|§ 5301||Congressional statement of purposes|
|Subchapter I||Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research|
|Subchapter II||National Nutrition Monitoring Advisory Council|
|Subchapter III||Dietary Guidance|
Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 7 > Chapter 84
- Adjournment sine die: The end of a legislative session "without day." These adjournments are used to indicate the final adjournment of an annual or the two-year session of legislature.
- affiliate: has the meaning given to such term in section 1841(k) of this title. See 26 USC 82
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- appropriate Federal banking agency: means --
(1) the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, in the case of--
(A) any national banking association. See 26 USC 82
- Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 19 USC 2295
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- bank holding company: has the meaning given to such term in section 1841 of this title. See 26 USC 82
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
- beginning farmer or rancher: means such term as defined by the Secretary. See 14 USC 252
- Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
- Board of Directors: means the Board of Directors of the Corporation. See 26 USC 82
- borrower: means any farm borrower who has outstanding obligations to the Secretary under any farmer program loan, without regard to whether the loan has been accelerated, but does not include any farm borrower all of whose loans and accounts have been foreclosed on or liquidated, voluntarily or otherwise. See 14 USC 252
- Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- comprehensive plan: means the comprehensive plan prepared under section 5313 of this title. See 12 USC 2279c–1
- Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
- control: has the meaning given to such term in section 1841 of this title. See 26 USC 82
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- coordinated program: means the National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Program established by section 5311(a) of this title. See 12 USC 2279c–1
- corporation: includes associations, joint-stock companies, and insurance companies. See 38 USC 1912
- Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
- county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 19 USC 2292
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- default: means , with respect to an insured depository institution, any adjudication or other official determination by any court of competent jurisdiction, the appropriate Federal banking agency, or other public authority pursuant to which a conservator, receiver, or other legal custodian is appointed for an insured depository institution or, in the case of a foreign bank having an insured branch, for such branch. See 26 USC 82
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- deposit: means --
(1) the unpaid balance of money or its equivalent received or held by a bank or savings association in the usual course of business and for which it has given or is obligated to give credit, either conditionally or unconditionally, to a commercial, checking, savings, time, or thrift account, or which is evidenced by its certificate of deposit, thrift certificate, investment certificate, certificate of indebtedness, or other similar name, or a check or draft drawn against a deposit account and certified by the bank or savings association, or a letter of credit or a traveler's check on which the bank or savings association is primarily liable: Provided, That, without limiting the generality of the term "money or its equivalent" any such account or instrument must be regarded as evidencing the receipt of the equivalent of money when credited or issued in exchange for checks or drafts or for a promissory note upon which the person obtaining any such credit or instrument is primarily or secondarily liable, or for a charge against a deposit account, or in settlement of checks, drafts, or other instruments forwarded to such bank or savings association for collection. See 26 USC 82
- Deposit Insurance Fund: means the Deposit Insurance Fund established under section 1821(a)(4) of this title. See 26 USC 82
- depository institution: means any bank or savings association. See 26 USC 82
- depository institution holding company: means a bank holding company or a savings and loan holding company. See 26 USC 82
- direct loan: means a loan made or insured from funds in the account created by section 1929 of this title. See 14 USC 252
- domestic: when applied to a corporation or partnership means created or organized in the United States or under the law of the United States or of any State unless, in the case of a partnership, the Secretary provides otherwise by regulations. See 38 USC 1912
- domestic branch: includes any branch bank, branch office, branch agency, additional office, or any branch place of business located in any State of the United States or in any Territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or the Virgin Islands at which deposits are received or checks paid or money lent. See 26 USC 82
- employee: shall include a full-time life insurance salesman who is considered an employee for the purpose of chapter 21. See 38 USC 1912
- Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- farmer: includes a person who is engaged in, or who, with assistance afforded under this chapter, intends to engage in, fish farming. See 14 USC 252
- farming: shall be deemed to include fish farming. See 14 USC 252
- Federal banking agency: means the Comptroller of the Currency, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. See 26 USC 82
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
- Federal depository institution: means any national bank, any Federal savings association, and any Federal branch. See 26 USC 82
- Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
- Federal savings association: means any Federal savings association or Federal savings bank which is chartered under section 1464 of this title. See 26 USC 82
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
- fiduciary: means a guardian, trustee, executor, administrator, receiver, conservator, or any person acting in any fiduciary capacity for any person. See 38 USC 1912
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
- foreign: when applied to a corporation or partnership means a corporation or partnership which is not domestic. See 38 USC 1912
- foreign bank: has the meaning given to such term by section 1(b)(7) of the International Banking Act of 1978 [12 U. See 26 USC 82
- foreign branch: means any office or place of business located outside the United States, its territories, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or the Virgin Islands, at which banking operations are conducted. See 26 USC 82
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
- Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
- in danger of default: means an insured depository institution with respect to which (or in the case of a foreign bank having an insured branch, with respect to such insured branch) the appropriate Federal banking agency or State chartering authority has advised the Corporation (or, if the appropriate Federal banking agency is the Corporation, the Corporation has determined) that--
(A) in the opinion of such agency or authority--
(i) the depository institution or insured branch is not likely to be able to meet the demands of the institution's or branch's depositors or pay the institution's or branch's obligations in the normal course of business. See 26 USC 82
- including: when used in a definition contained in this title shall not be deemed to exclude other things otherwise within the meaning of the term defined. See 38 USC 1912
- Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
- individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 19 USC 2297
- individual retirement plan: means --
(A) an individual retirement account described in section 408(a), and
(B) an individual retirement annuity described in section 408(b). See 38 USC 1912
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- institution-affiliated party: means --
(1) any director, officer, employee, or controlling stockholder (other than a bank holding company or savings and loan holding company) of, or agent for, an insured depository institution. See 26 USC 82
- insure: as used in this chapter includes guarantee, which means to guarantee the payment of a loan originated, held, and serviced by a private financial agency or other lender approved by the Secretary. See 14 USC 252
- insured bank: means any bank (including a foreign bank having an insured branch) the deposits of which are insured in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. See 26 USC 82
- insured branch: means any branch (as defined in section 1(b)(3) of the International Banking Act of 1978 [12 U. See 26 USC 82
- insured deposit: means the net amount due to any depositor for deposits in an insured depository institution as determined under sections 1817(i) and 1821(a) of this title. See 26 USC 82
- insured depository institution: includes any uninsured branch or agency of a foreign bank or a commercial lending company owned or controlled by a foreign bank for purposes of section 1818 of this title. See 26 USC 82
- Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
- international organization: means a public international organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U. See 38 USC 1912
- Joint Implementation Plan for a Comprehensive National Nutrition Monitoring System: means the plan of that title dated August 18, 1981 and submitted by the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services under section 3178 of this title. See 12 USC 2279c–1
- Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- local government: means a local general unit of government or local educational unit. See 12 USC 2279c–1
- marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 19 USC 2296
- Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- mutual savings bank: means a bank without capital stock transacting a savings bank business, the net earnings of which inure wholly to the benefit of its depositors after payment of obligations for any advances by its organizers. See 26 USC 82
- National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
- new depository institution: means a new national bank or Federal savings association, other than a bridge depository institution, organized by the Corporation in accordance with section 1821(m) of this title. See 26 USC 82
- noninsured bank: means any bank the deposits of which are not so insured. See 26 USC 82
- nutrition monitoring and related research: means the set of activities necessary to provide timely information about the role and status of factors that bear on the contribution that nutrition makes to the health of the people of the United States, including--
(A) dietary, nutritional, and health status measurements. See 12 USC 2279c–1
- nutritional quality: means --
(A) the appropriate levels of individual nutrients in the diet. See 12 USC 2279c–1
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 19 USC 2291
- Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
- partner: includes a member in such a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or organization. See 38 USC 1912
- partnership: includes a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or other unincorporated organization, through or by means of which any business, financial operation, or venture is carried on, and which is not, within the meaning of this title, a trust or estate or a corporation. See 38 USC 1912
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- person: shall be construed to mean and include an individual, a trust, estate, partnership, association, company or corporation. See 38 USC 1912
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
- Probate: Proving a will
- Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
- Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- receiver: includes a receiver, liquidating agent, conservator, commission, person, or other agency charged by law with the duty of winding up the affairs of a bank or savings association or of a branch of a foreign bank. See 26 USC 82
- Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
- savings association: means --
(A) any Federal savings association. See 26 USC 82
- savings bank: means a bank (including a mutual savings bank) which transacts its ordinary banking business strictly as a savings bank under State laws imposing special requirements on such banks governing the manner of investing their funds and of conducting their business. See 26 USC 82
- Secretaries: means the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting jointly. See 12 USC 2279c–1
- Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. See 38 USC 1912
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
- shareholder: includes a member in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 38 USC 1912
- State: shall include each of the several States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and, to the extent the Secretary determines it to be feasible and appropriate, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 14 USC 252
- State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, any territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. See 26 USC 82
- State: shall be construed to include the District of Columbia, where such construction is necessary to carry out provisions of this title. See 38 USC 1912
- State bank: means any bank, banking association, trust company, savings bank, industrial bank (or similar depository institution which the Board of Directors finds to be operating substantially in the same manner as an industrial bank), or other banking institution which--
(A) is engaged in the business of receiving deposits, other than trust funds (as defined in this section). See 26 USC 82
- State bank supervisor: means any officer, agency, or other entity of any State which has primary regulatory authority over State banks or State savings associations in such State. See 26 USC 82
- State depository institution: means any State bank, any State savings association, and any insured branch which is not a Federal branch. See 26 USC 82
- State member bank: means any State bank which is a member of the Federal Reserve System. See 26 USC 82
- State nonmember bank: means any State bank which is not a member of the Federal Reserve System. See 26 USC 82
- State savings association: means --
(A) any building and loan association, savings and loan association, or homestead association. See 26 USC 82
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- stock: includes shares in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 38 USC 1912
- student: means any individual--
(i) who is temporarily present in the United States--
(I) under subparagraph (F) or (M) of section 101(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, or
(II) as a student under subparagraph (J) or (Q) of such section 101(15), and
(ii) who substantially complies with the requirements for being so present. See 38 USC 1912
- taxable year: means the calendar year, or the fiscal year ending during such calendar year, upon the basis of which the taxable income is computed under subtitle A. See 38 USC 1912
- taxpayer: means any person subject to any internal revenue tax. See 38 USC 1912
- TIN: means the identifying number assigned to a person under section 6109. See 38 USC 1912
- Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
- trade or business: includes the performance of the functions of a public office. See 38 USC 1912
- transaction: includes a series of transactions. See 38 USC 1912
- transferred deposit: means a deposit in a new bank or other insured depository institution made available to a depositor by the Corporation as payment of the insured deposit of such depositor in a closed bank, and assumed by such new bank or other insured depository institution. See 26 USC 82
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- uninsured deposit: means the amount of any deposit of any depositor at any insured depository institution in excess of the amount of the insured deposits of such depositor (if any) at such depository institution. See 26 USC 82
- United States: when used in a geographical sense includes only the States and the District of Columbia. See 38 USC 1912
- vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 19 USC 2294
- vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 19 USC 2293
- violation: includes any action (alone or with another or others) for or toward causing, bringing about, participating in, counseling, or aiding or abetting a violation. See 26 USC 82
- whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 19 USC 2291
- Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
- writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 19 USC 2291