§ 1691 United States policy
§ 1691a Food aid to developing countries
Subchapter II Economic Assistance and Food Security
Subchapter III Emergency and Private Assistance Programs
Subchapter III–A Food for Development
Subchapter III–B Emergency Food Assistance
Subchapter IV General Authorities and Requirements
Subchapter V Farmer-to-Farmer Program
Subchapter VI Enterprise for the Americas Initiative

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 7 > Chapter 41

  • accredited: when applied to any program of nurse education means a program accredited by a recognized body or bodies, or by a State agency, approved for such purpose by the Secretary of Education and when applied to a hospital, school, college, or university (or a unit thereof) means a hospital, school, college, or university (or a unit thereof) which is accredited by a recognized body or bodies, or by a State agency, approved for such purpose by the Secretary of Education. See 42 USC 296
  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Administrator: means the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, unless otherwise specified in this chapter. See 10 USC 2801
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • agency: includes any department, independent establishment, commission, administration, authority, board or bureau of the United States or any corporation in which the United States has a proprietary interest, unless the context shows that such term was intended to be used in a more limited sense. See 40 USC 3707
  • agreement: means the Agreement on the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs and on the Special Equipment to be Used for Such Carriage, and the annexes and the appendices thereto, done at Geneva, September 1, 1970, under the auspices of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations. See 10 USC 2834
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • appropriate committee of Congress: means --

    (A) the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate. See 10 USC 2801

  • appropriate committees of Congress: means the congressional defense committees and, with respect to any project to be carried out by, or for the use of, an intelligence component of the Department of Defense, the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate. See 10 USC 2801
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 19 USC 2295
  • Attorney General: includes the Attorney General of the United States, the Deputy Attorney General of the United States, the Associate Attorney General of the United States, any Assistant Attorney General of the United States, or any employee of the Department of Justice or any employee of any department or agency of the United States so designated by the Attorney General to carry out the powers conferred on the Attorney General by this chapter. See 42 USC 299b–6
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Balanced budget: A budget in which receipts equal outlays.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: means the National Dairy Promotion and Research Board established under section 4504 of this title. See 20 USC 1070b–4
  • Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
  • Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
  • Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • Civil forfeiture: The loss of ownership of property used to conduct illegal activity.
  • commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 10 USC 836
  • Committee: means the National Honey Nominations Committee provided for under section 4606(b) of this title. See 10 USC 2854a
  • commodity group: means that portion of the flower and plant industry devoted to the production and importation of any one of the following: (A) cut flowers. See 10 USC 2807
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • consumer education: means any action to provide information on the care and handling of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 10 USC 2807
  • consumer education: means any action to provide information on the usage and care of honey or honey products. See 10 USC 2854a
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • cooperative: means a private sector organization whose members own and control the organization and share in its services and its profits and that provides business services and outreach in cooperative development for its membership. See 10 USC 2801
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • cost of plant material: means the actual price paid by a producer for any propagational material or any other flowers and plants used in the production of flowers and plants. See 10 USC 2807
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 19 USC 2292
  • Court reporter: A person who makes a word-for-word record of what is said in court and produces a transcript of the proceedings upon request.
  • Cross examine: Questioning of a witness by the attorney for the other side.
  • cut flowers: means all flowers and decorative foliage used as fresh-cut flowers, fresh-cut decorative foliage, dried, preserved, and processed flowers, or dried and preserved decorative foliage, produced either under cover or in field operations. See 10 USC 2807
  • dairy products: means products manufactured for human consumption which are derived from the processing of milk, and includes fluid milk products. See 20 USC 1070b–4
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • department: means one of the executive departments enumerated in section 1 of Title 5, unless the context shows that such term was intended to describe the executive, legislative, or judicial branches of the government. See 40 USC 3707
  • Department: means the Department of Agriculture. See 10 USC 2854a
  • Department: means the Department of Agriculture. See 20 USC 1070b–4
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • developing country: means a country that has a shortage of foreign exchange earnings and has difficulty meeting all of its food needs through commercial channels. See 10 USC 2801
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • documentary material: includes any book, paper, document, record, recording, or other material. See 42 USC 299b–6
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • eligible entities: means schools of nursing, nursing centers, academic health centers, State or local governments, and other public or private nonprofit entities determined appropriate by the Secretary that submit to the Secretary an application in accordance with section 296a of this title. See 42 USC 296
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • enterprise: includes any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity, and any union or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity. See 42 USC 299b–6
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • equipment: means the special transport equipment that complies with the definitions and standards set forth in annex 1 to the agreement, including, but not limited to, railway cars, trucks, trailers, semitrailers, and intermodal freight containers that are insulated only, or insulated and equipped with a refrigerating, mechanically refrigerating, or heating appliance. See 10 USC 2834
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • facility: means a building, structure, or other improvement to real property. See 10 USC 2801
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • farmland: includes all land defined as follows:

    (A) prime farmland is land that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, feed, fiber, forage, oilseed, and other agricultural crops with minimum inputs of fuel, fertilizer, pesticides, and labor, and without intolerable soil erosion, as determined by the Secretary. See 10 USC 2541a

  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal health care offense: means a violation of, or a criminal conspiracy to violate--

    (1) section 669, 1035, 1347, or 1518 of this title or section 1128B of the Social Security Act (42 U. See 40 USC 6302

  • Federal program: means those activities or responsibilities of a department, agency, independent commission, or other unit of the Federal Government that involve (A) undertaking, financing, or assisting construction or improvement projects. See 10 USC 2541a
  • Federal prosecutor: A lawyer appointed by the President in each judicial district to prosecute and defend cases for the federal government.
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • financial institution: means --

    (1) an insured depository institution (as defined in section 3(c)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act). See

  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Floraboard: means the board provided for under section 4306 of this title. See 10 USC 2807
  • flowers and plants: means cut flowers, potted flowering plants, foliage plants, and propagational material. See 10 USC 2807
  • fluid milk products: means those milk products normally consumed in liquid form as a beverage. See 20 USC 1070b–4
  • foliage plants: means those plants, normally without flowers, primarily produced in pots or similar containers, that are primarily used for interior decorations, whether grown under cover or in field operations. See 10 USC 2807
  • food security: means access by all people at all times to sufficient food and nutrition for a healthy and productive life. See 10 USC 2801
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • foreign commerce: as used in this title , includes commerce with a foreign country. See 40 USC 5103
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
  • fuel conversion price: means the price for an agricultural commodity determined by the Secretary of Agriculture that will permit gasoline-alcohol mixtures using alcohol produced from the commodity to be competitive in price with unleaded gasoline priced at the point it leaves the refinery, adjusted for differences in octane rating, taking into consideration the energy value of the commodity and other appropriate values designed to represent, on a national average basis, the value of byproducts also recoverable from the commodity. See 10 USC 2541
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • handler: means any person who handles honey. See 10 USC 2854a
  • health care facility: means an Indian Health Service health center, a Native Hawaiian health center, a hospital, a Federally qualified health center, a rural health clinic, a nursing home, a home health agency, a hospice program, a public health clinic, a State or local department of public health, a skilled nursing facility, an ambulatory surgical center, or any other facility designated by the Secretary. See 42 USC 296
  • honey: means the nectar and saccharine exudations of plants which are gathered, modified, and stored in the comb by honey bees. See 10 USC 2854a
  • Honey Board: means the board provided for under section 4606(c) of this title. See 10 USC 2854a
  • honey production: means all beekeeping operations related to--

    (A) managing honey bee colonies to produce honey. See 10 USC 2854a

  • honey products: means products produced, in whole or part, from honey. See 10 USC 2854a
  • importer: means any person who imports cut flowers, potted flowering plants, or foliage plants from outside of the United States or who acts as an agent, broker, or consignee of any person or nation that produces flowers and plants outside of the United States for sale in the United States. See 10 USC 2807
  • importer: means any person who imports honey or honey products into the United States or acts as an agent, broker, or consignee for any person or nation that produces honey outside of the United States for sale in the United States and who is listed in the import records as the importer of record for such honey or honey products. See 10 USC 2854a
  • importer: means a person that imports an imported dairy product into the United States. See 20 USC 1070b–4
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 19 USC 2297
  • industry information: means information or a program that will lead to the development of new markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the honey industry, or an activity to enhance the image of honey and honey products and of the honey industry. See 10 USC 2854a
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • international carriage: means transportation of perishable foodstuffs if such foodstuffs are loaded in equipment or the equipment containing them is loaded onto a rail or road vehicle, in the territory of any country and such foodstuffs are, or the equipment containing them is, unloaded in the territory of another country that is a contracting party, where such transportation is by--

    (A) rail,

    (B) road,

    (C) any combination of rail and road, or

    (D) any sea crossing of less than one hundred and fifty kilometers, if preceded or followed by one or more land journeys as referred to in clauses (A), (B), and (C) of this paragraph, and the perishable foodstuffs are shipped in the same equipment used for such land journeys without transloading of such foodstuffs. See 10 USC 2834

  • interstate commerce: as used in this title , includes commerce between one State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia and another State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia. See 40 USC 5103
  • Irrevocable trust: A trust arrangement that cannot be revoked, rescinded, or repealed by the grantor.
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • live poultry dealer: means any person engaged in the business of obtaining live poultry by purchase or under a poultry growing arrangement for the purpose of either slaughtering it or selling it for slaughter by another, if poultry is obtained by such person in commerce, or if poultry obtained by such person is sold or shipped in commerce, or if poultry products from poultry obtained by such person are sold or shipped in commerce. See 10 USC 836
  • livestock: means cattle, sheep, swine, horses, mules, or goats--whether live or dead. See 10 USC 836
  • marketing: means the sale or other disposition in commerce of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 10 USC 2807
  • marketing: means the sale or other disposition in commerce of honey or honey products. See 10 USC 2854a
  • marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 19 USC 2296
  • military construction: as used in this chapter or any other provision of law includes any construction, development, conversion, or extension of any kind carried out with respect to a military installation, whether to satisfy temporary or permanent requirements, or any acquisition of land or construction of a defense access road (as described in section 210 of title 23). See 10 USC 2801
  • military installation: means a base, camp, post, station, yard, center, or other activity under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of a military department or, in the case of an activity in a foreign country, under the operational control of the Secretary of a military department or the Secretary of Defense, without regard to the duration of operational control. See 10 USC 2801
  • milk: means any class of cow's milk. See 20 USC 1070b–4
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • national honey marketing cooperative: means a cooperative that markets its products in at least 2 of the following 4 regions of the United States, as determined by the Secretary:

    (A) The Atlantic Coast, including the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 10 USC 2854a

  • national-defense material: include arms, armament, ammunition, livestock, forage, forest products and standing timber, stores of clothing, air, water, food, foodstuffs, fuel, supplies, munitions, and all other articles of whatever description and any part or ingredient thereof, intended for, adapted to, or suitable for the use of the United States in connection with the national defense or for use in or in connection with the producing, manufacturing, repairing, storing, mining, extracting, distributing, loading, unloading, or transporting of any of the materials or other articles hereinbefore mentioned or any part or ingredient thereof. See 42 USC 300b–11
  • national-defense premises: include all buildings, grounds, mines, or other places wherein such national-defense material is being produced, manufactured, repaired, stored, mined, extracted, distributed, loaded, unloaded, or transported, together with all machinery and appliances therein contained. See 42 USC 300b–11
  • national-defense utilities: include all railroads, railways, electric lines, roads of whatever description, railroad or railway fixture, canal, lock, dam, wharf, pier, dock, bridge, building, structure, engine, machine, mechanical contrivance, car, vehicle, boat, aircraft, airfields, air lanes, and fixtures or appurtenances thereof, or any other means of transportation whatsoever, whereon or whereby such national-defense material, or any troops of the United States, are being or may be transported either within the limits of the United States or upon the high seas or elsewhere. See 42 USC 300b–11
  • nongovernmental organization: means an organization that works at the local level to solve development problems in a foreign country in which the organization is located, except that the term does not include an organization that is primarily an agency or instrumentality of the government of the foreign country. See 10 USC 2801
  • nutrition education: means those activities intended to broaden the understanding of sound nutritional principles including the role of milk and dairy products in a balanced diet. See 20 USC 1070b–4
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 19 USC 2291
  • official detention: means --

    (A) detention by a Federal officer or employee, or under the direction of a Federal officer or employee, following arrest for an offense. See 42 USC 300d–31

  • organization: means a person other than an individual. See
  • Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • packer: means any person engaged in the business (a) of buying livestock in commerce for purposes of slaughter, or (b) of manufacturing or preparing meats or meat food products for sale or shipment in commerce, or (c) of marketing meats, meat food products, or livestock products in an unmanufactured form acting as a wholesale broker, dealer, or distributor in commerce. See 10 USC 839
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • perishable foodstuffs: means quick deep-frozen and frozen food products listed in annex 2 and food products listed in annex 3 to the agreement. See 10 USC 2834
  • Permanent appropriation: Budget authority that becomes available as the result of previously enacted legislation (substantive legislation or prior appropriations act) and does not require current action by the legislature. Budget authority is considered to be "current" if provided in the current session of the legislature and "permanent" if provided in prior sessions.
  • person: includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. See 10 USC 836
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other entity. See 10 USC 2807
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other entity. See 10 USC 2854a
  • person: includes any individual or entity capable of holding a legal or beneficial interest in property. See 42 USC 299b–6
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other entity. See 20 USC 1070b–4
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • possession: includes , among other possessions, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. See 42 USC 201
  • Postal Service: means the United States Postal Service established under title 39, and every officer and employee of that Service, whether or not such officer or employee has taken the oath of office. See 40 USC 5105
  • potted flowering plants: means those plants that normally produce flowers, primarily produced in pots or similar containers, that are primarily used for interior decoration, whether grown under cover or in field operations. See 10 USC 2807
  • poultry: means chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and other domestic fowl. See 10 USC 836
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • prison: means a correctional, detention, or penal facility. See 42 USC 300d–31
  • private voluntary organization: means a not-for-profit, nongovernmental organization (in the case of a United States organization, an organization that is exempt from Federal income taxes under section 501(c)(3) of title 26) that receives funds from private sources, voluntary contributions of money, staff time, or in-kind support from the public, and that is engaged in or is planning to engage in voluntary, charitable, or development assistance activities (other than religious activities). See 10 USC 2801
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • producer: means any person who produces domestically, for sale in commerce, cut flowers, potted flowering plants, or foliage plants. See 10 USC 2807
  • producer: means any person who produces honey in the United States for sale in commerce. See 10 USC 2854a
  • producer: means any person engaged in the production of milk for commercial use. See 20 USC 1070b–4
  • producer-packer: means any person who is both a producer and handler of honey. See 10 USC 2854a
  • promotion: means any action, including paid advertising, to advance the image or desirability of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 10 USC 2807
  • promotion: means any action, including paid advertising, pursuant to this chapter, to present a favorable image for honey or honey products to the public with the express intent of improving the competitive position and stimulating sales of honey or honey products. See 10 USC 2854a
  • promotion: means actions such as paid advertising, sales promotion, and publicity to advance the image and sales of and demand for dairy products. See 20 USC 1070b–4
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • qualified national organization representing handler interests: means an organization that the Secretary certifies as being eligible to recommend nominations for the Committee handler, handler-importer, alternate handler, and alternate handler-importer members of the Honey Board under section 4606(b) of this title. See 10 USC 2854a
  • qualified national organization representing importer interests: means an organization that the Secretary certifies as being eligible to recommend nominations for the Committee importer, handler-importer, alternate importer, and alternate handler-importer members of the Honey Board under section 4606(b) of this title. See 10 USC 2854a
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • racketeering activity: means (A) any act or threat involving murder, kidnapping, gambling, arson, robbery, bribery, extortion, dealing in obscene matter, or dealing in a controlled substance or listed chemical (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act), which is chargeable under State law and punishable by imprisonment for more than one year. See 42 USC 299b–6
  • racketeering investigation: means any inquiry conducted by any racketeering investigator for the purpose of ascertaining whether any person has been involved in any violation of this chapter or of any final order, judgment, or decree of any court of the United States, duly entered in any case or proceeding arising under this chapter. See 42 USC 299b–6
  • racketeering investigator: means any attorney or investigator so designated by the Attorney General and charged with the duty of enforcing or carrying into effect this chapter. See 42 USC 299b–6
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • research: means any type of research to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 10 USC 2807
  • research: means any type of research designed to advance the image, desirability, usage, marketability, production, or quality of honey or honey products. See 10 USC 2854a
  • research: means studies testing the effectiveness of market development and promotion efforts, studies relating to the nutritional value of milk and dairy products, and other related efforts to expand demand for milk and dairy products. See 20 USC 1070b–4
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Revocable trust: A trust agreement that can be canceled, rescinded, revoked, or repealed by the grantor (person who establishes the trust).
  • Revolving credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or open-end credit.) Source: OCC
  • riot: means a public disturbance involving (1) an act or acts of violence by one or more persons part of an assemblage of three or more persons, which act or acts shall constitute a clear and present danger of, or shall result in, damage or injury to the property of any other person or to the person of any other individual or (2) a threat or threats of the commission of an act or acts of violence by one or more persons part of an assemblage of three or more persons having, individually or collectively, the ability of immediate execution of such threat or threats, where the performance of the threatened act or acts of violence would constitute a clear and present danger of, or would result in, damage or injury to the property of any other person or to the person of any other individual. See 42 USC 299c–7
  • school of nursing: means an accredited (as defined in paragraph 6) collegiate, associate degree, or diploma school of nursing in a State where graduates are--

    (A) authorized to sit for the National Council Licensure EXamination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN). See 42 USC 296

  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 10 USC 836
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture, unless otherwise specified in this chapter. See 10 USC 2801
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 10 USC 2541a
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States Department of Agriculture. See 10 USC 2807
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 10 USC 2854a
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 20 USC 1070b–4
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Health and Human Services. See 42 USC 201
  • Secretary concerned: includes the Secretary of Defense with respect to matters concerning the Defense Agencies. See 10 USC 2801
  • serious bodily injury: means bodily injury that involves a substantial risk of death, unconsciousness, extreme physical pain, protracted and obvious disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty. See 42 USC 300d–31
  • Service: means the Public Health Service. See 42 USC 201
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • sexual act: means --

    (A) contact between the penis and the vulva or the penis and the anus, and for purposes of this subparagraph contact involving the penis occurs upon penetration, however slight. See 42 USC 300d–31

  • sexual contact: means the intentional touching, either directly or through the clothing, of the genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttocks of any person with an intent to abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or arouse or gratify the sexual desire of any person. See 42 USC 300d–31
  • special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States: as used in this title , includes:

    (1) The high seas, any other waters within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State, and any vessel belonging in whole or in part to the United States or any citizen thereof, or to any corporation created by or under the laws of the United States, or of any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof, when such vessel is within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State. See 40 USC 3708

  • State: means a State, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 42 USC 296
  • State: means any of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or any territory or possession of the United States. See 10 USC 2541a
  • State: means any of the several States, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 10 USC 2854a
  • State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, any political subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof. See 42 USC 299b–6
  • State: means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, possession, or territory of the United States. See 42 USC 300d–31
  • State: includes , in addition to the several States, only the District of Columbia, Guam, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 42 USC 201
  • State association: means that organization of beekeepers in a State which is generally recognized as representing the beekeepers of that State. See 10 USC 2854a
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • stockyard: means any place, establishment, or facility commonly known as stockyards, conducted, operated, or managed for profit or nonprofit as a public market for livestock producers, feeders, market agencies, and buyers, consisting of pens, or other inclosures, and their appurtenances, in which live cattle, sheep, swine, horses, mules, or goats are received, held, or kept for sale or shipment in commerce. See 10 USC 841
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • swine contractor: means any person engaged in the business of obtaining swine under a swine production contract for the purpose of slaughtering the swine or selling the swine for slaughter, if--

    (A) the swine is obtained by the person in commerce. See 10 USC 836

  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • unit of local government: means the government of a county, municipality, town, township, village, or other unit of general government below the State level, or a combination of units of local government acting through an areawide agency under State law or an agreement for the formulation of regional development policies and plans. See 10 USC 2541a
  • United States: as used in this title in a territorial sense, includes all places and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, except the Canal Zone. See 40 USC 3706
  • United States: means the fifty States of the United States of America, the territories and possessions of the United States of America, and the District of Columbia. See 10 USC 2807
  • United States: means the fifty States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States. See 10 USC 2834
  • United States: when used in a geographical sense, means all of the States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 20 USC 1070b–4
  • unlawful debt: means a debt (A) incurred or contracted in gambling activity which was in violation of the law of the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or which is unenforceable under State or Federal law in whole or in part as to principal or interest because of the laws relating to usury, and (B) which was incurred in connection with the business of gambling in violation of the law of the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or the business of lending money or a thing of value at a rate usurious under State or Federal law, where the usurious rate is at least twice the enforceable rate. See 42 USC 299b–6
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 19 USC 2294
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 19 USC 2293
  • vessel of the United States: as used in this title , means a vessel belonging in whole or in part to the United States, or any citizen thereof, or any corporation created by or under the laws of the United States, or of any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof. See 40 USC 5102
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • war material: include arms, armament, ammunition, livestock, forage, forest products and standing timber, stores of clothing, air, water, food, foodstuffs, fuel, supplies, munitions, and all articles, parts or ingredients, intended for, adapted to, or suitable for the use of the United States or any associate nation, in connection with the conduct of war or defense activities. See 42 USC 300b–11
  • war premises: include all buildings, grounds, mines, or other places wherein such war material is being produced, manufactured, repaired, stored, mined, extracted, distributed, loaded, unloaded, or transported, together with all machinery and appliances therein contained. See 42 USC 300b–11
  • war utilities: include all railroads, railways, electric lines, roads of whatever description, any railroad or railway fixture, canal, lock, dam, wharf, pier, dock, bridge, building, structure, engine, machine, mechanical contrivance, car, vehicle, boat, aircraft, airfields, air lanes, and fixtures or appurtenances thereof, or any other means of transportation whatsoever, whereon or whereby such war material or any troops of the United States, or of any associate nation, are being or may be transported either within the limits of the United States or upon the high seas or elsewhere. See 42 USC 300b–11
  • whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 19 USC 2291
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 19 USC 2291