Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 26 > Subtitle A > Chapter 1 - Normal Taxes and Surtaxes
- account: means an item for which appropriations are made in any appropriation Act and, for items not provided for in appropriation Acts, such term means an item for which there is a designated budget account identification code number in the President's budget. See 2 USC 900
- accredited language training program: means a language training program that is accredited by an accrediting agency recognized by the Secretary of Education. See 8 USC 1101
- Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
- A verdict of "not guilty."
- active business computer software royalties: means any royalties--
(A) received by any corporation during the taxable year in connection with the licensing of computer software, and
(B) with respect to which the requirements of paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5) are met. See 26 USC 543
- additional coverage: means a plan of crop insurance coverage providing a level of coverage greater than the level available under catastrophic risk protection. See 7 USC 1502
- additional new budget authority: means the amount provided for a fiscal year, in excess of $273,000,000, in an appropriation Act and specified to pay for the costs of continuing disability reviews, redeterminations, co-operative disability investigation units, and fraud prosecutions under the heading "Limitation on Administrative Expenses" for the Social Security Administration. See 2 USC 901
- adjacent islands: includes Saint Pierre, Miquelon, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Bermuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Jamaica, the Windward and Leeward Islands, Trinidad, Martinique, and other British, French, and Netherlands territory or possessions in or bordering on the Caribbean Sea. See 8 USC 1101
- Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
- Adjournment sine die: The end of a legislative session "without day." These adjournments are used to indicate the final adjournment of an annual or the two-year session of legislature.
- adjusted income from rents: means the gross income from rents, reduced by the amount subtracted under paragraph (2)(A) of this subsection. See 26 USC 543
- adjusted ordinary gross income: means the ordinary gross income adjusted as follows:
From the gross income from rents (as defined in the second sentence of paragraph (3) of this subsection) subtract the amount allowable as deductions for--
(i) exhaustion, wear and tear, obsolescence, and amortization of property other than tangible personal property which is not customarily retained by any one lessee for more than three years,
(ii) property taxes,
(iii) interest, and
to the extent allocable, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to such gross income from rents. See 26 USC 543
- Administrator: means the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, unless otherwise specified in this chapter. See 7 USC 1732
- administrator: means the official designated by the Secretary of State pursuant to section 1104(b) of this title. See 8 USC 1101
- advertisement: means all representations, other than those on the label, disseminated in any manner or by any means, relating to seed within the scope of this chapter. See 7 USC 1561
- Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
- advisory committee: means any committee, board, commission, council, conference, panel, task force, or other similar group, or any subcommittee or other subgroup thereof that is established or utilized by the Department of Agriculture in the interest of obtaining advice or recommendations for the President or the Department of Agriculture, except that such term excludes any committee which (A) is composed wholly of full-time officers or employees of the Federal Government, (B) is established by statute or reorganization plan, or (C) is established by the President. See 7 USC 2282
- advocates: includes , but is not limited to, advises, recommends, furthers by overt act, and admits belief in. See 8 USC 1101
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- affiliate: has the meaning given to such term in section 1841(k) of this title. See 12 USC 1813
- affiliated group: has the meaning given such term by section 1504(a). See 26 USC 543
- Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
- aggravated felony: means --
(A) murder, rape, or sexual abuse of a minor. See 8 USC 1101
- agreement: means the Agreement on the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs and on the Special Equipment to be Used for Such Carriage, and the annexes and the appendices thereto, done at Geneva, September 1, 1970, under the auspices of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations. See 7 USC 4402
- Agricultural commodity: as used in this subchapter , means wheat, cotton, flax, corn, dry beans, oats, barley, rye, tobacco, rice, peanuts, soybeans, sugar beets, sugar cane, tomatoes, grain sorghum, sunflowers, raisins, oranges, sweet corn, dry peas, freezing and canning peas, forage, apples, grapes, potatoes, timber and forests, nursery crops, citrus, and other fruits and vegetables, nuts, tame hay, native grass, hemp, aquacultural species (including, but not limited to, any species of finfish, mollusk, crustacean, or other aquatic invertebrate, amphibian, reptile, or aquatic plant propagated or reared in a controlled or selected environment), or any other agricultural commodity, excluding stored grain, determined by the Board, or any one or more of such commodities, as the context may indicate. See 7 USC 1518
- agricultural products: includes agricultural, horticultural, viticultural, and dairy products, livestock and poultry, bees, forest products, fish and shellfish, and any products thereof, including processed and manufactured products, and any and all products raised or produced on farms and any processed or manufactured product thereof, and the term "State" when used in this chapter 1 shall include the Virgin Islands and Guam. See 7 USC 1626
- Agricultural seeds: shall mean grass, forage, and field crop seeds which the Secretary of Agriculture finds are used for seeding purposes in the United States and which he lists in the rules and regulations prescribed under section 1592 of this title. See 7 USC 1561
- alien: means any person not a citizen or national of the United States. See 8 USC 1101
- alien terrorist: means any alien described in section 1227(a)(4)(B) of this title. See 8 USC 1531
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- Alternate valuation date: The earlier of the date six months after the decedent
- alternative mortgage transaction: means a loan or credit sale secured by an interest in residential real property, a dwelling, all stock allocated to a dwelling unit in a residential cooperative housing corporation, or a residential manufactured home (as that term is defined in section 5402(6) of title 42), in which the interest rate or finance charge may be adjusted or renegotiated, described and defined by applicable regulation. See 12 USC 3802
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
- AMT: means the Alternative Minimum Tax for individuals under sections 55-59 of title 26, the term "EGTRRA" means the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-16), and the term "JGTRRA" means the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief and 1 Reconciliation Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-27). See 2 USC 932
- Annual percentage rate: The cost of credit at a yearly rate. It is calculated in a standard way, taking the average compound interest rate over the term of the loan so borrowers can compare loans. Lenders are required by law to disclose a card account's APR. Source: FDIC
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- Appraisal: A determination of property value.
- appropriate Federal banking agency: means --
(1) the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, in the case of--
(A) any national banking association. See 12 USC 1813
- appropriate Federal depository institutions regulatory agency: means , with respect to any depository institution or depository holding company, the agency referred to in section 3207 of this title in connection with such institution or company. See 12 USC 3201
- Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
- approved insurance provider: means a private insurance provider that has been approved by the Corporation to provide insurance coverage to producers participating in the Federal crop insurance program established under this subchapter. See 7 USC 1502
- area: includes any Indian reservation (as defined in section 1985(e)(1)(D)(ii) 2 of this title). See 7 USC 1471
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- Assignment: includes any direct or indirect transfer or hypothecation of an investment advisory contract by the assignor or of a controlling block of the assignor's outstanding voting securities by a security holder of the assignor. See 15 USC 80b-2
- association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 1 USC 5
- Association: means the United States Railway Association, established under section 711 of this title. See 45 USC 702
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See 26 USC 7701
- Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See 8 USC 1101
- Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
- auxiliary aids and services: includes --
(A) qualified interpreters or other effective methods of making aurally delivered materials available to individuals with hearing impairments. See 42 USC 12103
- Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
- Balanced budget: A budget in which receipts equal outlays.
- Bank: means (A) a banking institution organized under the laws of the United States or a Federal savings association, as defined in section 1462(5) of title 12, (B) a member bank of the Federal Reserve System, (C) any other banking institution, savings association, as defined in section 1462(4) of title 12, or trust company, whether incorporated or not, doing business under the laws of any State or of the United States, a substantial portion of the business of which consists of receiving deposits or exercising fiduciary powers similar to those permitted to national banks under the authority of the Comptroller of the Currency, and which is supervised and examined by State or Federal authority having supervision over banks or savings associations, and which is not operated for the purpose of evading the provisions of this subchapter, and (D) a receiver, conservator, or other liquidating agent of any institution or firm included in clauses (A), (B), or (C) of this paragraph. See 15 USC 80b-2
- bank holding company: has the meaning given to such term in section 1841 of this title. See 12 USC 1813
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- bankruptcy proceeding: includes a proceeding pursuant to section 77 of the Bankruptcy Act and an equity receivership or equivalent proceeding. See 45 USC 702
- baseline: means the projection (described in section 907 of this title) of current-year levels of new budget authority, outlays, receipts, and the surplus or deficit into the budget year and the outyears. See 2 USC 900
- Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
- BBEDCA: means the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985. See 2 USC 932
- beginning farmer or rancher: means a farmer or rancher who has not actively operated and managed a farm or ranch with a bona fide insurable interest in a crop or livestock as an owner-operator, landlord, tenant, or sharecropper for more than 5 crop years, as determined by the Secretary. See 7 USC 1502
- Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
- Bequest: Property gifted by will.
- Board: means the Board of Directors of the Corporation established under section 1505(a) of this title. See 7 USC 1502
- Board: means the Board of Directors of the Office of Congressional Workplace Rights. See 2 USC 1301
- Board: means the National Recording Preservation Board. See 2 USC 1741
- Board of Directors: means the Board of Directors of the Corporation. See 12 USC 1813
- border crossing identification card: means a document of identity bearing that designation issued to an alien who is lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or to an alien who is a resident in foreign contiguous territory, by a consular officer or an immigration officer for the purpose of crossing over the borders between the United States and foreign contiguous territory in accordance with such conditions for its issuance and use as may be prescribed by regulations. See 8 USC 1101
- breach: means , for any fiscal year, the amount (if any) by which new budget authority or outlays for that year (within a category of discretionary appropriations) is above that category's discretionary spending limit for new budget authority or outlays for that year, as the case may be. See 2 USC 900
- bridge depository institution: means a new national bank or Federal savings association organized by the Corporation in accordance with section 1821(n) of this title. See 12 USC 1813
- Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
- budget year: means , with respect to a session of Congress, the fiscal year of the Government that starts on October 1 of the calendar year in which that session begins. See 2 USC 900
- budgetary effects: means the amount by which PAYGO legislation changes outlays flowing from direct spending or revenues relative to the baseline and shall be determined on the basis of estimates prepared under section 933 of this title. See 2 USC 932
- budgetary resources: means new budget authority, unobligated balances, direct spending authority, and obligation limitations. See 2 USC 900
- bulk agricultural commodity: means any agricultural commodity that can be transported in bulk and can be temporarily stored in bulk quantities without undergoing processing or packaging. See 7 USC 3702
- business association: means any corporation (other than a public corporation), joint stock company, business trust, partnership, or any association for business purposes of two or more individuals. See 12 USC 2502
- Business development company: means any closed-end company which--
(A) is organized under the laws of, and has its principal place of business in, any State or States. See 15 USC 80a-2
- Business development company: means any company which is a business development company as defined in section 80a-2(a)(48) of this title and which complies with section 80a-54 of this title, except that--
(A) the 70 per centum of the value of the total assets condition referred to in sections 80a-2(a)(48) and 80a-54 of this title shall be 60 per centum for purposes of determining compliance therewith. See 15 USC 80b-2
- Calendar of Business: A Senate publication sent to each lawmaker's office (and other offices) every day the Senate is in session. It contains information on, for instance, measures reported from the various standing committees, bills in conference, and the status of appropriation bills.
- case: means a standard shipping package containing thirty dozen eggs. See
- category: means the subsets of discretionary appropriations in section 901(c) of this title. See 2 USC 900
- Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
- CBO: means the Director of the Congressional Budget Office. See 2 USC 900
- Chair: means the Chair of the Board of Directors of the Office of Congressional Workplace Rights. See 2 USC 1301
- Chambers: A judge's office.
- Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
- Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
- child: means an unmarried person under twenty-one years of age who is--
(A) a child born in wedlock. See 8 USC 1101
- China Review Commission: means the United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission established under section 7002 of title 22, as enacted into law by section 1 of Public Law 106-398. See 2 USC 1301
- Circumstantial evidence: All evidence except eyewitness testimony.
- Clerk of court: An officer appointed by the court to work with the chief judge in overseeing the court's administration, especially to assist in managing the flow of cases through the court and to maintain court records.
- Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
- cogeneration facility: means a facility which uses the same energy source for the sequential generation of electrical or mechanical power in combination with steam, heat, or other forms of useful energy. See 26 USC 7701
- commerce: means interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce. See
- Commission: means the Securities and Exchange Commission. See 15 USC 80b-2
- Commission: means the Interstate Commerce Commission. See 45 USC 702
- Commissioner: means the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. See 26 USC 7701
- Commissioner: means the Commissioner of the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, as established under section 12311 of this title. See 42 USC 12302
- commodity group: means that portion of the flower and plant industry devoted to the production and importation of any one of the following: (A) cut flowers. See 7 USC 4302
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- community referral services: means services to assist families in obtaining community resources, including health care, mental health care, employability development and job training, and other social services. See 42 USC 12332
- Community Reinvestment Act: The Act is intended to encourage depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of the communities in which they operate, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. It was enacted by the Congress in 1977. Source: OCC
- commuter authority: has the meaning given such term in section 24102(4) 1 of title 49. See 42 USC 12161
- Commuter authority: means any State, local, or regional authority, corporation, or other entity established for purposes of providing commuter service, and includes the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, the Connecticut Department of Transportation, the Maryland Department of Transportation, the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, the New Jersey Transit Corporation, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, the Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation, any successor agencies, and any entity created by one or more such agencies for the purpose of operating, or contracting for the operation of, commuter service. See 45 USC 702
- commuter rail transportation: has the meaning given the term "commuter rail passenger transportation" in section 24102(5) 1 of title 49. See 42 USC 12161
- Commuter service: means short-haul rail passenger service operated in metropolitan and suburban areas, whether within or across the geographical boundaries of a State, usually characterized by reduced fare, multiple-ride, and commutation tickets, and by morning and evening peak period operations. See 45 USC 702
- Company: means a corporation, a partnership, an association, a joint-stock company, a trust, a fund, or any organized group of persons whether incorporated or not. See 15 USC 80a-2
- Company: means a corporation, a partnership, an association, a joint-stock company, a trust, or any organized group of persons, whether incorporated or not. See 15 USC 80b-2
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
- Conferees: Legislators appointed to serve on conference committees. They are also called "managers." Conferees are usually appointed from the committee or committees that reported the legislation; they are expected to try and uphold their chamber's position on measures when they negotiate with conferees from the other chamber.
- Conference report: The compromise product negotiated by the conference committee. The "conference report" is submitted to each chamber for its consideration, such as approval or disapproval.
- Congressional Record: The substantially verbatim account of daily proceedings in Congress. It is printed for each day Congress is in session. At the back of each daily issue is the "Daily Digest," which summarizes the day's floor and committee activities.
- Congressional-Executive China Commission: means the Congressional-Executive Commission on the People's Republic of China established under title III of the U. See 2 USC 1301
- consular officer: means any consular, diplomatic, or other officer or employee of the United States designated under regulations prescribed under authority contained in this chapter, for the purpose of issuing immigrant or nonimmigrant visas or, when used in subchapter III, for the purpose of adjudicating nationality. See 8 USC 1101
- consumer education: means any action to provide information on the care and handling of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 7 USC 4302
- consumer education: means any action to advance the image or desirability of eggs, egg products, spent fowl, or products of spent fowl. See
- Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
- continuing disability reviews: means continuing disability reviews under sections 221(i) and 1614(a)(4) of the Social Security Act [42 U. See 2 USC 901
- Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
- contracting party: means any country that is eligible under article 9 of the agreement and that has complied with the terms of such article. See 7 USC 4402
- control: has the meaning given to such term in section 1841 of this title. See 12 USC 1813
- Control: means the power to exercise a controlling influence over the management or policies of a company, unless such power is solely the result of an official position with such company. See 15 USC 80b-2
- Convicted: includes a verdict, judgment, or plea of guilty, or a finding of guilt on a plea of nolo contendere, if such verdict, judgment, plea, or finding has not been reversed, set aside, or withdrawn, whether or not sentence has been imposed. See 15 USC 80b-2
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- conviction: means , with respect to an alien, a formal judgment of guilt of the alien entered by a court or, if adjudication of guilt has been withheld, where--
(i) a judge or jury has found the alien guilty or the alien has entered a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or has admitted sufficient facts to warrant a finding of guilt, and
(ii) the judge has ordered some form of punishment, penalty, or restraint on the alien's liberty to be imposed. See 8 USC 1101
- cooperative: means a private sector organization whose members own and control the organization and share in its services and its profits and that provides business services and outreach in cooperative development for its membership. See 7 USC 1732
- cooperative bank: means an institution without capital stock organized and operated for mutual purposes and without profit, which--
(A) is subject by law to supervision and examination by State or Federal authority having supervision over such institutions, and
(B) meets the requirements of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (19) of this subsection (relating to definition of domestic building and loan association). See 26 USC 7701
- copyright royalties: means compensation, however designated, for the use of, or the right to use, copyrights in works protected by copyright issued under title 17 of the United States Code and to which copyright protection is also extended by the laws of any country other than the United States of America by virtue of any international treaty, convention, or agreement, or interests in any such copyrighted works, and includes payments from any person for performing rights in any such copyrighted work and payments (other than produced film rents as defined in paragraph (5)(B)) received for the use of, or right to use, films. See 26 USC 543
- corporation: includes associations, joint-stock companies, and insurance companies. See 26 USC 7701
- Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
- Corporation: means the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation established under section 1503 of this title. See 7 USC 1502
- Corporation: means the Consolidated Rail Corporation required to be established under section 741 of this title or its successor by merger, consolidation or other form of succession carried out under applicable law for the purpose of changing the State of its incorporation. See 45 USC 702
- cost of plant material: means the actual price paid by a producer for any propagational material or any other flowers and plants used in the production of flowers and plants. See 7 USC 4302
- Council: means the Federal Council on Children, Youth, and Families, as established under section 12314(a) of this title. See 42 USC 12302
- Council: means the Financial Institutions Examination Council. See 12 USC 3302
- Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
- county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 1 USC 2
- county: means county as defined in section 2 of title 1. See 12 USC 3702
- covered employee: means any employee of--
(A) the House of Representatives. See 2 USC 1301
- covered employee: means any employee of an employing office. See 3 USC 401
- Credit report: A detailed report of an individual's credit history prepared by a credit bureau and used by a lender in determining a loan applicant's creditworthiness. Source: OCC
- Credit Score: A number, roughly between 300 and 800, that measures an individual's credit worthiness. The most well-known type of credit score is the FICO score. This score represents the answer from a mathematical formula that assigns numerical values to various pieces of information in your credit report. Source: OCC
- crewman: means a person serving in any capacity on board a vessel or aircraft. See 8 USC 1101
- Cross examine: Questioning of a witness by the attorney for the other side.
- current: means , with respect to OMB estimates included with a budget submission under section 1105(a) of title 31, the estimates consistent with the economic and technical assumptions underlying that budget and with respect to estimates made after that budget submission that are not included with it, estimates consistent with the economic and technical assumptions underlying the most recently submitted President's budget. See 2 USC 900
- current year: means , with respect to a budget year, the fiscal year that immediately precedes that budget year. See 2 USC 900
- cut flowers: means all flowers and decorative foliage used as fresh-cut flowers, fresh-cut decorative foliage, dried, preserved, and processed flowers, or dried and preserved decorative foliage, produced either under cover or in field operations. See 7 USC 4302
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- debit: refers to the net total amount, when positive, by which costs recorded on the PAYGO scorecards for a fiscal year exceed savings recorded on those scorecards for that year. See 2 USC 932
- Decedent: A deceased person.
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- default: means , with respect to an insured depository institution, any adjudication or other official determination by any court of competent jurisdiction, the appropriate Federal banking agency, or other public authority pursuant to which a conservator, receiver, or other legal custodian is appointed for an insured depository institution or, in the case of a foreign bank having an insured branch, for such branch. See 12 USC 1813
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Department: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 1502
- Department of Agriculture: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 2282
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- deposit: means --
(1) the unpaid balance of money or its equivalent received or held by a bank or savings association in the usual course of business and for which it has given or is obligated to give credit, either conditionally or unconditionally, to a commercial, checking, savings, time, or thrift account, or which is evidenced by its certificate of deposit, thrift certificate, investment certificate, certificate of indebtedness, or other similar name, or a check or draft drawn against a deposit account and certified by the bank or savings association, or a letter of credit or a traveler's check on which the bank or savings association is primarily liable: Provided, That, without limiting the generality of the term "money or its equivalent" any such account or instrument must be regarded as evidencing the receipt of the equivalent of money when credited or issued in exchange for checks or drafts or for a promissory note upon which the person obtaining any such credit or instrument is primarily or secondarily liable, or for a charge against a deposit account, or in settlement of checks, drafts, or other instruments forwarded to such bank or savings association for collection. See 12 USC 1813
- deposit insurance: refers to the expenses of the Federal deposit insurance agencies, and other Federal agencies supervising insured depository institutions, resulting from full funding of, and continuation of, the deposit insurance guarantee commitment in effect under current estimates. See 2 USC 900
- Deposit Insurance Fund: means the Deposit Insurance Fund established under section 1821(a)(4) of this title. See 12 USC 1813
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- depository holding company: means a bank holding company as defined in section 1841(a) of this title, a company which would be a bank holding company as defined in section 1841(a) of this title but for the exemption contained in subsection (a)(5)(F) thereof, or a savings and loan holding company as defined in section 1730a(a)(1)(D) 1 of this title. See 12 USC 3201
- depository institution: means any bank or savings association. See 12 USC 1813
- depository institution: means a commercial bank, a savings bank, a trust company, a savings and loan association, a building and loan association, a homestead association, a cooperative bank, an industrial bank, or a credit union. See 12 USC 3201
- depository institution holding company: means a bank holding company or a savings and loan holding company. See 12 USC 1813
- Descendent: One who is directly descended from another such as a child, grandchild, or great grandchild.
- designated reserve ratio: means the reserve ratio designated by the Board of Directors in accordance with section 1817(b)(3) of this title. See 12 USC 1813
- developing country: means a country that has a shortage of foreign exchange earnings and has difficulty meeting all of its food needs through commercial channels. See 7 USC 1732
- Devise: To gift property by will.
- direct spending: means --
(A) budget authority provided by law other than appropriation Acts. See 2 USC 900
- Director: means any director of a corporation or any person performing similar functions with respect to any organization, whether incorporated or unincorporated. See 15 USC 80b-2
- disability: means , with respect to an individual--
(A) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities of such individual. See 42 USC 12102
- disaster relief: means activities carried out pursuant to a determination under section 5122(2) of title 42. See 2 USC 901
- Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
- discretionary appropriations: means budgetary resources (except to fund direct-spending programs) provided in appropriation Acts. See 2 USC 900
- Discretionary spending: Spending (budget authority and outlays)controlled in annual appropriations acts.
- discretionary spending limit: shall mean the amounts specified in section 901 of this title. See 2 USC 900
- Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
- district court of the United States: means any court exercising the powers of a district court of the United States. See 7 USC 1561
- Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
- doctrine: includes , but is not limited to, policies, practices, purposes, aims, or procedures. See 8 USC 1101
- domestic: when applied to a corporation or partnership means created or organized in the United States or under the law of the United States or of any State unless, in the case of a partnership, the Secretary provides otherwise by regulations. See 26 USC 7701
- domestic branch: includes any branch bank, branch office, branch agency, additional office, or any branch place of business located in any State of the United States or in any Territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or the Virgin Islands at which deposits are received or checks paid or money lent. See 12 USC 1813
- domestic building and loan association: means a domestic building and loan association, a domestic savings and loan association, and a Federal savings and loan association--
(A) which is subject by law to supervision and examination by State or Federal authority having supervision over such associations. See 26 USC 7701
- Donee: The recipient of a gift.
- Donor: The person who makes a gift.
- effective date of the final system plan: means the date on which the final system plan or any revised final system plan is deemed approved by Congress, in accordance with section 718 of this title. See 45 USC 702
- egg producer: means the person owning laying hens engaged in the production of commercial eggs. See
- egg products: means products produced, in whole or in part, from eggs. See
- eggs: means eggs from domesticated chickens which are sold for human consumption either in shell egg form or for further processing into egg products. See
- Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
- emergency: means a situation that--
(A) requires new budget authority and outlays (or new budget authority and the outlays flowing therefrom) for the prevention or mitigation of, or response to, loss of life or property, or a threat to national security. See 2 USC 900
- employee: shall include a full-time life insurance salesman who is considered an employee for the purpose of chapter 21. See 26 USC 7701
- employee: includes an applicant for employment and a former employee. See 2 USC 1301
- employee: includes an applicant for employment and a former employee. See 3 USC 401
- employee of the House of Representatives: includes an individual occupying a position the pay for which is disbursed by the Chief Administrative Officer of the House of Representatives, or another official designated by the House of Representatives, or any employment position in an entity that is paid with funds derived from the clerk-hire allowance of the House of Representatives but not any such individual employed by any entity listed in subparagraphs (C) through (K) of paragraph (3). See 2 USC 1301
- employee of the Office of the Architect of the Capitol: includes any employee of the Office of the Architect of the Capitol or the Botanic Garden. See 2 USC 1301
- employee of the Senate: includes any employee whose pay is disbursed by the Secretary of the Senate, but not any such individual employed by any entity listed in subparagraphs (C) through (K) of paragraph (3). See 2 USC 1301
- employee stock ownership plan: means a technique of corporate finance that uses a stock bonus trust or a company stock money purchase pension trust which qualifies under section 401(a) of title 26 in connection with the financing of corporate improvements, transfers in the ownership of corporate assets, and other capital requirements of a corporation and which is designed to build beneficial equity ownership of shares in the employer corporation into its employees substantially in proportion to their relative incomes, without requiring any cash outlay, any reduction in pay or other employee benefits, or the surrender of any other rights on the part of such employees. See 45 USC 702
- employing office: means --
(A) the personal office of a Member of the House of Representatives or of a Senator. See 2 USC 1301
- employing office: means --
(A) each office, agency, or other component of the Executive Office of the President. See 3 USC 401
- enrolled actuary: means a person who is enrolled by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries established under subtitle C of the title III of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. See 26 USC 7701
- Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
- equipment: means the special transport equipment that complies with the definitions and standards set forth in annex 1 to the agreement, including, but not limited to, railway cars, trucks, trailers, semitrailers, and intermodal freight containers that are insulated only, or insulated and equipped with a refrigerating, mechanically refrigerating, or heating appliance. See 7 USC 4402
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
- Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
- Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
- Exchange: means any organization, association, or group of persons, whether incorporated or unincorporated, which constitutes, maintains, or provides a market place or facilities for bringing together purchasers and sellers of securities or for otherwise performing with respect to securities the functions commonly performed by a stock exchange as that term is generally understood, and includes the market place and the market facilities maintained by such exchange. See 15 USC 80b-2
- exchanged basis property: means property having a basis determined under any provision of subtitle A (or under any corresponding provision of prior income tax law) providing that the basis shall be determined in whole or in part by reference to other property held at any time by the person for whom the basis is to be determined. See 26 USC 7701
- Executive Calendar: A list of executive business (i.e., treaties and nominations) available for consideration.
- executive capacity: means an assignment within an organization in which the employee primarily--
(i) directs the management of the organization or a major component or function of the organization. See 8 USC 1101
- Executive Director: means the Executive Director of the Office of Congressional Workplace Rights. See 2 USC 1301
- Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
- Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
- Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
- extraordinary ability: means , for purposes of subsection (a)(15)(O)(i), in the case of the arts, distinction. See 8 USC 1101
- facility: means a subsection (d) hospital (as defined in section 1886(d)(1)(B) of the Social Security Act (42 U. See 8 USC 1182
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- false advertisement: means any advertisement which is false or misleading in any particular. See 7 USC 1561
- false labeling: means any labeling which is false or misleading in any particular. See 7 USC 1561
- family resource and support programs: means community-based services that offer sustained assistance to families at various stages in their development. See 42 USC 12352
- farm financial benchmarking: means --
(A) the process of comparing the performance of an agricultural enterprise against the performance of other similar enterprises, through the use of comparable and reliable data, in order to identify business management strengths, weaknesses, and steps necessary to improve management performance and business profitability. See 7 USC 1502
- farmland: includes all land defined as follows:
(A) prime farmland is land that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, feed, fiber, forage, oilseed, and other agricultural crops with minimum inputs of fuel, fertilizer, pesticides, and labor, and without intolerable soil erosion, as determined by the Secretary. See 7 USC 4201
- Federal banking agency: means the Comptroller of the Currency, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. See 12 USC 1813
- Federal branch: has the meaning given to such term by section 1(b)(6) of the International Banking Act of 1978 [12 U. See 12 USC 1813
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
- Federal depository institution: means any national bank, any Federal savings association, and any Federal branch. See 12 USC 1813
- Federal financial institutions regulatory agencies: means the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Office of Thrift Supervision, and the National Credit Union Administration. See 12 USC 3302
- Federal program: means those activities or responsibilities of a department, agency, independent commission, or other unit of the Federal Government that involve (A) undertaking, financing, or assisting construction or improvement projects. See 7 USC 4201
- Federal prosecutor: A lawyer appointed by the President in each judicial district to prosecute and defend cases for the federal government.
- Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
- Federal savings association: means any Federal savings association or Federal savings bank which is chartered under section 1464 of this title. See 12 USC 1813
- Federal supervisory agency: means the appropriate Federal banking agency, as defined in section 1813(q) of this title. See 12 USC 1881
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- fiduciary: means a guardian, trustee, executor, administrator, receiver, conservator, or any person acting in any fiduciary capacity for any person. See 26 USC 7701
- Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
- final system plan: means the plan of reorganization for the restructure, rehabilitation, and modernization of railroads in reorganization prepared pursuant to section 716 of this title and approved pursuant to section 718 of this title. See 45 USC 702
- Finance charge: The total cost of credit a customer must pay on a consumer loan, including interest. The Truth in Lending Act requires disclosure of the finance charge. Source: OCC
- Finance Committee: means the Finance Committee of the Board of Directors of the Association established under section 711(i) 1 of this title. See 45 USC 702
- financial organization: means any savings and loan association, building and loan association, credit union, or investment company engaged in business in the United States. See 12 USC 2502
- fiscal year: means an accounting period of 12 months ending on the last day of any month other than December. See 26 USC 7701
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
- You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
- The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
- The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
- Floraboard: means the board provided for under section 4306 of this title. See 7 USC 4302
- flowers and plants: means cut flowers, potted flowering plants, foliage plants, and propagational material. See 7 USC 4302
- foliage plants: means those plants, normally without flowers, primarily produced in pots or similar containers, that are primarily used for interior decorations, whether grown under cover or in field operations. See 7 USC 4302
- follow up services: means services provided to ensure that necessary services are received by families and are effective in meeting their needs. See 42 USC 12332
- food security: means access by all people at all times to sufficient food and nutrition for a healthy and productive life. See 7 USC 1732
- Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
- Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
- foreign: when applied to a corporation or partnership means a corporation or partnership which is not domestic. See 26 USC 7701
- foreign bank: has the meaning given to such term by section 1(b)(7) of the International Banking Act of 1978 [12 U. See 12 USC 1813
- foreign branch: means any office or place of business located outside the United States, its territories, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or the Virgin Islands, at which banking operations are conducted. See 12 USC 1813
- foreign commerce: means commerce between the United States, its possessions, or any Territory of the United States, and any foreign country. See 7 USC 1561
- foreign estate: means an estate the income of which, from sources without the United States which is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, is not includible in gross income under subtitle A. See 26 USC 7701
- Foreign financial regulatory authority: means any (A) foreign securities authority, (B) other governmental body or foreign equivalent of a self-regulatory organization empowered by a foreign government to administer or enforce its laws relating to the regulation of fiduciaries, trusts, commercial lending, insurance, trading in contracts of sale of a commodity for future delivery, or other instruments traded on or subject to the rules of a contract market, board of trade or foreign equivalent, or other financial activities, or (C) membership organization a function of which is to regulate the participation of its members in activities listed above. See 15 USC 80b-2
- foreign private adviser: means any investment adviser who--
(A) has no place of business in the United States. See 15 USC 80b-2
- Foreign securities authority: means any foreign government, or any governmental body or regulatory organization empowered by a foreign government to administer or enforce its laws as they relate to securities matters. See 15 USC 80b-2
- foreign state: includes outlying possessions of a foreign state, but self-governing dominions or territories under mandate or trusteeship shall be regarded as separate foreign states. See 8 USC 1101
- foreign trust: means any trust other than a trust described in subparagraph (E) of paragraph (30). See 26 USC 7701
- Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- Friendly foreign force: means any military, naval, or air force of any friendly foreign state with respect to which this chapter is operative by virtue of a Presidential declaration as provided in section 706 of this title. See 22 USC 701
- fuel conversion price: means the price for an agricultural commodity determined by the Secretary of Agriculture that will permit gasoline-alcohol mixtures using alcohol produced from the commodity to be competitive in price with unleaded gasoline priced at the point it leaves the refinery, adjusted for differences in octane rating, taking into consideration the energy value of the commodity and other appropriate values designed to represent, on a national average basis, the value of byproducts also recoverable from the commodity. See 7 USC 4005
- Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
- General Counsel: means the General Counsel of the Office of Congressional Workplace Rights. See 2 USC 1301
- Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance.
- germination: means the percentage of seeds capable of producing normal seedlings under ordinarily favorable conditions (not including seeds which produce weak, malformed, or obviously abnormal sprouts), determined by methods prescribed under section 1593 of this title. See 7 USC 1561
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
- Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
- Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
- Gross estate: The total fair market value of all property and property interests, real and personal, tangible and intangible, of which a decedent had beneficial ownership at the time of death before subtractions for deductions, debts, administrative expenses, and casualty losses suffered during estate administration.
- gross income: as used in this part means the gross income, as defined in section 832(b)(1), increased by the amount of losses incurred, as defined in section 832(b)(5), and the amount of expenses incurred, as defined in section 832(b)(6), and decreased by the amount deductible under section 832(c)(7) (relating to tax-free interest). See 26 USC 543
- Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
- Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
- Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
- handler: means any person (except a common or contract carrier of potatoes owned by another person) who handles potatoes in a manner specified in a plan issued pursuant to this chapter or in the rules and regulations issued thereunder. See 7 USC 2612
- handler: means any person, specified in the order or the rules and regulations issued thereunder, who receives or otherwise acquires eggs from an egg producer, and processes, prepares for marketing, or markets, such eggs, including eggs of his own production. See
- hemp: has the meaning given the term in section 1639o of this title. See 7 USC 1502
- housing creditor: means --
(A) a depository institution, as defined in section 501(a)(2) of the Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980. See 12 USC 3802
- immigrant: means every alien except an alien who is within one of the following classes of nonimmigrant aliens--
(A)(i) an ambassador, public minister, or career diplomatic or consular officer who has been accredited by a foreign government, recognized de jure by the United States and who is accepted by the President or by the Secretary of State, and the members of the alien's immediate family. See 8 USC 1101
- immigrant visa: means an immigrant visa required by this chapter and properly issued by a consular officer at his office outside of the United States to an eligible immigrant under the provisions of this chapter. See 8 USC 1101
- immigration judge: means an attorney whom the Attorney General appoints as an administrative judge within the Executive Office for Immigration Review, qualified to conduct specified classes of proceedings, including a hearing under section 1229a of this title. See 8 USC 1101
- immigration laws: includes this chapter and all laws, conventions, and treaties of the United States relating to the immigration, exclusion, deportation, expulsion, or removal of aliens. See 8 USC 1101
- immigration officer: means any employee or class of employees of the Service or of the United States designated by the Attorney General, individually or by regulation, to perform the functions of an immigration officer specified by this chapter or any section of this title. See 8 USC 1101
- importer: means any person who imports tablestock, frozen, or processed potatoes for ultimate consumption by humans or seed potatoes into the United States. See 7 USC 2612
- importer: means any person who imports cut flowers, potted flowering plants, or foliage plants from outside of the United States or who acts as an agent, broker, or consignee of any person or nation that produces flowers and plants outside of the United States for sale in the United States. See 7 USC 4302
- in bulk: refers to seed when loose either in vehicles of transportation or in storage, and not to seed in bags or other containers. See 7 USC 1561
- in danger of default: means an insured depository institution with respect to which (or in the case of a foreign bank having an insured branch, with respect to such insured branch) the appropriate Federal banking agency or State chartering authority has advised the Corporation (or, if the appropriate Federal banking agency is the Corporation, the Corporation has determined) that--
(A) in the opinion of such agency or authority--
(i) the depository institution or insured branch is not likely to be able to meet the demands of the institution's or branch's depositors or pay the institution's or branch's obligations in the normal course of business. See 12 USC 1813
- including: when used in a definition contained in this title shall not be deemed to exclude other things otherwise within the meaning of the term defined. See 26 USC 7701
- Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
- independent State body: means the entity established under section 12336 of this title. See 42 USC 12332
- Indian tribal government: means the governing body of any tribe, band, community, village, or group of Indians, or (if applicable) Alaska Natives, which is determined by the Secretary, after consultation with the Secretary of the Interior, to exercise governmental functions. See 26 USC 7701
- Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
- individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 1 USC 8
- individual retirement plan: means --
(A) an individual retirement account described in section 408(a), and
(B) an individual retirement annuity described in section 408(b). See 26 USC 7701
- ineligible to citizenship: when used in reference to any individual, means, notwithstanding the provisions of any treaty relating to military service, an individual who is, or was at any time permanently debarred from becoming a citizen of the United States under section 3(a) of the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, as amended (54 Stat. See 8 USC 1101
- inert matter: means all matter not seeds, and includes among others broken seeds, sterile florets, chaff, fungus bodies, and stones, determined by methods prescribed under section 1593 of this title. See 7 USC 1561
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- institution-affiliated party: means --
(1) any director, officer, employee, or controlling stockholder (other than a bank holding company or savings and loan holding company) of, or agent for, an insured depository institution. See 12 USC 1813
- insured bank: means any bank (including a foreign bank having an insured branch) the deposits of which are insured in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. See 12 USC 1813
- insured branch: means any branch (as defined in section 1(b)(3) of the International Banking Act of 1978 [12 U. See 12 USC 1813
- insured deposit: means the net amount due to any depositor for deposits in an insured depository institution as determined under sections 1817(i) and 1821(a) of this title. See 12 USC 1813
- insured depository institution: includes any uninsured branch or agency of a foreign bank or a commercial lending company owned or controlled by a foreign bank for purposes of section 1818 of this title. See 12 USC 1813
- Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
- Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
- intercity rail transportation: means transportation provided by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation. See 42 USC 12161
- Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
- international carriage: means transportation of perishable foodstuffs if such foodstuffs are loaded in equipment or the equipment containing them is loaded onto a rail or road vehicle, in the territory of any country and such foodstuffs are, or the equipment containing them is, unloaded in the territory of another country that is a contracting party, where such transportation is by--
(C) any combination of rail and road, or
(D) any sea crossing of less than one hundred and fifty kilometers, if preceded or followed by one or more land journeys as referred to in clauses (A), (B), and (C) of this paragraph, and the perishable foodstuffs are shipped in the same equipment used for such land journeys without transloading of such foodstuffs. See 7 USC 4402
- international organization: means a public international organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U. See 26 USC 7701
- Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
- Interstate commerce: means trade, commerce, transportation, or communication among the several States, or between any foreign country and any State, or between any State and any place or ship outside thereof. See 15 USC 80b-2
- interstate commerce: means --
(A) commerce between any State, Territory, possession, or the District of Columbia, and any other State, Territory, possession, or the District of Columbia. See 7 USC 1561
- investment adviser: includes any bank or bank holding company to the extent that such bank or bank holding company serves or acts as an investment adviser to a registered investment company, but if, in the case of a bank, such services or actions are performed through a separately identifiable department or division, the department or division, and not the bank itself, shall be deemed to be the investment adviser. See 15 USC 80b-2
- investment company: means any issuer which--
(A) is or holds itself out as being engaged primarily, or proposes to engage primarily, in the business of investing, reinvesting, or trading in securities. See 15 USC 80a-3
- Investment supervisory services: means the giving of continuous advice as to the investment of funds on the basis of the individual needs of each client. See 15 USC 80b-2
- Irrevocable trust: A trust arrangement that cannot be revoked, rescinded, or repealed by the grantor.
- issuer: shall include in addition to an issuer, any person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by the issuer, or any person under direct or indirect common control with the issuer. See 15 USC 80b-2
- Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
- Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
- joint return: means a single return made jointly under section 6013 by a husband and wife. See 26 USC 7701
- Joint tenancy: A form of property ownership in which two or more parties hold an undivided interest in the same property that was conveyed under the same instrument at the same time. A joint tenant can sell his (her) interest but not dispose of it by will. Upon the death of a joint tenant, his (her) undivided interest is distributed among the surviving joint tenants.
- Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- Juror: A person who is on the jury.
- kind: means one or more related species or subspecies which singly or collectively is known by one common name, for example, soybean, flax, carrot, radish, cabbage, cauliflower, and so forth. See 7 USC 1561
- label: means the display or displays of written, printed, or graphic matter upon or attached to the container of seed. See 7 USC 1561
- labeling: includes all labels, and other written, printed, and graphic representations, in any form whatsoever, accompanying and pertaining to any seed whether in bulk or in containers, and includes invoices. See 7 USC 1561
- lawfully admitted for permanent residence: means the status of having been lawfully accorded the privilege of residing permanently in the United States as an immigrant in accordance with the immigration laws, such status not having changed. See 8 USC 1101
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
- Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
- levy: includes the power of distraint and seizure by any means. See 26 USC 7701
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- Librarian: means the Librarian of Congress. See 2 USC 1741
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- livestock: means cattle, elk, reindeer, bison, horses, deer, sheep, goats, swine, poultry (including egg-producing poultry), llamas, alpacas, live fish, crawfish, and other animals that--
(A) are part of a foundation herd (including producing dairy cattle) or offspring. See 7 USC 1471
- livestock producer: means --
(A) a person that is actively engaged in farming and that receives a substantial amount of total income from the production of grain or livestock, as determined by the Secretary, that is--
(i) an established producer or husbander of livestock or a dairy producer who is a citizen of, or legal resident alien in, the United States. See 7 USC 1471
- local or regional transportation authority: includes a political subdivision of a State. See 45 USC 702
- loss ratio: means the ratio of all sums paid by the Corporation as indemnities under any eligible crop insurance policy to that portion of the premium designated for anticipated losses and a reasonable reserve, other than that portion of the premium designated for operating and administrative expenses. See 7 USC 1502
- Magistrate judges: Judicial officers who assist U.S. district judges in getting cases ready for trial, who may decide some criminal and civil trials when both parties agree to have the case heard by a magistrate judge instead of a judge.
- Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
- Majority whip: See Whips.
- management official: means an employee or officer with management functions, a director (including an advisory or honorary director, except in the case of a depository institution with total assets of less than $100,000,000), a trustee of a business organization under the control of trustees, or any person who has a representative or nominee serving in any such capacity: Provided, That if a corporator, trustee, director, or other officer of a State-chartered savings bank or cooperative bank is specifically authorized under the laws of the State in which said institution is located to serve as a trustee, director, or other officer of a State-chartered trust company which does not make real estate mortgage loans and does not accept savings deposits from natural persons, then, for the purposes of this chapter, such corporator, trustee, director, or other officer shall not be deemed to be a management official of such trust company: And provided further, That if a management official of a State-chartered trust company which does not make real estate mortgage loans and does not accept savings deposits from natural persons is specifically authorized under the laws of the State in which said institution is located to serve as a corporator, trustee, director, or other officer of a State-chartered savings bank or cooperative bank, then, for the purposes of this chapter, such management official shall not be deemed to be a management official of any such savings bank or cooperative bank. See 12 USC 3201
- managerial capacity: means an assignment within an organization in which the employee primarily--
(i) manages the organization, or a department, subdivision, function, or component of the organization. See 8 USC 1101
- Mandatory spending: Spending (budget authority and outlays) controlled by laws other than annual appropriations acts.
- Marital deduction: The deduction(s) that can be taken in the determination of gift and estate tax liabilities because of the existence of a marriage or marital relationship.
- marketing: means the sale or other disposition in commerce of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 7 USC 4302
- marketing: means the sale or other disposition of commercial eggs, egg products, spent fowl, or products of spent fowl, in any channel of commerce. See
- Markup: The process by which congressional committees and subcommittees debate, amend, and rewrite proposed legislation.
- marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 1 USC 7
- Means or instrumentality of interstate commerce: includes any facility of a national securities exchange. See 15 USC 80b-2
- Member of the House of Representatives: means a Representative in, or a Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, the Congress. See 2 USC 2086
- Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
- Minority whip: See Whips.
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- modifications to substantive law: refers to changes to or restrictions on entitlement law or other mandatory spending contained in appropriations Acts, notwithstanding section 250(c)(8) of BBEDCA [2 U. See 2 USC 932
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- mortgage: means a deed of trust, mortgage, deed to secure debt, security agreement, or any other form of instrument under which any interest in property, real, personal or mixed, or any interest in property including leaseholds, life estates, reversionary interests, and any other estates under applicable State law, is conveyed in trust, mortgaged, encumbered, pledged, or otherwise rendered subject to a lien, for the purpose of securing the payment of money or the performance of an obligation. See 12 USC 3702
- mortgage agreement: means the note or debt instrument and the mortgage instrument, deed of trust instrument, trust deed, or instrument or instruments creating the mortgage, including any instrument incorporated by reference therein (including any applicable regulatory agreement), and any instrument or agreement amending or modifying any of the foregoing. See 12 USC 3702
- Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
- Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
- Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
- mortgagor: means the obligor, grantor, or trustor named in the mortgage agreement and, unless the context otherwise indicates, includes the current owner of record of the security property whether or not personally liable on the mortgage debt. See 12 USC 3702
- mother: include in the case of a posthumous child a deceased parent, father, and mother. See 8 USC 1101
- mutual savings bank: means a bank without capital stock transacting a savings bank business, the net earnings of which inure wholly to the benefit of its depositors after payment of obligations for any advances by its organizers. See 12 USC 1813
- national: means a person owing permanent allegiance to a state. See 8 USC 1101
- National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
- National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
- national member bank: means any national bank which is a member of the Federal Reserve System. See 12 USC 1813
- national nonmember bank: means any national bank which--
(A) is located in any territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, or the Northern Mariana Islands. See 12 USC 1813
- national of the United States: means (A) a citizen of the United States, or (B) a person who, though not a citizen of the United States, owes permanent allegiance to the United States. See 8 USC 1101
- National securities exchange: means an exchange registered under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U. See 15 USC 80b-2
- naturalization: means the conferring of nationality of a state upon a person after birth, by any means whatsoever. See 8 USC 1101
- new depository institution: means a new national bank or Federal savings association, other than a bridge depository institution, organized by the Corporation in accordance with section 1821(m) of this title. See 12 USC 1813
- Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
- nongovernmental organization: means an organization that works at the local level to solve development problems in a foreign country in which the organization is located, except that the term does not include an organization that is primarily an agency or instrumentality of the government of the foreign country. See 7 USC 1732
- nonimmigrant visa: means a visa properly issued to an alien as an eligible nonimmigrant by a competent officer as provided in this chapter. See 8 USC 1101
- noninsured bank: means any bank the deposits of which are not so insured. See 12 USC 1813
- nonrecognition transaction: means any disposition of property in a transaction in which gain or loss is not recognized in whole or in part for purposes of subtitle A. See 26 USC 7701
- nonsecurity category: means all discretionary appropriations not included in the security category defined in subparagraph (B). See 2 USC 900
- noxious-weed seeds: means the seeds or bulblets of plants recognized as noxious--
(i) by the law or rules and regulations of the State into which the seed is offered for transportation, or transported. See 7 USC 1561
- oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 1 USC 1
- Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- Office: means the Office of Congressional Workplace Rights. See 2 USC 1301
- Office: means the Rail Services Planning Office established under section 10361 1 of title 49. See 45 USC 702
- officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 1 USC 1
- OMB: means the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. See 2 USC 900
- Open-end credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or revolving credit.) Source: OCC
- Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
- order of deportation: means the order of the special inquiry officer, or other such administrative officer to whom the Attorney General has delegated the responsibility for determining whether an alien is deportable, concluding that the alien is deportable or ordering deportation. See 8 USC 1101
- ordinary gross income: means the gross income determined by excluding--
(A) all gains from the sale or other disposition of capital assets, and
(B) all gains (other than those referred to in subparagraph (A)) from the sale or other disposition of property described in section 1231(b). See 26 USC 543
- organization: means , but is not limited to, an organization, corporation, company, partnership, association, trust, foundation or fund. See 8 USC 1101
- origin: means the State, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, or possession of the United States, or the foreign country, or designated portion thereof, where the seed was grown. See 7 USC 1561
- Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
- outlying possessions of the United States: means American Samoa and Swains Island. See 8 USC 1101
- outreach services: means services provided to ensure (through home visits or other methods) that parents are aware of and able to participate in family resource and support program activities. See 42 USC 12332
- outyear: means a fiscal year one or more years after the budget year. See 2 USC 932
- outyear: means a fiscal year one or more years after the budget year. See 2 USC 900
- Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
- paid or accrued: shall be construed according to the method of accounting upon the basis of which the taxable income is computed under subtitle A. See 26 USC 7701
- Parliamentarian: The Parliamentarian is an advisor on the interpretation of legislative rules and procedures.
- partner: includes a member in such a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or organization. See 26 USC 7701
- partnership: includes a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or other unincorporated organization, through or by means of which any business, financial operation, or venture is carried on, and which is not, within the meaning of this title, a trust or estate or a corporation. See 26 USC 7701
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- passport: means any travel document issued by competent authority showing the bearer's origin, identity, and nationality if any, which is valid for the admission of the bearer into a foreign country. See 8 USC 1101
- PAYGO Act: refers to a bill or joint resolution that affects direct spending or revenue relative to the baseline. See 2 USC 932
- perishable foodstuffs: means quick deep-frozen and frozen food products listed in annex 2 and food products listed in annex 3 to the agreement. See 7 USC 4402
- permanent: means a relationship of continuing or lasting nature, as distinguished from temporary, but a relationship may be permanent even though it is one that may be dissolved eventually at the instance either of the United States or of the individual, in accordance with law. See 8 USC 1101
- person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other entity. See 7 USC 4302
- person: shall be construed to mean and include an individual, a trust, estate, partnership, association, company or corporation. See 26 USC 7701
- person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other entity. See
- person: means an individual or an organization. See 8 USC 1101
- person: includes any individual, group of individuals, association, partnership, corporation, or organization. See 12 USC 3702
- Person: means a natural person or a company. See 15 USC 80b-2
- person: includes a partnership, corporation, company, society, or association. See 7 USC 1561
- person: means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other entity. See 7 USC 2612
- person associated with an investment adviser: means any partner, officer, or director of such investment adviser (or any person performing similar functions), or any person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by such investment adviser, including any employee of such investment adviser, except that for the purposes of section 80b-3 of this title (other than subsection (f) thereof), persons associated with an investment adviser whose functions are clerical or ministerial shall not be included in the meaning of such term. See 15 USC 80b-2
- personal holding company income: means the portion of the adjusted ordinary gross income which consists of:
(1) Dividends, etc. See 26 USC 543
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Petit jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
- Plea agreement: An arrangement between the prosecutor, the defense attorney, and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for special considerations. Source:
- Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
- Point of order: A claim made by a legislator from the floor that a rule of the legislature is being violated. If the Chair sustains the point of order, the action in violation of the rule is not permitted.
- potatoes: means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown by producers in the 50 States of the United States, and grown in foreign countries and imported into the United States. See 7 USC 2612
- potted flowering plants: means those plants that normally produce flowers, primarily produced in pots or similar containers, that are primarily used for interior decoration, whether grown under cover or in field operations. See 7 USC 4302
- Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- preferred deposits: means deposits of any public unit (as defined in paragraph (1)) at any insured depository institution which are secured or collateralized as required under State law. See 12 USC 1813
- President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
- Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
- private fund: means an issuer that would be an investment company, as defined in section 3 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U. See 15 USC 80b-2
- private voluntary organization: means a not-for-profit, nongovernmental organization (in the case of a United States organization, an organization that is exempt from Federal income taxes under section 501(c)(3) of title 26) that receives funds from private sources, voluntary contributions of money, staff time, or in-kind support from the public, and that is engaged in or is planning to engage in voluntary, charitable, or development assistance activities (other than religious activities). See 7 USC 1732
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Probate: Proving a will
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- produced film rents: means payments received with respect to an interest in a film for the use of, or right to use, such film, but only to the extent that such interest was acquired before substantial completion of production of such film. See 26 USC 543
- producer: means any person engaged in the growing of five or more acres of potatoes. See 7 USC 2612
- producer: means any person who produces domestically, for sale in commerce, cut flowers, potted flowering plants, or foliage plants. See 7 USC 4302
- products of spent fowl: means commercial products produced from spent fowl. See
- profession: shall include but not be limited to architects, engineers, lawyers, physicians, surgeons, and teachers in elementary or secondary schools, colleges, academies, or seminaries. See 8 USC 1101
- profitable railroad: means a railroad which is not a railroad in reorganization. See 45 USC 702
- promotion: means any action taken by the National Potato Promotion Board, pursuant to this chapter, to present a favorable image for potatoes to the public with the express intent of improving their competitive positions and stimulating sales of potatoes and shall include, but shall not be limited to, paid advertising. See 7 USC 2612
- promotion: means any action, including paid advertising, to advance the image or desirability of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 7 USC 4302
- promotion: means any action, including paid advertising, to advance the image or desirability of eggs, egg products, spent fowl, or products of spent fowl. See
- propagational material: means any plant material used in the propagation of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants, including cuttings, bulbs and corms, seedlings, canes, liners, plants, cells or tissue cultures, air layers and bublets,1 rhizomes, and root stocks. See 7 USC 4302
- Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
- Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
- public entity: means --
(A) any State or local government. See 42 USC 12131
- Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
- publication: has the meaning given such term in section 101 of title 17. See 2 USC 1741
- qualified alien: includes --
(1) an alien who--
(A) has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty in the United States by a spouse or a parent, or by a member of the spouse or parent's family residing in the same household as the alien and the spouse or parent consented to, or acquiesced in, such battery or cruelty, but only if (in the opinion of the agency providing such benefits) there is a substantial connection between such battery or cruelty and the need for the benefits to be provided. See 8 USC 1641
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- rail passenger car: means , with respect to intercity rail transportation, single-level and bi-level coach cars, single-level and bi-level dining cars, single-level and bi-level sleeping cars, single-level and bi-level lounge cars, and food service cars. See 42 USC 12161
- rail properties: means assets or rights owned, leased, or otherwise controlled by a railroad (or a person owned, leased, or otherwise controlled by a railroad) which are used or useful in rail transportation service. See 45 USC 702
- railroad: means a rail carrier subject to part A of subtitle IV of title 49. See 45 USC 702
- railroad in reorganization: means a railroad which is subject to a bankruptcy proceeding and which has not been determined by a court to be reorganizable or not subject to reorganization pursuant to this chapter as prescribed in section 717(b) of this title. See 45 USC 702
- Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- receiver: includes a receiver, liquidating agent, conservator, commission, person, or other agency charged by law with the duty of winding up the affairs of a bank or savings association or of a branch of a foreign bank. See 12 USC 1813
- Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
- Reconciliation bill: A bill containing changes in law recommended pursuant to reconciliation instructions in a budget resolution. If the instructions pertain to only one committee in a chamber, that committee reports the reconciliation bill. If the instructions pertain to more than one committee, the Budget Committee reports an omnibus reconciliation bill, but it may not make substantive changes in the recommendations of the other committees.
- recorded: include "register" and "registered" in the instance of registered land. See 12 USC 3702
- Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
- redetermination: means redetermination of eligibility under sections 1611(c)(1) and 1614(a)(3)(H) of the Social Security Act [42 U. See 2 USC 901
- refugee: means (A) any person who is outside any country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, is outside any country in which such person last habitually resided, and who is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of, that country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, or (B) in such special circumstances as the President after appropriate consultation (as defined in section 1157(e) of this title) may specify, any person who is within the country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, within the country in which such person is habitually residing, and who is persecuted or who has a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. See 8 USC 1101
- region: means two or more States acting together to develop a coordinated regional subterminal facilities plan. See 7 USC 3702
- Region: means the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and Illinois. See 45 USC 702
- Registry version: means , with respect to a sound recording, the version of a recording first published or offered for mass distribution whether as a publication or a broadcast, or as complete a version as bona fide preservation and restoration activities by the Librarian, an archivist other than the Librarian, or the copyright legal owner can compile in those cases where the original material has been irretrievably lost or the recording is unpublished. See 2 USC 1741
- regulated public utility: means --
(A) A corporation engaged in the furnishing or sale of--
(i) electric energy, gas, water, or sewerage disposal services, or
(ii) transportation (not included in subparagraph (C)) on an intrastate, suburban, municipal, or interurban electric railroad, on an intrastate, municipal, or suburban trackless trolley system, or on a municipal or suburban bus system, or
(iii) transportation (not included in clause (ii)) by motor vehicle--
if the rates for such furnishing or sale, as the case may be, have been established or approved by a State or political subdivision thereof, by an agency or instrumentality of the United States, by a public service or public utility commission or other similar body of the District of Columbia or of any State or political subdivision thereof, or by a foreign country or an agency or instrumentality or political subdivision thereof. See 26 USC 7701
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
- removal court: means the court described in section 1532 of this title. See 8 USC 1531
- removal hearing: means the hearing described in section 1534 of this title. See 8 USC 1531
- removal proceeding: means a proceeding under this subchapter. See 8 USC 1531
- rents: means compensation, however designated, for the use of, or right to use, property, and the interest on debts owed to the corporation, to the extent such debts represent the price for which real property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of its trade or business was sold or exchanged by the corporation. See 26 USC 543
- Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
- representative: includes an officer, official, or spokesman of an organization, and any person who directs, counsels, commands, or induces an organization or its members to engage in terrorist activity. See 8 USC 1182
- Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
- research: means any type of research to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 7 USC 4302
- research: means any type of research to advance the image, desirability, marketability, production, or quality of eggs, egg products, spent fowl, or products of spent fowl. See
- reserve ratio: when used with regard to the Deposit Insurance Fund other than in connection with a reference to the designated reserve ratio, means the ratio of the net worth of the Deposit Insurance Fund to the value of the aggregate estimated insured deposits, or such comparable percentage of the assessment base set forth in section 1817(b)(2)(C) 2 of this title. See 12 USC 1813
- residence: means the place of general abode. See 8 USC 1101
- responsible person: means --
(A) in the case of a station more than 50 percent of which is owned by a public entity, such public entity. See 42 USC 12161
- Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
- revised nonsecurity category: means discretionary appropriations other than in budget function 050. See 2 USC 900
- revised security category: means discretionary appropriations in budget function 050. See 2 USC 900
- Revocable trust: A trust agreement that can be canceled, rescinded, revoked, or repealed by the grantor (person who establishes the trust).
- Revolving credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or open-end credit.) Source: OCC
- Right of rescission: Right to cancel, within three business days, a contract that uses the home of a person as collateral, except in the case of a first mortgage loan. There is no fee to the borrower, who receives a full refund of all fees paid. The right of rescission is guaranteed by the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). Source: OCC
- Right of survivorship: The ownership rights that result in the acquisition of title to property by reason of having survived other co-owners.
- sale date: means the date on which the initial public offering of the securities of the Corporation is closed under the Conrail Privatization Act [45 U. See 45 USC 702
- savings and loan holding company: has the meaning given to such term in section 1467a of this title. See 12 USC 1813
- savings association: means --
(A) any Federal savings association. See 12 USC 1813
- savings bank: means a bank (including a mutual savings bank) which transacts its ordinary banking business strictly as a savings bank under State laws imposing special requirements on such banks governing the manner of investing their funds and of conducting their business. See 12 USC 1813
- screenings: shall include chaff, sterile florets, immature seed, weed seed, inert matter, and any other materials removed in any way from any seeds in any kind of cleaning or processing and which contain less than 25 per centum of live agricultural or vegetable seeds. See 7 USC 1561
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture, unless otherwise specified in this chapter. See 7 USC 1732
- Secretary: means Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 3702
- Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. See 26 USC 7701
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 4201
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 4302
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture or any other officer or employee of the Department of Agriculture to whom there has heretofore been delegated, or to whom there may hereafter be delegated, the authority to act in his stead. See
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Health and Human Services. See 42 USC 12302
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 1502
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. See 12 USC 3702
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Transportation or the designated representative of the Secretary. See 45 USC 702
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See 7 USC 2282
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 2612
- Secretary of the Treasury: means the Secretary of the Treasury, personally, and shall not include any delegate of his. See 26 USC 7701
- Security: means any note, stock, treasury stock, security future, bond, debenture, evidence of indebtedness, certificate of interest or participation in any profit-sharing agreement, collateral-trust certificate, preorganization certificate or subscription, transferable share, investment contract, voting-trust certificate, certificate of deposit for a security, fractional undivided interest in oil, gas, or other mineral rights, any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege on any security (including a certificate of deposit) or on any group or index of securities (including any interest therein or based on the value thereof), or any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege entered into on a national securities exchange relating to foreign currency, or, in general, any interest or instrument commonly known as a "security" or any certificate of interest or participation in, temporary or interim certificate for, receipt for, guaranty of, or warrant or right to subscribe to or purchase any of the foregoing. See 15 USC 80b-2
- security category: includes discretionary appropriations associated with agency budgets for the Department of Defense, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the intelligence community management account (95-0401-0-1-054), and all budget accounts in budget function 150 (international affairs). See 2 USC 900
- security property: means the property, real, personal or mixed, or an interest in property, including leaseholds, life estates, reversionary interests, and any other estates under applicable State law, together with fixtures and other interests subject to the lien of the mortgage under applicable State law. See 12 USC 3702
- seed certifying agency: means (A) an agency authorized under the laws of a State, Territory, or possession, to officially certify seed and which has standards and procedures approved by the Secretary (after due notice, hearings, and full consideration of the views of farmer users of certified seed and other interested parties) to assure the genetic purity and identity of the seed certified, or (B) an agency of a foreign country determined by the Secretary of Agriculture to adhere to procedures and standards for seed certification comparable to those adhered to generally by seed certifying agencies under (A). See 7 USC 1561
- Sequester: To separate. Sometimes juries are sequestered from outside influences during their deliberations.
- sequestration: refer to or mean the cancellation of budgetary resources provided by discretionary appropriations or direct spending law. See 2 USC 900
- Service: means the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Justice. See 8 USC 1101
- Service court: means any military, naval, or air force court, or court martial or similar tribunal of any friendly foreign force within the United States. See 22 USC 701
- Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
- shareholder: includes a member in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 26 USC 7701
- shareholder: shall include any person who owns stock within the meaning of section 544. See 26 USC 543
- sound recording: has the meaning given such term in section 101 of title 17. See 2 USC 1741
- special attorney: means an attorney who is on the panel established under section 1532(e) of this title. See 8 USC 1531
- special immigrant: means --
(A) an immigrant, lawfully admitted for permanent residence, who is returning from a temporary visit abroad. See 8 USC 1101
- specified payment: means --
(A) any Federal payment other than a payment for which eligibility is based on the income or assets (or both) of a payee,
(B) any payment described in paragraph (4), (7), (9), or (11) of section 6334(a), and
(C) any annuity or pension payment under the Railroad Retirement Act or benefit under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act. See 26 USC 6331
- spent fowl: means hens which have been in production of commercial eggs and have been removed from such production for slaughter. See
- started pullet: means a hen less than twenty weeks of age. See
- State: when used in this chapter 1 shall include the Virgin Islands and Guam. See 7 USC 1626
- State: means any of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or any territory or possession of the United States. See 7 USC 4201
- State: shall be construed to include the District of Columbia, where such construction is necessary to carry out provisions of this title. See 26 USC 7701
- State: includes the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 8 USC 1101
- State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, any territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. See 12 USC 1813
- State: means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 42 USC 12103
- State: includes the District of Columbia, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 42 USC 12302
- State: means any State of the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or Guam. See 7 USC 1471
- State: means the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the territories and possessions of the United States, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and Indian tribes as defined by the Secretary. See 12 USC 3702
- State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or any other possession of the United States. See 15 USC 80b-2
- State: means any State or the District of Columbia. See 45 USC 702
- State bank: means any bank, banking association, trust company, savings bank, industrial bank (or similar depository institution which the Board of Directors finds to be operating substantially in the same manner as an industrial bank), or other banking institution which--
(A) is engaged in the business of receiving deposits, other than trust funds (as defined in this section). See 12 USC 1813
- State bank supervisor: means any officer, agency, or other entity of any State which has primary regulatory authority over State banks or State savings associations in such State. See 12 USC 1813
- State depository institution: means any State bank, any State savings association, and any insured branch which is not a Federal branch. See 12 USC 1813
- State member bank: means any State bank which is a member of the Federal Reserve System. See 12 USC 1813
- State nonmember bank: means any State bank which is not a member of the Federal Reserve System. See 12 USC 1813
- State savings association: means --
(A) any building and loan association, savings and loan association, or homestead association. See 12 USC 1813
- station: means the portion of a property located appurtenant to a right-of-way on which intercity or commuter rail transportation is operated, where such portion is used by the general public and is related to the provision of such transportation, including passenger platforms, designated waiting areas, ticketing areas, restrooms, and, where a public entity providing rail transportation owns the property, concession areas, to the extent that such public entity exercises control over the selection, design, construction, or alteration of the property, but such term does not include flag stops. See 42 USC 12161
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
- stock: includes shares in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 26 USC 7701
- stowaway: means any alien who obtains transportation without the consent of the owner, charterer, master or person in command of any vessel or aircraft through concealment aboard such vessel or aircraft. See 8 USC 1101
- student: means any individual--
(i) who is temporarily present in the United States--
(I) under subparagraph (F) or (M) of section 101(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, or
(II) as a student under subparagraph (J) or (Q) of such section 101(15), and
(ii) who substantially complies with the requirements for being so present. See 26 USC 7701
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
- subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 1 USC 1
- subsidiary: means any corporation 100 percent of whose total combined voting shares are, directly or indirectly, owned or controlled by the Corporation. See 45 USC 702
- substantial: means , for purposes of paragraph (15)(E) with reference to trade or capital, such an amount of trade or capital as is established by the Secretary of State, after consultation with appropriate agencies of Government. See 8 USC 1101
- substituted basis property: means property which is--
(A) transferred basis property, or
(B) exchanged basis property. See 26 USC 7701
- Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- Supervised person: means any partner, officer, director (or other person occupying a similar status or performing similar functions), or employee of an investment adviser, or other person who provides investment advice on behalf of the investment adviser and is subject to the supervision and control of the investment adviser. See 15 USC 80b-2
- Supplemental appropriation: Budget authority provided in an appropriations act in addition to regular or continuing appropriations already provided. Supplemental appropriations generally are made to cover emergencies, such as disaster relief, or other needs deemed too urgent to be postponed until the enactment of next year's regular appropriations act.
- supplemental transaction: means any transaction set forth in a proposal under section 745 of this title under which the Corporation or a subsidiary thereof would (A) acquire rail properties not designated for transfer or conveyance to it under the final system plan, (B) convey rail properties to a profitable railroad, a subsidiary of the Corporation or, other than as designated in the final system plan, to the National Railroad Passenger Corporation or to a State or a local or regional transportation authority, or to any other responsible person for use in providing rail service, or (C) enter into contractual or other arrangements with any person for the joint use of rail properties or the coordination or separation of rail operations or services. See 45 USC 702
- Tax Court: means the United States Tax Court. See 26 USC 7701
- taxable year: means the calendar year, or the fiscal year ending during such calendar year, upon the basis of which the taxable income is computed under subtitle A. See 26 USC 7701
- taxpayer: means any person subject to any internal revenue tax. See 26 USC 7701
- Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
- terrorist organization: means an organization--
(I) designated under section 1189 of this title. See 8 USC 1182
- Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- TIN: means the identifying number assigned to a person under section 6109. See 26 USC 7701
- Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
- totalitarian party: means an organization which advocates the establishment in the United States of a totalitarian dictatorship or totalitarianism. See 8 USC 1101
- trade or business: includes the performance of the functions of a public office. See 26 USC 7701
- transaction: includes a series of transactions. See 26 USC 7701
- Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
- transferred basis property: means property having a basis determined under any provision of subtitle A (or under any corresponding provision of prior income tax law) providing that the basis shall be determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis in the hands of the donor, grantor, or other transferor. See 26 USC 7701
- transferred deposit: means a deposit in a new bank or other insured depository institution made available to a depositor by the Corporation as payment of the insured deposit of such depositor in a closed bank, and assumed by such new bank or other insured depository institution. See 12 USC 1813
- transitional yield: means the maximum average production per acre or equivalent measure that is assigned to acreage for a crop year by the Corporation in accordance with the regulations of the Corporation whenever the producer fails--
(A) to certify that acceptable documentation of production and acreage for the crop year is in the possession of the producer. See 7 USC 1502
- treated: means given an application of a substance or subjected to a process designed to reduce, control, or repel disease organisms, insects or other pests which attack seeds or seedlings growing therefrom. See 7 USC 1561
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
- trust funds: means funds held by an insured depository institution in a fiduciary capacity and includes, without being limited to, funds held as trustee, executor, administrator, guardian, or agent. See 12 USC 1813
- trust service: means any service customarily performed by a bank trust department. See 12 USC 1971
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- Trustor: The person who makes or creates a trust. Also known as the grantor or settlor.
- Truth in Lending Act: The Truth in Lending Act is a federal law that requires lenders to provide standardized information so that borrowers can compare loan terms. In general, lenders must provide information on Source: OCC
- type: means either (A) a group of varieties so nearly similar that the individual varieties cannot be clearly differentiated except under special conditions, or (B) when used with a variety name means seed of the variety named which may be mixed with seed of other varieties of the same kind and of similar character, the manner of and the circumstances connected with the use of the designation to be governed by rules and regulations prescribed under section 1592 of this title. See 7 USC 1561
- unanticipated: means that the underlying situation is--
(A) sudden, which means quickly coming into being or not building up over time. See 2 USC 900
- Underwriter: means any person who has purchased from an issuer with a view to, or sells for an issuer in connection with, the distribution of any security, or participates or has a direct or indirect participation in any such undertaking, or participates or has a participation in the direct or indirect underwriting of any such undertaking. See 15 USC 80b-2
- Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
- unit of local government: means the government of a county, municipality, town, township, village, or other unit of general government below the State level, or a combination of units of local government acting through an areawide agency under State law or an agreement for the formulation of regional development policies and plans. See 7 USC 4201
- United States: means the fifty States of the United States of America, the territories and possessions of the United States of America, and the District of Columbia. See 7 USC 4302
- United States: means the fifty States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States. See 7 USC 4402
- United States: except as otherwise specifically herein provided, when used in a geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 8 USC 1101
- United States: when used in a geographical sense includes only the States and the District of Columbia. See 26 USC 7701
- United States: means the forty-eight contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. See
- United States: means the several States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. See 7 USC 1561
- United States: means the United States, its Territories, its insular possessions, the Canal Zone, and any other place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. See 22 USC 701
- United States Commission on International Religious Freedom: means the Commission established under section 6431 of title 22. See 2 USC 1301
- United States person: means --
(A) a citizen or resident of the United States,
(B) a domestic partnership,
(C) a domestic corporation,
(D) any estate (other than a foreign estate, within the meaning of paragraph (31)), and
(E) any trust if--
(i) a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust, and
(ii) one or more United States persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust. See 26 USC 7701
- unmarried: when used in reference to any individual as of any time, means an individual who at such time is not married, whether or not previously married. See 8 USC 1101
- unprocessed agricultural products: means food, fiber, and other agricultural products that have not been packaged or otherwise prepared for retail sale, including animal products and unfinished cotton, wool, leather, or any other unfinished natural material. See 7 USC 3702
- User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
- Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
- variety: means a subdivision of a kind which is characterized by growth, plant, fruit, seed, or other characters by which it can be differentiated from other sorts of the same kind, for example, Marquis wheat, Flat Dutch cabbage, Manchu soybeans, Oxheart carrot, and so forth. See 7 USC 1561
- VAWA self-petitioner: means an alien, or a child of the alien, who qualifies for relief under--
(A) clause (iii), (iv), or (vii) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title. See 8 USC 1101
- Vegetable seeds: shall include the seeds of those crops that are or may be grown in gardens or on truck farms and are or may be generally known and sold under the name of vegetable seeds. See 7 USC 1561
- vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 1 USC 4
- Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
- Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
- vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 1 USC 3
- veteran farmer or rancher: means a farmer or rancher who--
- Victim advocate: work with prosecutors and assist the victims of a crime.
- violation: includes any action (alone or with another or others) for or toward causing, bringing about, participating in, counseling, or aiding or abetting a violation. See 12 USC 1813
- weed seeds: means the seeds or bulblets of plants recognized as weeds either by the law or rules and regulations of--
(A) The State into which the seed is offered for transportation, or transported. See 7 USC 1561
- whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 1 USC 1
- wildfire suppression operations: means the emergency and unpredictable aspects of wildland firefighting, including--
(aa) support, response, and emergency stabilization activities. See 2 USC 901
- withholding agent: means any person required to deduct and withhold any tax under the provisions of section 1441, 1442, 1443, or 1461. See 26 USC 7701
- world communism: means a revolutionary movement, the purpose of which is to establish eventually a Communist totalitarian dictatorship in any or all the countries of the world through the medium of an internationally coordinated Communist political movement. See 8 USC 1101
- Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
- Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
- writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 1 USC 1