§ 1691 United States policy
§ 1691a Food aid to developing countries
Subchapter II Economic Assistance and Food Security
Subchapter III Emergency and Private Assistance Programs
Subchapter III-A Food for Development
Subchapter III-B Emergency Food Assistance
Subchapter IV General Authorities and Requirements
Subchapter V Farmer-to-Farmer Program
Subchapter VI Enterprise for the Americas Initiative

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 7 > Chapter 41

  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Administrator: means the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, unless otherwise specified in this chapter. See 7 USC 1732
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • agency: includes any department, independent establishment, commission, administration, authority, board or bureau of the United States or any corporation in which the United States has a proprietary interest, unless the context shows that such term was intended to be used in a more limited sense. See 18 USC 6
  • agreement: means the Agreement on the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs and on the Special Equipment to be Used for Such Carriage, and the annexes and the appendices thereto, done at Geneva, September 1, 1970, under the auspices of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations. See 7 USC 4402
  • alien: means any person not a citizen or national of the United States. See 8 USC 1101
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • appropriate committees of Congress: means the congressional defense committees and, with respect to any project to be carried out by, or for the use of, an intelligence component of the Department of Defense, the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate. See 10 USC 2801
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 1 USC 5
  • Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See 8 USC 1101
  • Attorney General: includes the Attorney General of the United States, the Deputy Attorney General of the United States, the Associate Attorney General of the United States, any Assistant Attorney General of the United States, or any employee of the Department of Justice or any employee of any department or agency of the United States so designated by the Attorney General to carry out the powers conferred on the Attorney General by this chapter. See 18 USC 1961
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bailiff: a court officer who enforces the rules of behavior in courtrooms.
  • Balanced budget: A budget in which receipts equal outlays.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: means the National Dairy Promotion and Research Board established under section 4504 of this title. See 7 USC 4502
  • Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
  • Bureau: means the Bureau of Indian Affairs. See 25 USC 3802
  • Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • Circumstantial evidence: All evidence except eyewitness testimony.
  • commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 7 USC 182
  • Committee: means the National Honey Nominations Committee provided for under section 4606(b) of this title. See 7 USC 4602
  • commodity group: means that portion of the flower and plant industry devoted to the production and importation of any one of the following: (A) cut flowers. See 7 USC 4302
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • consular officer: means any consular, diplomatic, or other officer or employee of the United States designated under regulations prescribed under authority contained in this chapter, for the purpose of issuing immigrant or nonimmigrant visas or, when used in subchapter III, for the purpose of adjudicating nationality. See 8 USC 1101
  • consumer education: means any action to provide information on the care and handling of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 7 USC 4302
  • consumer education: means any action to provide information on the usage and care of honey or honey products. See 7 USC 4602
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • contracting party: means any country that is eligible under article 9 of the agreement and that has complied with the terms of such article. See 7 USC 4402
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • cooperative: means a private sector organization whose members own and control the organization and share in its services and its profits and that provides business services and outreach in cooperative development for its membership. See 7 USC 1732
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • cost of plant material: means the actual price paid by a producer for any propagational material or any other flowers and plants used in the production of flowers and plants. See 7 USC 4302
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 1 USC 2
  • Customs: means the United States Customs Service. See 7 USC 4502
  • cut flowers: means all flowers and decorative foliage used as fresh-cut flowers, fresh-cut decorative foliage, dried, preserved, and processed flowers, or dried and preserved decorative foliage, produced either under cover or in field operations. See 7 USC 4302
  • dairy products: means products manufactured for human consumption which are derived from the processing of milk, and includes fluid milk products. See 7 USC 4502
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • department: means one of the executive departments enumerated in section 1 of Title 5, unless the context shows that such term was intended to describe the executive, legislative, or judicial branches of the government. See 18 USC 6
  • Department: means the Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 4602
  • Department: means the Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 4502
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • developing country: means a country that has a shortage of foreign exchange earnings and has difficulty meeting all of its food needs through commercial channels. See 7 USC 1732
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • documentary material: includes any book, paper, document, record, recording, or other material. See 18 USC 1961
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • enterprise: includes any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity, and any union or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity. See 18 USC 1961
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • equipment: means the special transport equipment that complies with the definitions and standards set forth in annex 1 to the agreement, including, but not limited to, railway cars, trucks, trailers, semitrailers, and intermodal freight containers that are insulated only, or insulated and equipped with a refrigerating, mechanically refrigerating, or heating appliance. See 7 USC 4402
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • facility: means a building, structure, or other improvement to real property. See 10 USC 2801
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • farmland: includes all land defined as follows:

    (A) prime farmland is land that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, feed, fiber, forage, oilseed, and other agricultural crops with minimum inputs of fuel, fertilizer, pesticides, and labor, and without intolerable soil erosion, as determined by the Secretary. See 7 USC 4201

  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal health care offense: means a violation of, or a criminal conspiracy to violate--

    (1) section 669, 1035, 1347, or 1518 of this title or section 1128B of the Social Security Act (42 U. See

  • Federal program: means those activities or responsibilities of a department, agency, independent commission, or other unit of the Federal Government that involve (A) undertaking, financing, or assisting construction or improvement projects. See 7 USC 4201
  • Federal prosecutor: A lawyer appointed by the President in each judicial district to prosecute and defend cases for the federal government.
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • financial institution: means --

    (1) an insured depository institution (as defined in section 3(c)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act). See

  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Floraboard: means the board provided for under section 4306 of this title. See 7 USC 4302
  • flowers and plants: means cut flowers, potted flowering plants, foliage plants, and propagational material. See 7 USC 4302
  • fluid milk products: means those milk products normally consumed in liquid form as a beverage. See 7 USC 4502
  • foliage plants: means those plants, normally without flowers, primarily produced in pots or similar containers, that are primarily used for interior decorations, whether grown under cover or in field operations. See 7 USC 4302
  • food security: means access by all people at all times to sufficient food and nutrition for a healthy and productive life. See 7 USC 1732
  • foreign agent: means any officer, employee, proxy, servant, delegate, or representative of a foreign government. See 18 USC 1839
  • foreign commerce: as used in this title , includes commerce with a foreign country. See
  • foreign government: as used in this title except in sections 112, 878, 970, 1116, and 1201, includes any government, faction, or body of insurgents within a country with which the United States is at peace, irrespective of recognition by the United States. See
  • foreign instrumentality: means any agency, bureau, ministry, component, institution, association, or any legal, commercial, or business organization, corporation, firm, or entity that is substantially owned, controlled, sponsored, commanded, managed, or dominated by a foreign government. See 18 USC 1839
  • foreign state: includes outlying possessions of a foreign state, but self-governing dominions or territories under mandate or trusteeship shall be regarded as separate foreign states. See 8 USC 1101
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • fuel conversion price: means the price for an agricultural commodity determined by the Secretary of Agriculture that will permit gasoline-alcohol mixtures using alcohol produced from the commodity to be competitive in price with unleaded gasoline priced at the point it leaves the refinery, adjusted for differences in octane rating, taking into consideration the energy value of the commodity and other appropriate values designed to represent, on a national average basis, the value of byproducts also recoverable from the commodity. See 7 USC 4005
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • handler: means any person who handles honey. See 7 USC 4602
  • honey: means the nectar and saccharine exudations of plants which are gathered, modified, and stored in the comb by honey bees. See 7 USC 4602
  • Honey Board: means the board provided for under section 4606(c) of this title. See 7 USC 4602
  • honey production: means all beekeeping operations related to--

    (A) managing honey bee colonies to produce honey. See 7 USC 4602

  • honey products: means products produced, in whole or part, from honey. See 7 USC 4602
  • immigration officer: means any employee or class of employees of the Service or of the United States designated by the Attorney General, individually or by regulation, to perform the functions of an immigration officer specified by this chapter or any section of this title. See 8 USC 1101
  • imported dairy product: means any dairy product that is imported into the United States, including dairy products imported into the United States in the form of--

    (1) milk, cream, and fresh and dried dairy products. See 7 USC 4502

  • importer: means any person who imports cut flowers, potted flowering plants, or foliage plants from outside of the United States or who acts as an agent, broker, or consignee of any person or nation that produces flowers and plants outside of the United States for sale in the United States. See 7 USC 4302
  • importer: means any person who imports honey or honey products into the United States or acts as an agent, broker, or consignee for any person or nation that produces honey outside of the United States for sale in the United States and who is listed in the import records as the importer of record for such honey or honey products. See 7 USC 4602
  • importer: means a person that imports an imported dairy product into the United States. See 7 USC 4502
  • Indian tribe: means any Indian tribe, band, nation, pueblo, or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village or regional corporation as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act [43 U. See 25 USC 3802
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 1 USC 8
  • industry information: means information or a program that will lead to the development of new markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the honey industry, or an activity to enhance the image of honey and honey products and of the honey industry. See 7 USC 4602
  • ineligible to citizenship: when used in reference to any individual, means, notwithstanding the provisions of any treaty relating to military service, an individual who is, or was at any time permanently debarred from becoming a citizen of the United States under section 3(a) of the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, as amended (54 Stat. See 8 USC 1101
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • international carriage: means transportation of perishable foodstuffs if such foodstuffs are loaded in equipment or the equipment containing them is loaded onto a rail or road vehicle, in the territory of any country and such foodstuffs are, or the equipment containing them is, unloaded in the territory of another country that is a contracting party, where such transportation is by--

    (A) rail,

    (B) road,

    (C) any combination of rail and road, or

    (D) any sea crossing of less than one hundred and fifty kilometers, if preceded or followed by one or more land journeys as referred to in clauses (A), (B), and (C) of this paragraph, and the perishable foodstuffs are shipped in the same equipment used for such land journeys without transloading of such foodstuffs. See 7 USC 4402

  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • interstate commerce: as used in this title , includes commerce between one State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia and another State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia. See
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Jurisprudence: The study of law and the structure of the legal system.
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • livestock: means cattle, sheep, swine, horses, mules, or goats--whether live or dead. See 7 USC 182
  • marketing: means the sale or other disposition in commerce of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 7 USC 4302
  • marketing: means the sale or other disposition in commerce of honey or honey products. See 7 USC 4602
  • marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 1 USC 7
  • military construction: as used in this chapter or any other provision of law includes any construction, development, conversion, or extension of any kind carried out with respect to a military installation, whether to satisfy temporary or permanent requirements, or any acquisition of land or construction of a defense access road (as described in section 210 of title 23). See 10 USC 2801
  • military installation: means a base, camp, post, station, yard, center, or other activity under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of a military department or, in the case of an activity in a foreign country, under the operational control of the Secretary of a military department or the Secretary of Defense, without regard to the duration of operational control. See 10 USC 2801
  • milk: means any class of cow's milk. See 7 USC 4502
  • misappropriation: means --

    (A) acquisition of a trade secret of another by a person who knows or has reason to know that the trade secret was acquired by improper means. See 18 USC 1839

  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • national: means a person owing permanent allegiance to a state. See 8 USC 1101
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • national of the United States: means (A) a citizen of the United States, or (B) a person who, though not a citizen of the United States, owes permanent allegiance to the United States. See 8 USC 1101
  • naturalization: means the conferring of nationality of a state upon a person after birth, by any means whatsoever. See 8 USC 1101
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • nongovernmental organization: means an organization that works at the local level to solve development problems in a foreign country in which the organization is located, except that the term does not include an organization that is primarily an agency or instrumentality of the government of the foreign country. See 7 USC 1732
  • nutrition education: means those activities intended to broaden the understanding of sound nutritional principles including the role of milk and dairy products in a balanced diet. See 7 USC 4502
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 1 USC 1
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 1 USC 1
  • Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
  • organization: means a person other than an individual. See 18 USC 18
  • organization: means , but is not limited to, an organization, corporation, company, partnership, association, trust, foundation or fund. See 8 USC 1101
  • Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • passport: means any travel document issued by competent authority showing the bearer's origin, identity, and nationality if any, which is valid for the admission of the bearer into a foreign country. See 8 USC 1101
  • perishable foodstuffs: means quick deep-frozen and frozen food products listed in annex 2 and food products listed in annex 3 to the agreement. See 7 USC 4402
  • permanent: means a relationship of continuing or lasting nature, as distinguished from temporary, but a relationship may be permanent even though it is one that may be dissolved eventually at the instance either of the United States or of the individual, in accordance with law. See 8 USC 1101
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other entity. See 7 USC 4302
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other entity. See 7 USC 4602
  • person: includes any individual or entity capable of holding a legal or beneficial interest in property. See 18 USC 1961
  • person: means an individual or an organization. See 8 USC 1101
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other entity. See 7 USC 4502
  • person: includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. See 7 USC 182
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • potted flowering plants: means those plants that normally produce flowers, primarily produced in pots or similar containers, that are primarily used for interior decoration, whether grown under cover or in field operations. See 7 USC 4302
  • poultry: means chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and other domestic fowl. See 7 USC 182
  • poultry growing arrangement: means any growout contract, marketing agreement, or other arrangement under which a poultry grower raises and cares for live poultry for delivery, in accord with another's instructions, for slaughter. See 7 USC 182
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • private voluntary organization: means a not-for-profit, nongovernmental organization (in the case of a United States organization, an organization that is exempt from Federal income taxes under section 501(c)(3) of title 26) that receives funds from private sources, voluntary contributions of money, staff time, or in-kind support from the public, and that is engaged in or is planning to engage in voluntary, charitable, or development assistance activities (other than religious activities). See 7 USC 1732
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • producer: means any person who produces domestically, for sale in commerce, cut flowers, potted flowering plants, or foliage plants. See 7 USC 4302
  • producer: means any person who produces honey in the United States for sale in commerce. See 7 USC 4602
  • producer: means any person engaged in the production of milk for commercial use. See 7 USC 4502
  • producer-packer: means any person who is both a producer and handler of honey. See 7 USC 4602
  • promotion: means any action, including paid advertising, to advance the image or desirability of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 7 USC 4302
  • promotion: means any action, including paid advertising, pursuant to this chapter, to present a favorable image for honey or honey products to the public with the express intent of improving the competitive position and stimulating sales of honey or honey products. See 7 USC 4602
  • promotion: means actions such as paid advertising, sales promotion, and publicity to advance the image and sales of and demand for dairy products. See 7 USC 4502
  • propagational material: means any plant material used in the propagation of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants, including cuttings, bulbs and corms, seedlings, canes, liners, plants, cells or tissue cultures, air layers and bublets,1 rhizomes, and root stocks. See 7 USC 4302
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • qualified national organization representing handler interests: means an organization that the Secretary certifies as being eligible to recommend nominations for the Committee handler, handler-importer, alternate handler, and alternate handler-importer members of the Honey Board under section 4606(b) of this title. See 7 USC 4602
  • qualified national organization representing importer interests: means an organization that the Secretary certifies as being eligible to recommend nominations for the Committee importer, handler-importer, alternate importer, and alternate handler-importer members of the Honey Board under section 4606(b) of this title. See 7 USC 4602
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • racketeering activity: means (A) any act or threat involving murder, kidnapping, gambling, arson, robbery, bribery, extortion, dealing in obscene matter, or dealing in a controlled substance or listed chemical (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act), which is chargeable under State law and punishable by imprisonment for more than one year. See 18 USC 1961
  • racketeering investigation: means any inquiry conducted by any racketeering investigator for the purpose of ascertaining whether any person has been involved in any violation of this chapter or of any final order, judgment, or decree of any court of the United States, duly entered in any case or proceeding arising under this chapter. See 18 USC 1961
  • racketeering investigator: means any attorney or investigator so designated by the Attorney General and charged with the duty of enforcing or carrying into effect this chapter. See 18 USC 1961
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • representative: includes an officer, official, or spokesman of an organization, and any person who directs, counsels, commands, or induces an organization or its members to engage in terrorist activity. See 8 USC 1182
  • research: means any type of research to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 7 USC 4302
  • research: means any type of research designed to advance the image, desirability, usage, marketability, production, or quality of honey or honey products. See 7 USC 4602
  • research: means studies testing the effectiveness of market development and promotion efforts, studies relating to the nutritional value of milk and dairy products, and other related efforts to expand demand for milk and dairy products. See 7 USC 4502
  • residence: means the place of general abode. See 8 USC 1101
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • riot: means a public disturbance involving (1) an act or acts of violence by one or more persons part of an assemblage of three or more persons, which act or acts shall constitute a clear and present danger of, or shall result in, damage or injury to the property of any other person or to the person of any other individual or (2) a threat or threats of the commission of an act or acts of violence by one or more persons part of an assemblage of three or more persons having, individually or collectively, the ability of immediate execution of such threat or threats, where the performance of the threatened act or acts of violence would constitute a clear and present danger of, or would result in, damage or injury to the property of any other person or to the person of any other individual. See 18 USC 2102
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture, unless otherwise specified in this chapter. See 7 USC 1732
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 4201
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 4302
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior. See 25 USC 3802
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 4602
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 4502
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 182
  • Secretary concerned: includes the Secretary of Defense with respect to matters concerning the Defense Agencies. See 10 USC 2801
  • Service: means the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Justice. See 8 USC 1101
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • State: means any of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or any territory or possession of the United States. See 7 USC 4201
  • State: includes the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 8 USC 1101
  • State: means any of the several States, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 7 USC 4602
  • State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, any political subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof. See 18 USC 1961
  • State association: means that organization of beekeepers in a State which is generally recognized as representing the beekeepers of that State. See 7 USC 4602
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • stockyard: means any place, establishment, or facility commonly known as stockyards, conducted, operated, or managed for profit or nonprofit as a public market for livestock producers, feeders, market agencies, and buyers, consisting of pens, or other inclosures, and their appurtenances, in which live cattle, sheep, swine, horses, mules, or goats are received, held, or kept for sale or shipment in commerce. See 7 USC 202
  • subgroup of students: means --

    (A) economically disadvantaged students. See 20 USC 6311

  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • substantial: means , for purposes of paragraph (15)(E) with reference to trade or capital, such an amount of trade or capital as is established by the Secretary of State, after consultation with appropriate agencies of Government. See 8 USC 1101
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • trade secret: means all forms and types of financial, business, scientific, technical, economic, or engineering information, including patterns, plans, compilations, program devices, formulas, designs, prototypes, methods, techniques, processes, procedures, programs, or codes, whether tangible or intangible, and whether or how stored, compiled, or memorialized physically, electronically, graphically, photographically, or in writing if--

    (A) the owner thereof has taken reasonable measures to keep such information secret. See 18 USC 1839

  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • unit of local government: means the government of a county, municipality, town, township, village, or other unit of general government below the State level, or a combination of units of local government acting through an areawide agency under State law or an agreement for the formulation of regional development policies and plans. See 7 USC 4201
  • United States: means the fifty States of the United States of America, the territories and possessions of the United States of America, and the District of Columbia. See 7 USC 4302
  • United States: means the fifty States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States. See 7 USC 4402
  • United States: except as otherwise specifically herein provided, when used in a geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 8 USC 1101
  • United States: when used in a geographical sense, means all of the States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 7 USC 4502
  • United States: as used in this title in a territorial sense, includes all places and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, except the Canal Zone. See 18 USC 5
  • unlawful debt: means a debt (A) incurred or contracted in gambling activity which was in violation of the law of the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or which is unenforceable under State or Federal law in whole or in part as to principal or interest because of the laws relating to usury, and (B) which was incurred in connection with the business of gambling in violation of the law of the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or the business of lending money or a thing of value at a rate usurious under State or Federal law, where the usurious rate is at least twice the enforceable rate. See 18 USC 1961
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
  • Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 1 USC 4
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 1 USC 3
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • Victim advocate: work with prosecutors and assist the victims of a crime.
  • whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 1 USC 1
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 1 USC 1