damage management, and periodic or total protection of a species or population, as well as the taking of individuals within wildlife stock or population if permitted by applicable State and Federal law. See 16 USC 669a
- conservation and rehabilitation programs: means to utilize those methods and procedures which are necessary to protect, conserve, and enhance wildlife, fish, and game resources to the maximum extent practicable on public lands subject to this subchapter consistent with any overall land use and management plans for the lands involved. See 16 USC 670k
- consumer: means any natural person obligated or allegedly obligated to pay any debt. See 15 USC 1692a
- consumer: means a natural person. See 15 USC 1693a
- Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
- county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 1 USC 2
- Credit bureau: An agency that collects individual credit information and sells it for a fee to creditors so they can make a decision on granting loans. Typical clients include banks, mortgage lenders, credit card companies, and other financing companies. (Also commonly referred to as consumer-reporting agency or credit-reporting agency.) Source: OCC
- Credit report: A detailed report of an individual's credit history prepared by a credit bureau and used by a lender in determining a loan applicant's creditworthiness. Source: OCC
- Credit Score: A number, roughly between 300 and 800, that measures an individual's credit worthiness. The most well-known type of credit score is the FICO score. This score represents the answer from a mathematical formula that assigns numerical values to various pieces of information in your credit report. Source: OCC
- creditor: means any person who offers or extends credit creating a debt or to whom a debt is owed, but such term does not include any person to the extent that he receives an assignment or transfer of a debt in default solely for the purpose of facilitating collection of such debt for another. See 15 USC 1692a
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- debt: means any obligation or alleged obligation of a consumer to pay money arising out of a transaction in which the money, property, insurance, or services which are the subject of the transaction are primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, whether or not such obligation has been reduced to judgment. See 15 USC 1692a
- debt collector: means any person who uses any instrumentality of interstate commerce or the mails in any business the principal purpose of which is the collection of any debts, or who regularly collects or attempts to collect, directly or indirectly, debts owed or due or asserted to be owed or due another. See 15 USC 1692a
- Decedent: A deceased person.
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- Devise: To gift property by will.
- discharged: means released from an appointment as a Reserve officer. See 14 USC 3731
- Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
- Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
- distribution in commerce: when used to describe an action taken with respect to a chemical substance or mixture or article containing a substance or mixture mean to sell, or the sale of, the substance, mixture, or article in commerce. See 15 USC 2602
- Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
- Donor: The person who makes a gift.
- electronic fund transfer: means any transfer of funds, other than a transaction originated by check, draft, or similar paper instrument, which is initiated through an electronic terminal, telephonic instrument, or computer or magnetic tape so as to order, instruct, or authorize a financial institution to debit or credit an account. See 15 USC 1693a
- Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
- electronic terminal: means an electronic device, other than a telephone operated by a consumer, through which a consumer may initiate an electronic fund transfer. See 15 USC 1693a
- employee: shall include a full-time life insurance salesman who is considered an employee for the purpose of chapter 21. See 26 USC 7701
- Energy Saving qualified investment: means investment in a small business concern that is primarily engaged in researching, manufacturing, developing, or providing products, goods, or services that reduce the use or consumption of non-renewable energy resources. See 15 USC 662
- environment: includes water, air, and land and the interrelationship which exists among and between water, air, and land and all living things. See 15 USC 2602
- Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
- Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
- Federal question: Jurisdiction given to federal courts in cases involving the interpretation and application of the U.S. Constitution, acts of Congress, and treaties.
- Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
- Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Finance charge: The total cost of credit a customer must pay on a consumer loan, including interest. The Truth in Lending Act requires disclosure of the finance charge. Source: OCC
- financial institution: means a State or National bank, a State or Federal savings and loan association, a mutual savings bank, a State or Federal credit union, or any other person who, directly or indirectly, holds an account belonging to a consumer. See 15 USC 1693a
- fiscal year: means the fiscal year or license year of the State. See 16 USC 669a
- Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
- You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
- The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
- The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
- Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
- Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- Fraud Alert: A key provision of the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003 is the consumer's ability to place a fraud alert on their credit record. A consumer would use this option if they believe they were a victim of identity theft. Source: OCC
- Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
- Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
- Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
- Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
- guidance: means any significant written guidance of general applicability prepared by the Administrator. See 15 USC 2602
- health and safety study: means any study of any effect of a chemical substance or mixture on health or the environment or on both, including underlying information and epidemiological studies, studies of occupational exposure to a chemical substance or mixture, toxicological, clinical, and ecological studies of a chemical substance or mixture, and any test performed pursuant to this chapter. See 15 USC 2602
- housing accommodations: means housing designed for occupancy by military personnel and their dependents, assigned to duty at or near the military installation where such housing units are constructed. See 12 USC 1748
- hunter recruitment and recreational shooter recruitment: means any activity or project to recruit or retain hunters and recreational shooters, including by--
(A) outreach and communications as a means--
(i) to improve communications with hunters, recreational shooters, and the general public with respect to hunting and recreational shooting opportunities. See 16 USC 669a
- Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
- Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
- Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
- leverage: includes --
(A) debentures purchased or guaranteed by the Administration. See 15 USC 662
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- license: means a license issued by the Administration as provided in section 681 of this title. See 15 USC 662
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- limited liability company: means a business entity that is organized and operating in accordance with a State limited liability company statute approved by the Administration. See 15 USC 662
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- location information: means a consumer's place of abode and his telephone number at such place, or his place of employment. See 15 USC 1692a
- manufacture: means to import into the customs territory of the United States (as defined in general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States), produce, or manufacture. See 15 USC 2602
- maturity date: means the date on which the mortgage indebtedness would be extinguished if paid in accordance with periodic payments provided for in the mortgage. See 12 USC 1748
- member: means , with respect to a licensee that is a limited liability company, a holder of an ownership interest or a person otherwise admitted to membership in the limited liability company. See 15 USC 662
- military: includes Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. See 12 USC 1748
- Minimum finance charge: The minimum, or fixed, finance charge that will be imposed during a billing cycle. A minimum finance charge usually applies only when a finance charge is imposed, that is, when you carry over a balance. Source: Federal Reserve
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- mixture: means any combination of two or more chemical substances if the combination does not occur in nature and is not, in whole or in part, the result of a chemical reaction. See 15 USC 2602
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- mortgage: means a first mortgage on real estate, in fee simple, or on a leasehold (1) under a lease for not less than ninety-nine years which is renewable. See 12 USC 1748
- Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
- Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
- mortgagee: includes the original lender under a mortgage, and his successors and assigns approved by the Secretary. See 12 USC 1748
- Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
- mortgagor: includes the original borrower under a mortgage, his successors and assigns. See 12 USC 1748
- National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
- National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
- new chemical substance: means any chemical substance which is not included in the chemical substance list compiled and published under section 2607(b) of this title. See 15 USC 2602
- oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 1 USC 1
- Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
- off-road vehicle: means any motorized vehicle designed for, or capable of, cross-country travel on or immediately over land, water, sand, snow, ice, marsh, swampland, or other natural terrain. See 16 USC 670k
- Open-end credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or revolving credit.) Source: OCC
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- personnel: shall include military and civilian personnel approved by the Secretary of Defense, or his designee, and the dependents of all such personnel. See 12 USC 1748
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulation: means a group of individuals within the general population identified by the Administrator who, due to either greater susceptibility or greater exposure, may be at greater risk than the general population of adverse health effects from exposure to a chemical substance or mixture, such as infants, children, pregnant women, workers, or the elderly. See 15 USC 2602
- Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
- preauthorized electronic fund transfer: means an electronic fund transfer authorized in advance to recur at substantially regular intervals. See 15 USC 1693a
- Preauthorized electronic fund transfers: An EFT authorized in advance to recur at substantially regular intervals. Source: OCC
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- process: means the preparation of a chemical substance or mixture, after its manufacture, for distribution in commerce--
(A) in the same form or physical state as, or in a different form or physical state from, that in which it was received by the person so preparing such substance or mixture, or
(B) as part of an article containing the chemical substance or mixture. See 15 USC 2602
- processor: means any person who processes a chemical substance or mixture. See 15 USC 2602
- Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
- protocols and methodologies for the development of information: means a prescription of--
(i) health and environmental effects, and
(ii) information relating to toxicity, persistence, and other characteristics which affect health and the environment,
for which information for a chemical substance or mixture are to be developed and any analysis that is to be performed on such information, and
(B) to the extent necessary to assure that information respecting such effects and characteristics are reliable and adequate--
(i) the manner in which such information are 2 to be developed,
(ii) the specification of any test protocol or methodology to be employed in the development of such information, and
(iii) such other requirements as are necessary to provide such assurance. See 15 USC 2602
- public land: means all lands, under the respective jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Chairman, and the Administrator, except land which is, or hereafter may be, within or designated as--
(A) a military reservation. See 16 USC 670k
- Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
- public target range: means a specific location that--
(A) is identified by a governmental agency for recreational shooting. See 16 USC 669a
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act: Federal law that, among other things, requires lenders to provide "good faith" estimates of settlement costs and make other disclosures regarding the mortgage loan. RESPA also limits the amount of funds held in escrow for real estate taxes and insurance. Source: OCC
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
- Reserve officer: means a commissioned officer in the Reserve, except an officer excluded by section 3732 of this title or a commissioned warrant officer. See 14 USC 3731
- Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
- Right of rescission: Right to cancel, within three business days, a contract that uses the home of a person as collateral, except in the case of a first mortgage loan. There is no fee to the borrower, who receives a full refund of all fees paid. The right of rescission is guaranteed by the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). Source: OCC
- Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior. See 16 USC 669a
- Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
- smaller enterprise: means any small business concern that, together with its affiliates--
(i) a net financial worth of not more than $6,000,000, as of the date on which assistance is provided under this chapter to that business concern. See 15 USC 662
- State: includes the several States, the territories and possessions of the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. See 15 USC 662
- State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Canal Zone, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, or any other territory or possession of the United States. See 15 USC 2602
- State: means any State, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any political subdivision of any of the foregoing. See 15 USC 1692a
- State: means any State, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any political subdivision of any of the foregoing. See 15 USC 1693a
- State: shall include the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 16 USC 669c
- State: includes the several States, and Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Virgin Islands, the Canal Zone, and Midway Island. See 12 USC 1748
- State agency: means the agency or agencies of a State responsible for the administration of the fish and game laws of the State. See 16 USC 670k
- State fish and wildlife department: means any department or division of department of another name, or commission, or official or officials, of a State empowered under its laws to exercise the functions ordinarily exercised by a State fish and game department or State fish and wildlife department. See 16 USC 669a
- Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
- student: means any individual--
(i) who is temporarily present in the United States--
(I) under subparagraph (F) or (M) of section 101(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, or
(II) as a student under subparagraph (J) or (Q) of such section 101(15), and
(ii) who substantially complies with the requirements for being so present. See 26 USC 7701
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 1 USC 1
- Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- third party debt: means any indebtedness for borrowed money, other than indebtedness owed to the Administration. See 15 USC 662
- Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
- Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- unauthorized electronic fund transfer: means an electronic fund transfer from a consumer's account initiated by a person other than the consumer without actual authority to initiate such transfer and from which the consumer receives no benefit, but the term does not include any electronic fund transfer (A) initiated by a person other than the consumer who was furnished with the card, code, or other means of access to such consumer's account by such consumer, unless the consumer has notified the financial institution involved that transfers by such other person are no longer authorized, (B) initiated with fraudulent intent by the consumer or any person acting in concert with the consumer, or (C) which constitutes an error committed by a financial institution. See 15 USC 1693a
- underlicensed State: means a State in which the number of licensees per capita is less than the median number of licensees per capita for all States, as calculated by the Administrator. See 15 USC 662
- United States: when used in the geographic sense, means all of the States. See 15 USC 2602
- User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
- Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
- Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
- vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 1 USC 4
- Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
- Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
- wildlife: means any species of wild, free-ranging fauna including fish, and also fauna in captive breeding programs the object of which is to reintroduce individuals of a depleted indigenous species into previously occupied range. See 16 USC 669a
- wildlife conservation and restoration program: means a program developed by a State fish and wildlife department and approved by the Secretary under section 669c(d) 1 of this title, the projects that constitute such a program, which may be implemented in whole or part through grants and contracts by a State to other State, Federal, or local agencies (including those that gather, evaluate, and disseminate information on wildlife and their habitats), wildlife conservation organizations, and outdoor recreation and conservation education entities from funds apportioned under this chapter,1 and maintenance of such projects. See 16 USC 669a
- wildlife conservation education: means projects, including public outreach, intended to foster responsible natural resource stewardship. See 16 USC 669a
- wildlife-associated recreation: means projects intended to meet the demand for outdoor activities associated with wildlife including, but not limited to, hunting and fishing, wildlife observation and photography, such projects as construction or restoration of wildlife viewing areas, observation towers, blinds, platforms, land and water trails, water access, field trialing, trail heads, and access for such projects. See 16 USC 669a
- wildlife-restoration project: includes the wildlife conservation and restoration program and means the selection, restoration, rehabilitation, and improvement of areas of land or water adaptable as feeding, resting, or breeding places for wildlife, including acquisition of such areas or estates or interests therein as are suitable or capable of being made suitable therefor, and the construction thereon or therein of such works as may be necessary to make them available for such purposes and also including such research into problems of wildlife management as may be necessary to efficient administration affecting wildlife resources, and such preliminary or incidental costs and expenses as may be incurred in and about such projects. See 16 USC 669a