§ 2011 Congressional declaration of policy
§ 2012 Definitions
§ 2012a Publicly operated community health centers
§ 2013 Establishment of supplemental nutrition assistance program
§ 2014 Eligible households
§ 2014a Notice of change in State of residence of certified household
§ 2015 Eligibility disqualifications
§ 2016 Issuance and use of program benefits
§ 2017 Value of allotment
§ 2018 Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns
§ 2019 Redemption of program benefits
§ 2020 Administration
§ 2021 Civil penalties and disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns
§ 2022 Disposition of claims
§ 2023 Administrative and judicial review; restoration of rights
§ 2024 Violations and enforcement
§ 2025 Administrative cost-sharing and quality control
§ 2026 Research, demonstration, and evaluations
§ 2026a Healthy fluid milk incentives projects
§ 2027 Appropriations and allotments
§ 2028 Consolidated block grants for Puerto Rico and American Samoa
§ 2029 Workfare
§ 2031 Minnesota Family Investment Project
§ 2032 Automated data processing and information retrieval systems
§ 2034 Assistance for community food projects
§ 2035 Simplified supplemental nutrition assistance program
§ 2036 Availability of commodities for emergency food assistance program
§ 2036a Nutrition education and obesity prevention grant program
§ 2036b Retail food store and recipient trafficking
§ 2036c Annual State report on verification of SNAP participation
§ 2036d Pilot projects to encourage the use of public-private partnerships committed to addressing food insecurity

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 7 > Chapter 51

  • Abstract of judgment: In a federal criminal proceeding, A certification from a U.S. District Court clerk that a judgment of restitution was entered against the defendant owing to the victim. If the defendant inherits, owns, or sells real property or holdings, these assets can then be attached at the state and local levels as well.
  • Access device: means any card, plate, code, account number, or other means of access, including point of sale devices, that can be used, alone or in conjunction with another access device, to obtain payments, allotments, benefits, money, goods, or other things of value, or that can be used to initiate a transfer of funds under this chapter. See 7 USC 2012
  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Adjournment sine die: The end of a legislative session "without day." These adjournments are used to indicate the final adjournment of an annual or the two-year session of legislature.
  • advanced workplace practices: means innovations in work organization and performance, including high-performance workplace systems, flexible production techniques, quality programs, continuous improvement, concurrent engineering, close relationships between suppliers and customers, widely diffused decisionmaking and work teams, and effective integration of production technology, worker skills and training, and workplace organization, and such other characteristics as determined appropriate by the Secretary of Labor, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce. See 29 USC 2703
  • advanced workplace technologies: includes --

    (A) numerically controlled machine tools, robots, automated process control equipment, computerized flexible manufacturing systems, associated computer software, and other technology for improving the manufacturing and industrial production of goods and commercial services, which advance the state-of-the-art. See 29 USC 2703

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • affected employees: means employees who may reasonably be expected to experience an employment loss as a consequence of a proposed plant closing or mass layoff by their employer. See 29 USC 2101
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • agency: includes any department, independent establishment, commission, administration, authority, board or bureau of the United States or any corporation in which the United States has a proprietary interest, unless the context shows that such term was intended to be used in a more limited sense. See 18 USC 6
  • agricultural association: means any nonprofit or cooperative association of farmers, growers, or ranchers, incorporated or qualified under applicable State law, which recruits, solicits, hires, employs, furnishes, or transports any migrant or seasonal agricultural worker. See 29 USC 1802
  • agricultural employer: means any person who owns or operates a farm, ranch, processing establishment, cannery, gin, packing shed or nursery, or who produces or conditions seed, and who either recruits, solicits, hires, employs, furnishes, or transports any migrant or seasonal agricultural worker. See 29 USC 1802
  • agricultural employment: means employment in any service or activity included within the provisions of section 3(f) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U. See 29 USC 1802
  • Agriculture: includes farming in all its branches and among other things includes the cultivation and tillage of the soil, dairying, the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of any agricultural or horticultural commodities (including commodities defined as agricultural commodities in section 1141j(g) 2 of title 12), the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals, or poultry, and any practices (including any forestry or lumbering operations) performed by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with such farming operations, including preparation for market, delivery to storage or to market or to carriers for transportation to market. See 29 USC 203
  • Allotment: means the total value of benefits a household is authorized to receive during each month. See 7 USC 2012
  • Allowable medical expenses: means expenditures for (1) medical and dental care, (2) hospitalization or nursing care (including hospitalization or nursing care of an individual who was a household member immediately prior to entering a hospital or nursing home), (3) prescription drugs when prescribed by a licensed practitioner authorized under State law and over-the-counter medication (including insulin) when approved by a licensed practitioner or other qualified health professional, (4) health and hospitalization insurance policies (excluding the costs of health and accident or income maintenance policies), (5) medicare premiums related to coverage under title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U. See 7 USC 2012
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • American vessel: includes any vessel which is documented or numbered under the laws of the United States. See 29 USC 203
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Armed Forces: has the meaning given the term "armed forces" in section 101(a)(4) of title 10. See 18 USC 3267
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 1 USC 5
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bacon-Davis Act: means the Act entitled "An Act to amend the Act approved March 3, 1931, relating to the rate of wages for laborers and mechanics employed by contractors and subcontractors on public buildings" approved August 30, 1935 (49 Stat. See 29 USC 262
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • benefit: means the value of supplemental nutrition assistance provided to a household by means of--

    (1) an electronic benefit transfer under section 2016(h) of this title. See 7 USC 2012

  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Capital offense: A crime punishable by death.
  • certificate: means a certificate of accreditation issued under this chapter. See 7 USC 138
  • Certification period: means the period for which households shall be eligible to receive benefits. See 7 USC 2012
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • Civil forfeiture: The loss of ownership of property used to conduct illegal activity.
  • Commerce: means trade, commerce, transportation, transmission, or communication among the several States or between any State and any place outside thereof. See 29 USC 203
  • commerce: has the meaning provided by section 203(b) of this title. See 29 USC 2001
  • commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 7 USC 92
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 1 USC 2
  • Coupon: means any coupon, stamp, type of certificate, authorization card, cash or check issued in lieu of a coupon. See 7 USC 2012
  • court of the United States: means any court of the United States whose jurisdiction has been or may be conferred or defined or limited by Act of Congress, including the courts of the District of Columbia. See 29 USC 113
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • day-haul operation: means the assembly of workers at a pick-up point waiting to be hired and employed, transportation of such workers to agricultural employment, and the return of such workers to a drop-off point on the same day. See 29 USC 1802
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • department: means one of the executive departments enumerated in section 1 of Title 5, unless the context shows that such term was intended to describe the executive, legislative, or judicial branches of the government. See 18 USC 6
  • Department: means the Department of Labor. See 29 USC 2703
  • Department of Agriculture: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 75
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Destructively distilled wood turpentine: means wood turpentine obtained in the destructive distillation of the wood. See 7 USC 92
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • double criminality: means that at the time of transfer of an offender the offense for which he has been sentenced is still an offense in the transferring country and is also an offense in the receiving country. See 18 USC 4101
  • Drug addiction or alcoholic treatment and rehabilitation program: means any such program conducted by a private nonprofit organization or institution, or a publicly operated community mental health center, under part B of title XIX of the Public Health Service Act (42 U. See 7 USC 2012
  • EBT card: means an electronic benefit transfer card issued under section 2016(h) of this title. See 7 USC 2012
  • Elderly or disabled member: means a member of a household who--

    (1) is sixty years of age or older. See 7 USC 2012

  • Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Employ: includes to suffer or permit to work. See 29 USC 203
  • employee: means any individual employed by an employer. See 29 USC 203
  • Employee in fire protection activities: means an employee, including a firefighter, paramedic, emergency medical technician, rescue worker, ambulance personnel, or hazardous materials worker, who--

    (1) is trained in fire suppression, has the legal authority and responsibility to engage in fire suppression, and is employed by a fire department of a municipality, county, fire district, or State. See 29 USC 203

  • Employer: includes any person acting directly or indirectly in the interest of an employer in relation to an employee and includes a public agency, but does not include any labor organization (other than when acting as an employer) or anyone acting in the capacity of officer or agent of such labor organization. See 29 USC 203
  • employer: includes any person acting directly or indirectly in the interest of an employer in relation to an employee or prospective employee. See 29 USC 2001
  • employer: means any business enterprise that employs--

    (A) 100 or more employees, excluding part-time employees. See 29 USC 2101

  • employment loss: means (A) an employment termination, other than a discharge for cause, voluntary departure, or retirement, (B) a layoff exceeding 6 months, or (C) a reduction in hours of work of more than 50 percent during each month of any 6-month period. See 29 USC 2101
  • Enterprise: means the related activities performed (either through unified operation or common control) by any person or persons for a common business purpose, and includes all such activities whether performed in one or more establishments or by one or more corporate or other organizational units including departments of an establishment operated through leasing arrangements, but shall not include the related activities performed for such enterprise by an independent contractor. See 29 USC 203
  • Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce: means an enterprise that--

    (A)(i) has employees engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, or that has employees handling, selling, or otherwise working on goods or materials that have been moved in or produced for commerce by any person. See 29 USC 203

  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • farm labor contracting activity: means recruiting, soliciting, hiring, employing, furnishing, or transporting any migrant or seasonal agricultural worker. See 29 USC 1802
  • farm labor contractor: means any person, other than an agricultural employer, an agricultural association, or an employee of an agricultural employer or agricultural association, who, for any money or other valuable consideration paid or promised to be paid, performs any farm labor contracting activity. See 29 USC 1802
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal health care offense: means a violation of, or a criminal conspiracy to violate--

    (1) section 669, 1035, 1347, or 1518 of this title or section 1128B of the Social Security Act (42 U. See

  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • financial institution: means --

    (1) an insured depository institution (as defined in section 3(c)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act). See

  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Food: means (1) any food or food product for home consumption except alcoholic beverages, tobacco, hot foods or hot food products ready for immediate consumption other than those authorized pursuant to clauses (3), (4), (5), (7), (8), and (9) of this subsection, and any deposit fee in excess of the amount of the State fee reimbursement (if any) required to purchase any food or food product contained in a returnable bottle or can, regardless of whether the fee is included in the shelf price posted for the food or food product, (2) seeds and plants for use in gardens to produce food for the personal consumption of the eligible household, (3) in the case of those persons who are sixty years of age or over or who receive supplemental security income benefits or disability or blindness payments under title I, II, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act [42 U. See 7 USC 2012
  • food products: means flour (excluding flour second clears not used for human consumption as determined by the Secretary), semolina, farina, bulgur, beverage, and any other product composed wholly or partly of wheat which the Secretary may determine to be a food product. See 7 USC 1379d
  • foreign commerce: as used in this title , includes commerce with a foreign country. See
  • foreign government: as used in this title except in sections 112, 878, 970, 1116, and 1201, includes any government, faction, or body of insurgents within a country with which the United States is at peace, irrespective of recognition by the United States. See
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Goods: means goods (including ships and marine equipment), wares, products, commodities, merchandise, or articles or subjects of commerce of any character, or any part or ingredient thereof, but does not include goods after their delivery into the actual physical possession of the ultimate consumer thereof other than a producer, manufacturer, or processor thereof. See 29 USC 203
  • grain: means corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, flaxseed, sorghum, soybeans, mixed grain, and any other food grains, feed grains, and oilseeds for which standards are established under section 76 of this title. See 7 USC 75
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Gum rosin: means rosin remaining after the distillation of gum spirits of turpentine. See 7 USC 92
  • Gum spirits of turpentine: means spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree. See 7 USC 92
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court.
  • honeybee: means all life stages and the germ plasm of honeybees of the genus Apis, except honeybee semen. See 7 USC 281
  • Household: means --

    (A) an individual who lives alone or who, while living with others, customarily purchases food and prepares meals for home consumption separate and apart from the others. See 7 USC 2012

  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 1 USC 8
  • Industry: means a trade, business, industry, or other activity, or branch or group thereof, in which individuals are gainfully employed. See 29 USC 203
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • interstate commerce: as used in this title , includes commerce between one State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia and another State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia. See
  • interstate or foreign commerce: means commerce from any State to or through any other State, or to or through any foreign country. See 7 USC 75
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Jurisprudence: The study of law and the structure of the legal system.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • labor dispute: includes any controversy concerning terms or conditions of employment, or concerning the association or representation of persons in negotiating, fixing, maintaining, changing, or seeking to arrange terms or conditions of employment, regardless of whether or not the disputants stand in the proximate relation of employer and employee. See 29 USC 113
  • laboratory: means any facility or vehicle that is owned by an individual or a public or private entity and is equipped and operated for the purpose of carrying out pesticide residue analysis on agricultural products for commercial purposes. See 7 USC 138
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • lie detector: includes a polygraph, deceptograph, voice stress analyzer, psychological stress evaluator, or any other similar device (whether mechanical or electrical) that is used, or the results of which are used, for the purpose of rendering a diagnostic opinion regarding the honesty or dishonesty of an individual. See 29 USC 2001
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Magistrate judges: Judicial officers who assist U.S. district judges in getting cases ready for trial, who may decide some criminal and civil trials when both parties agree to have the case heard by a magistrate judge instead of a judge.
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • Markup: The process by which congressional committees and subcommittees debate, amend, and rewrite proposed legislation.
  • marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 1 USC 7
  • mass layoff: means a reduction in force which--

    (A) is not the result of a plant closing. See 29 USC 2101

  • migrant agricultural worker: means an individual who is employed in agricultural employment of a seasonal or other temporary nature, and who is required to be absent overnight from his permanent place of residence. See 29 USC 1802
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mistrial: An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again from the selection of the jury.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Naval stores: means spirits of turpentine and rosin. See 7 USC 92
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • nonprofit organization: means a tax-exempt organization, as described in paragraph (3), (4), or (5) of section 501(c) of title 26. See 29 USC 2703
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 1 USC 1
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • offender: means a person who has been convicted of an offense or who has been adjudged to have committed an act of juvenile delinquency. See 18 USC 4101
  • offense: means any Federal criminal offense which is in violation of any Act of Congress and is triable by any court established by Act of Congress (other than a Class B or C misdemeanor or an infraction, or an offense triable by court-martial, military commission, provost court, or other military tribunal). See 18 USC 3172
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 1 USC 1
  • official inspection: means the determination (by original inspection, and when requested, reinspection and appeal inspection) and the certification, by official inspection personnel of the kind, class, quality, or condition of grain, under standards provided for in this chapter, or the condition of vessels and other carriers or receptacles for the transportation of grain insofar as it may affect the quality or condition of such grain. See 7 USC 75
  • official inspection personnel: means persons licensed or otherwise authorized by the Secretary pursuant to section 84 of this title to perform all or specified functions involved in official inspection, official weighing, or supervision of weighing, or in the supervision of official inspection, official weighing or supervision of weighing. See 7 USC 75
  • officially inspected: shall be construed accordingly). See 7 USC 75
  • Oppressive child labor: means a condition of employment under which (1) any employee under the age of sixteen years is employed by an employer (other than a parent or a person standing in place of a parent employing his own child or a child in his custody under the age of sixteen years in an occupation other than manufacturing or mining or an occupation found by the Secretary of Labor to be particularly hazardous for the employment of children between the ages of sixteen and eighteen years or detrimental to their health or well-being) in any occupation, or (2) any employee between the ages of sixteen and eighteen years is employed by an employer in any occupation which the Secretary of Labor shall find and by order declare to be particularly hazardous for the employment of children between such ages or detrimental to their health or well-being. See 29 USC 203
  • organization: means a person other than an individual. See 18 USC 18
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Package: means any container of naval stores, and includes barrel, tank, tank car, or other receptacle. See 7 USC 92
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: means an individual, partnership, association, corporation, business trust, legal representative, or any organized group of persons. See 29 USC 203
  • person: means any individual, partnership, association, joint stock company, trust, cooperative, or corporation. See 29 USC 1802
  • person: means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other business entity. See 7 USC 75
  • Person: includes partnerships, associations, and corporations, as well as individuals. See 7 USC 92
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • pesticide: means any substance that alone, in chemical combination, or in any formulation with one or more substances, is defined as a pesticide in section 136(u) of this title. See 7 USC 138
  • petty offense: means a Class B misdemeanor, a Class C misdemeanor, or an infraction, for which the maximum fine is no greater than the amount set forth for such an offense in section 3571(b)(6) or (7) in the case of an individual or section 3571(c)(6) or (7) in the case of an organization. See 18 USC 19
  • Petty offense: A federal misdemeanor punishable by six months or less in prison. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • plant closing: means the permanent or temporary shutdown of a single site of employment, or one or more facilities or operating units within a single site of employment, if the shutdown results in an employment loss at the single site of employment during any 30-day period for 50 or more employees excluding any part-time employees. See 29 USC 2101
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Plea agreement: An arrangement between the prosecutor, the defense attorney, and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for special considerations. Source:
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • polygraph: means an instrument that--

    (A) records continuously, visually, permanently, and simultaneously changes in cardiovascular, respiratory, and electrodermal patterns as minimum instrumentation standards. See 29 USC 2001

  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Presentence report: A report prepared by a court's probation officer, after a person has been convicted of an offense, summarizing for the court the background information needed to determine the appropriate sentence. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Pro se: A Latin term meaning "on one's own behalf"; in courts, it refers to persons who present their own cases without lawyers.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • Produced: means produced, manufactured, mined, handled, or in any other manner worked on in any State. See 29 USC 203
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public agency: means the Government of the United States. See 29 USC 203
  • Public defender: Represent defendants who can't afford an attorney in criminal matters.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • representative: means an exclusive representative of employees within the meaning of section 159(a) or 158(f) of this title or section 152 of title 45. See 29 USC 2101
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Reservation: means the geographically defined area or areas over which a tribal organization exercises governmental jurisdiction. See 7 USC 2012
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Retail food store: means --

    (1) an establishment, house-to-house trade route, or online entity that sells food for home preparation and consumption and--

    (A) offers for sale, on a continuous basis, a variety of at least 7 foods in each of the 4 categories of staple foods specified in subsection (q)(1), including perishable foods in at least 3 of the categories. See 7 USC 2012

  • Rosin: includes gum rosin and wood rosin. See 7 USC 92
  • seasonal agricultural worker: means an individual who is employed in agricultural employment of a seasonal or other temporary nature and is not required to be absent overnight from his permanent place of residence--

    (i) when employed on a farm or ranch performing field work related to planting, cultivating, or harvesting operations. See 29 USC 1802

  • Secondary school: means a day or residential school which provides secondary education, as determined under State law. See 29 USC 203
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Labor. See 29 USC 203
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Labor or the Secretary's authorized representative. See 29 USC 1802
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Labor. See 29 USC 2001
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Labor. See 29 USC 2703
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States or delegates of the Secretary. See 7 USC 75
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 138
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 2012
  • sell: includes any sale, exchange, contract to sell, consignment for sale, shipment for sale, or other disposition. See 29 USC 203
  • sentence: means not only the penalty imposed but also the judgment of conviction in a criminal case or a judgment of acquittal in the same proceeding, or the adjudication of delinquency in a juvenile delinquency proceeding or dismissal of allegations of delinquency in the same proceedings. See 18 USC 4101
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Spirits of turpentine: includes gum spirits of turpentine and wood turpentine. See 7 USC 92
  • staple foods: means foods in the following categories:

    (A) Meat, poultry, or fish. See 7 USC 2012

  • State: means any State of the United States or the District of Columbia or any Territory or possession of the United States. See 29 USC 203
  • State: means any State of the United States or the District of Columbia or any Territory or possession of the United States. See 29 USC 262
  • State: means any of the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and Guam. See 29 USC 1802
  • State: means any one of the States (including Puerto Rico) or territories or possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia). See 7 USC 75
  • State: means the fifty States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the reservations of an Indian tribe whose tribal organization meets the requirements of this chapter for participation as a State agency. See 7 USC 2012
  • State agency: means (1) the agency of State government, including the local offices thereof, which has the responsibility for the administration of the federally aided public assistance programs within such State, and in those States where such assistance programs are operated on a decentralized basis, the term shall include the counterpart local agencies administering such programs, and (2) the tribal organization of an Indian tribe determined by the Secretary to be capable of effectively administering a food distribution program under section 2013(b) of this title or a supplemental nutrition assistance program under section 2020(d) of this title. See 7 USC 2012
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Steam distilled wood turpentine: means wood turpentine distilled with steam from the oleoresin within or extracted from the wood. See 7 USC 92
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 1 USC 1
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Supplemental nutrition assistance program: means the program operated pursuant to this chapter. See 7 USC 2012
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Thrifty food plan: means the diet required to feed a family of four persons consisting of a man and a woman twenty through fifty, a child six through eight, and a child nine through eleven years of age, determined in accordance with the Secretary's calculations. See 7 USC 2012
  • Tipped employee: means any employee engaged in an occupation in which he customarily and regularly receives more than $30 a month in tips. See 29 USC 203
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • transfer: means a transfer of an individual for the purpose of the execution in one country of a sentence imposed by the courts of another country. See 18 USC 4101
  • treaty: means a treaty under which an offender sentenced in the courts of one country may be transferred to the country of which he is a citizen or national for the purpose of serving the sentence. See 18 USC 4101
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Tribal organization: means the recognized governing body of an Indian tribe (including the tribally recognized intertribal organization of such tribes), as the term "Indian tribe" is defined in section 5304 of title 25, as well as any Indian tribe, band, or community holding a treaty with a State government. See 7 USC 2012
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • unit of local government: means any general purpose political subdivision of a State which has the power to levy taxes and spend funds, as well as general corporate and police powers. See 29 USC 2101
  • United States: means the States (including Puerto Rico) and the territories and possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia). See 7 USC 75
  • United States: as used in this title in a territorial sense, includes all places and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, except the Canal Zone. See 18 USC 5
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 1 USC 4
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 1 USC 3
  • Victim Impact Statement: A written or spoken statement by the victim or his or her representative about the physical, emotional, and financial impact of a crime on the victim. The statement is given to the court before sentencing.
  • whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 1 USC 1
  • Wood rosin: means rosin remaining after the distillation of steam distilled wood turpentine. See 7 USC 92
  • Wood turpentine: includes steam distilled wood turpentine and destructively distilled wood turpentine. See 7 USC 92
  • worker organization: means a labor organization within the meaning of section 501(c)(5) of title 26. See 29 USC 2703
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 1 USC 1