§ 2901 Congressional findings and declaration of policy
§ 2902 Definitions
§ 2903 Issuance of orders
§ 2904 Required terms in orders
§ 2905 Certification of organizations to nominate
§ 2906 Requirement of referendum
§ 2907 Refunds
§ 2908 Enforcement
§ 2909 Investigations by Secretary; oaths and affirmations; subpenas; judicial enforcement; contempt proceedings; service of process
§ 2910 Preemption of other Federal and State programs; applicability of provisions to amendments to orders
§ 2911 Authorization of appropriations

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 7 > Chapter 62

  • advertisement: means all representations, other than those on the label, disseminated in any manner or by any means, relating to seed within the scope of this chapter. See 10 USC 2264
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • advocates: includes , but is not limited to, advises, recommends, furthers by overt act, and admits belief in. See 26 USC 110
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Agricultural seeds: shall mean grass, forage, and field crop seeds which the Secretary of Agriculture finds are used for seeding purposes in the United States and which he lists in the rules and regulations prescribed under section 1592 of this title. See 10 USC 2264
  • alcohol: means alcohol (including methanol and ethanol) which is produced from biomass and which is suitable for use by itself or in combination with other substances as a fuel or as a substitute for petroleum or petrochemical feedstocks. See 46 USC 51705
  • alien: means any person not a citizen or national of the United States. See 26 USC 110
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 19 USC 2295
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See 26 USC 110
  • Attorney-at-law: A person who is legally qualified and licensed to practice law, and to represent and act for clients in legal proceedings.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • biomass: means any organic matter which is available on a renewable basis, including agricultural crops and agricultural wastes and residues, wood and wood wastes and residues, animal wastes, municipal wastes, and aquatic plants. See 46 USC 51705
  • biomass energy: means --

    (A) biomass fuel. See 46 USC 51705

  • Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
  • Chairman: means the Chairman of the National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Policies. See 26 USC 4218
  • child: means an unmarried person under twenty-one years of age who is--

    (A) a child born in wedlock. See 26 USC 110

  • Commission: means the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States, established pursuant to Reorganization Plan Numbered 1 of 1954 (68 Stat. See 46 USC 51702
  • Commission: means the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States, established, pursuant to Reorganization Plan Number 1 of 1954 (68 Stat. See 46 USC 53106
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • construction: means any activities conducted at sea to supervise, inspect, actually build, or perform other functions incidental to the building, repairing, or expanding of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship or any of its components, including but not limited to, piledriving, emplacement of mooring devices, emplacement of cables and pipelines, and deployment of the cold water pipe, and alterations, modifications, or additions to an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship. See 46 USC 53111
  • construction contract: includes , for a taxpayer constructing a new vessel in a shipyard owned by that taxpayer, an agreement between the taxpayer and the Secretary of Transportation for that construction containing provisions the Secretary considers advisable to carry out this chapter. See 46 USC 53301
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • conviction: means , with respect to an alien, a formal judgment of guilt of the alien entered by a court or, if adjudication of guilt has been withheld, where--

    (i) a judge or jury has found the alien guilty or the alien has entered a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or has admitted sufficient facts to warrant a finding of guilt, and

    (ii) the judge has ordered some form of punishment, penalty, or restraint on the alien's liberty to be imposed. See 26 USC 110

  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 19 USC 2292
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Department of State. See 46 USC 42105
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • energy product equivalent: means an energy carrier including, but not limited to, ammonia, hydrogen, or molten salts or an energy-intensive commodity, including, but not limited to, electrometals, fresh water, or nutrients for aquaculture. See 46 USC 53107
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • false advertisement: means any advertisement which is false or misleading in any particular. See 10 USC 2264
  • false labeling: means any labeling which is false or misleading in any particular. See 10 USC 2264
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • financial assistance: means any of the following forms of financial assistance provided under this chapter, or any combination of such forms:

    (i) loans,

    (ii) loan guarantees,

    (iii) price guarantees, and

    (iv) purchase agreements. See 46 USC 51705

  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • foreign commerce: means commerce between the United States, its possessions, or any Territory of the United States, and any foreign country. See 10 USC 2264
  • foreign state: includes outlying possessions of a foreign state, but self-governing dominions or territories under mandate or trusteeship shall be regarded as separate foreign states. See 26 USC 110
  • German Democratic Republic: includes the government of any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or under its control. See 46 USC 53516
  • germination: means the percentage of seeds capable of producing normal seedlings under ordinarily favorable conditions (not including seeds which produce weak, malformed, or obviously abnormal sprouts), determined by methods prescribed under section 1593 of this title. See 10 USC 2264
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • high seas: means that part of the oceans lying seaward of the territorial sea of the United States and outside the territorial sea, as recognized by the United States, of any other nation. See 46 USC 53111
  • immigrant: means every alien except an alien who is within one of the following classes of nonimmigrant aliens--

    (A)(i) an ambassador, public minister, or career diplomatic or consular officer who has been accredited by a foreign government, recognized de jure by the United States and who is accepted by the President or by the Secretary of State, and the members of the alien's immediate family. See 26 USC 110

  • immigrant visa: means an immigrant visa required by this chapter and properly issued by a consular officer at his office outside of the United States to an eligible immigrant under the provisions of this chapter. See 26 USC 110
  • immigration officer: means any employee or class of employees of the Service or of the United States designated by the Attorney General, individually or by regulation, to perform the functions of an immigration officer specified by this chapter or any section of this title. See 26 USC 110
  • in bulk: refers to seed when loose either in vehicles of transportation or in storage, and not to seed in bags or other containers. See 10 USC 2264
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 19 USC 2297
  • inert matter: means all matter not seeds, and includes among others broken seeds, sterile florets, chaff, fungus bodies, and stones, determined by methods prescribed under section 1593 of this title. See 10 USC 2264
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • interstate commerce: means --

    (A) commerce between any State, Territory, possession, or the District of Columbia, and any other State, Territory, possession, or the District of Columbia. See 10 USC 2264

  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • kind: means one or more related species or subspecies which singly or collectively is known by one common name, for example, soybean, flax, carrot, radish, cabbage, cauliflower, and so forth. See 10 USC 2264
  • label: means the display or displays of written, printed, or graphic matter upon or attached to the container of seed. See 10 USC 2264
  • labeling: includes all labels, and other written, printed, and graphic representations, in any form whatsoever, accompanying and pertaining to any seed whether in bulk or in containers, and includes invoices. See 10 USC 2264
  • lawfully admitted for permanent residence: means the status of having been lawfully accorded the privilege of residing permanently in the United States as an immigrant in accordance with the immigration laws, such status not having changed. See 26 USC 110
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litvinov Assignment: means (A) the communication dated November 16, 1933, from Maxim Litvinov to President Franklin D. See 46 USC 51702
  • Memorandum of Understanding: means the Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and Italy regarding Italian assets in the United States and certain claims of nationals of the United States, signed at Washington, District of Columbia, August 14, 1947 (61 Stat. See 46 USC 51702
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • mother: include in the case of a posthumous child a deceased parent, father, and mother. See 26 USC 110
  • national: means a person owing permanent allegiance to a state. See 26 USC 110
  • National of the United States: means (A) a natural person who is a citizen of the United States, or who owes permanent allegiance to the United States, and (B) a corporation or other legal entity which is organized under the laws of the United States, any State or Territory thereof, or the District of Columbia, if natural persons who are nationals of the United States own, directly or indirectly, more than 50 per centum of the outstanding capital stock or other beneficial interest in such legal entity. See 46 USC 51702
  • National of the United States: means (A) a natural person who is a citizen of the United States, or who owes permanent allegiance to the United States, and (B) a corporation or other legal entity which is organized under the laws of the United States, any State or Territory thereof, or the District of Columbia, if natural persons who are nationals of the United States own, directly or indirectly, more than 50 per centum of the outstanding capital stock or other beneficial interest in such legal entity. See 46 USC 53106
  • naturalization: means the conferring of nationality of a state upon a person after birth, by any means whatsoever. See 26 USC 110
  • new vessel: means --

    (A) a vessel--

    (i) constructed in the United States after December 31, 1939, constructed with a construction-differential subsidy under title V of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, or constructed with financing or a financing guarantee under chapter 537 or 575 of this title. See 46 USC 53301

  • noxious-weed seeds: means the seeds or bulblets of plants recognized as noxious--

    (i) by the law or rules and regulations of the State into which the seed is offered for transportation, or transported. See 10 USC 2264

  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 19 USC 2291
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • ocean thermal energy conversion: means a method of converting part of the heat from the Sun which is stored in the surface layers of a body of water into electrical energy or energy product equivalent. See 46 USC 53107
  • Office of Alcohol Fuels: means the Office of Alcohol Fuels established under section 8820 of this title. See 46 USC 51705
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 19 USC 2291
  • organization: means , but is not limited to, an organization, corporation, company, partnership, association, trust, foundation or fund. See 26 USC 110
  • origin: means the State, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, or possession of the United States, or the foreign country, or designated portion thereof, where the seed was grown. See 10 USC 2264
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • permanent: means a relationship of continuing or lasting nature, as distinguished from temporary, but a relationship may be permanent even though it is one that may be dissolved eventually at the instance either of the United States or of the individual, in accordance with law. See 26 USC 110
  • person: includes a partnership, corporation, company, society, or association. See 10 USC 2264
  • person: means an individual or an organization. See 26 USC 110
  • Person: means a natural person, partnership, association, other unincorporated body, corporation, or body politic. See 46 USC 51319
  • Person: means a natural person, partnership, association, other unincorporated body, corporation, or body politic. See 46 USC 51702
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Property: means any property, right, or interest. See 46 USC 51319
  • Property: means any property, right, or interest. See 46 USC 51702
  • Property: means any property, right, or interest. See 46 USC 53106
  • property: means any property, right, or interest, including any leasehold interest, and debts owed by enterprises which have been nationalized, expropriated, or taken by the German Democratic Republic for which no restoration or no adequate compensation has been made to the former owners of such property. See 46 USC 53516
  • Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • residence: means the place of general abode. See 26 USC 110
  • Russian national: includes any corporation or business association organized under the laws, decrees, ordinances, or acts of the former Empire of Russia or of any government successor thereto, and subsequently nationalized or dissolved or whose assets were taken over by the Soviet Government or which was merged with any other corporation or organization by the Soviet Government. See 46 USC 51702
  • screenings: shall include chaff, sterile florets, immature seed, weed seed, inert matter, and any other materials removed in any way from any seeds in any kind of cleaning or processing and which contain less than 25 per centum of live agricultural or vegetable seeds. See 10 USC 2264
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of State. See 46 USC 42105
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Energy. See 46 USC 53107
  • Service: means the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Justice. See 26 USC 110
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Soviet Government: means the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, including any of its present or former constituent republics, other political subdivisions, and any territories thereof, as constituted on or prior to November 16, 1933. See 46 USC 51702
  • State: includes the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 26 USC 110
  • State: means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, and any other Commonwealth, territory, or possession over which the United States has jurisdiction. See 46 USC 53111
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • totalitarian party: means an organization which advocates the establishment in the United States of a totalitarian dictatorship or totalitarianism. See 26 USC 110
  • treated: means given an application of a substance or subjected to a process designed to reduce, control, or repel disease organisms, insects or other pests which attack seeds or seedlings growing therefrom. See 10 USC 2264
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • type: means either (A) a group of varieties so nearly similar that the individual varieties cannot be clearly differentiated except under special conditions, or (B) when used with a variety name means seed of the variety named which may be mixed with seed of other varieties of the same kind and of similar character, the manner of and the circumstances connected with the use of the designation to be governed by rules and regulations prescribed under section 1592 of this title. See 10 USC 2264
  • United States: means the several States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. See 10 USC 2264
  • United States: except as otherwise specifically herein provided, when used in a geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 26 USC 110
  • unmarried: when used in reference to any individual as of any time, means an individual who at such time is not married, whether or not previously married. See 26 USC 110
  • variety: means a subdivision of a kind which is characterized by growth, plant, fruit, seed, or other characters by which it can be differentiated from other sorts of the same kind, for example, Marquis wheat, Flat Dutch cabbage, Manchu soybeans, Oxheart carrot, and so forth. See 10 USC 2264
  • Vegetable seeds: shall include the seeds of those crops that are or may be grown in gardens or on truck farms and are or may be generally known and sold under the name of vegetable seeds. See 10 USC 2264
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 19 USC 2294
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 19 USC 2293
  • Victim advocate: work with prosecutors and assist the victims of a crime.
  • weed seeds: means the seeds or bulblets of plants recognized as weeds either by the law or rules and regulations of--

    (A) The State into which the seed is offered for transportation, or transported. See 10 USC 2264

  • whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 19 USC 2291
  • world communism: means a revolutionary movement, the purpose of which is to establish eventually a Communist totalitarian dictatorship in any or all the countries of the world through the medium of an internationally coordinated Communist political movement. See 26 USC 110
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 19 USC 2291