Article 1 Administration
Article 1.5 Continuing Education
Article 2 General Powers and Definitions
Article 3 Application of Chapter
Article 3.5 Standards of Professional Conduct
Article 4 Applications, Registrations, Permits Generally
Article 5 Certificates, Information and Records
Article 5.1 Practice Privileges
Article 5.5 Audit Documentation
Article 6 Disciplinary Proceedings
Article 6.5 Administrative Penalties
Article 7 Prohibitions and Offenses Against the Chapter Generally
Article 8 Revenue
Article 9 Accountancy Corporations

Terms Used In California Codes > Business and Professions Code > Division 3 > Chapter 1 - Accountants

  • Action: means a judicial proceeding or arbitration in which a payment in money may be awarded or enforced with respect to a foreign-money claim. See California Code of Civil Procedure 676.1
  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • application: includes the original documents or writings filed and any other supporting documents or writings including supporting documents provided or filed contemporaneously, or later, in support of the application whether provided or filed by the applicant or by any other person in support of the application. See California Business and Professions Code 478
  • Apportionment: means an apportionment made under this article, and unless the context otherwise requires, it shall be deemed to include funds of a district required by the board to be contributed toward the cost of a project. See California Education Code 16314
  • Apportionment: means an apportionment made under this chapter unless the context otherwise requires. See California Education Code 16502
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • Bank-offered spot rate: means the spot rate of exchange at which a bank will sell foreign money at a spot rate. See California Code of Civil Procedure 676.1
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Board: means the State Allocation Board as defined in Article 1 (commencing with Section 16000) of this chapter. See California Education Code 16314
  • Board: means the State Allocation Board. See California Education Code 16002
  • Board: means the State Allocation Board. See California Education Code 16502
  • Board: includes "bureau" "commission" "committee" "department" "division" "examining committee" "program" and "agency. See California Business and Professions Code 477
  • City: includes city and county. See California Business and Professions Code 18
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Construction project: means the purposes for which a school district has applied for an apportionment at a given location. See California Education Code 16502
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Conversion date: means the banking day next preceding the date on which money, in accordance with this title, is (i) paid to a claimant in an action or distribution proceeding, (ii) paid to the official designated by law to enforce a judgment or award on behalf of a claimant, or (iii) used to recoup, setoff, or counterclaim in different moneys in an action or distribution proceeding. See California Code of Civil Procedure 676.1
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • County: includes city and county. See California Business and Professions Code 17
  • County: includes "city and county. See California Corporations Code 14
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Defendant: means a person (including corporation, association, partnership and firm or governmental entity) against whom a litigation is brought or maintained or sought to be brought or maintained. See California Code of Civil Procedure 391
  • Department: means the Department of Food and Agriculture. See California Food and Agricultural Code 32
  • Department: means the State Department of Education. See California Education Code 16502
  • department: whenever used in this code , unless the context otherwise requires, means the State Department of Education. See California Education Code 89
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Director: means the Director of Education. See California Education Code 16314
  • Director: means the Director of Education for kindergarten and grades 1 to 12, inclusive. See California Education Code 16502
  • directors: means natural persons, designated in the articles or bylaws or elected by the incorporators, and their successors and natural persons designated, elected, or appointed by any other name or title to act as members of the governing body of the corporation. See California Corporations Code 5047
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Distribution proceeding: means a judicial or nonjudicial proceeding for the distribution of a fund in which one or more foreign-money claims is asserted and includes an accounting, an assignment for the benefit of creditors, a foreclosure, the liquidation or rehabilitation of a corporation or other entity, and the distribution of an estate, trust, or other fund. See California Code of Civil Procedure 676.1
  • District: means an elementary, high school, or unified school district. See California Education Code 16314
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Electronic transmission by the corporation: means a communication (a) delivered by (1) facsimile telecommunication or electronic mail when directed to the facsimile number or electronic mail address, respectively, for that recipient on record with the corporation, (2) posting on an electronic message board or network which the corporation has designated for those communications, together with a separate notice to the recipient of the posting, which transmission shall be validly delivered upon the later of the posting or delivery of the separate notice thereof, or (3) other means of electronic communication, (b) to a recipient who has provided an unrevoked consent to the use of those means of transmission for communications under or pursuant to this code, and (c) that creates a record that is capable of retention, retrieval, and review, and that may thereafter be rendered into clearly legible tangible form. See California Corporations Code 20
  • Electronic transmission to the corporation: means a communication (a) delivered by (1) facsimile telecommunication or electronic mail when directed to the facsimile number or electronic mail address, respectively, which the corporation has provided from time to time to shareholders or members and directors for sending communications to the corporation, (2) posting on an electronic message board or network which the corporation has designated for those communications, and which transmission shall be validly delivered upon the posting, or (3) other means of electronic communication, (b) as to which the corporation has placed in effect reasonable measures to verify that the sender is the shareholder or member (in person or by proxy) or director purporting to send the transmission, and (c) that creates a record that is capable of retention, retrieval, and review, and that may thereafter be rendered into clearly legible tangible form. See California Corporations Code 21
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • executed: when used with respect to the documents filed pursuant to this code or pursuant to regulations adopted under this code, and presented to the Secretary of State, include a document bearing a signature under subdivision (a). See California Corporations Code 17.1
  • Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Foreign money: means money other than money of the United States of America. See California Code of Civil Procedure 676.1
  • Foreign-money claim: means a claim upon an obligation to pay, or a claim for recovery of a loss, expressed in or measured by a foreign money. See California Code of Civil Procedure 676.1
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • License: includes certificate, registration or other means to engage in a business or profession regulated by this code. See California Business and Professions Code 477
  • license: includes certificate or permit. See California Business and Professions Code 5096.7
  • license: includes certificate or permit. See California Business and Professions Code 5096.7
  • Licensee: means any person authorized by a license, certificate, registration, or other means to engage in a business or profession regulated by this code or referred to in Sections 1000 and 3600. See California Business and Professions Code 23.8
  • Licensing board: means any board, as defined in Section 22, the State Bar of California, and the Department of Real Estate. See California Business and Professions Code 30
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: means any civil action or proceeding, commenced, maintained or pending in any state or federal court. See California Code of Civil Procedure 391
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • material: includes a statement or omission substantially related to the qualifications, functions, or duties of the business or profession. See California Business and Professions Code 478
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Money: means a medium of exchange for the payment of obligations or a store of value authorized or adopted by a government or by intergovernmental agreement. See California Code of Civil Procedure 676.1
  • Money of the claim: means the money determined as proper pursuant to Section 676. See California Code of Civil Procedure 676.1
  • month: means a calendar month, unless otherwise expressed. See California Civil Code 14
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: includes a corporation as well as a natural person. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Person: means an individual, a corporation, government or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, joint venture, partnership, association, two or more persons having a joint or common interest, or any other legal or commercial entity. See California Code of Civil Procedure 676.1
  • Person: includes a corporation as well as a natural person. See California Corporations Code 18
  • Plaintiff: means the person who commences, institutes or maintains a litigation or causes it to be commenced, instituted or maintained, including an attorney at law acting in propria persona. See California Code of Civil Procedure 391
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Pretrial conference: A meeting of the judge and lawyers to discuss which matters should be presented to the jury, to review evidence and witnesses, to set a timetable, and to discuss the settlement of the case.
  • Pro se: A Latin term meaning "on one's own behalf"; in courts, it refers to persons who present their own cases without lawyers.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Process: signifies a writ or summons issued in the course of a judicial proceeding. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Project: means the purposes for which a district has applied for assistance in the rehabilitation or replacement of unsafe school facilities at a given attendance center. See California Education Code 16314
  • Project: means the purposes for which a school district has applied for an apportionment. See California Education Code 16502
  • Project children: means children of parents who have come to the district subsequent to the start of the state project and who are employed by the State of California or the federal government in connection with a state project and children of parents employed by any contractor or subcontractor of a state project. See California Education Code 16502
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Rate of exchange: means the rate at which money of one country may be converted into money of another country in a free financial market convenient to or reasonably usable by a person obligated to pay or to state a rate of conversion. See California Code of Civil Procedure 676.1
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Food and Agriculture. See California Food and Agricultural Code 35
  • Security: means an undertaking to assure payment, to the party for whose benefit the undertaking is required to be furnished, of the party's reasonable expenses, including attorney's fees and not limited to taxable costs, incurred in or in connection with a litigation instituted, caused to be instituted, or maintained or caused to be maintained by a vexatious litigant. See California Code of Civil Procedure 391
  • Sell: includes offer for sale, expose for sale, possess for sale, exchange, barter, or trade. See California Food and Agricultural Code 44
  • Signature: includes mark when the signer cannot write, such signer's name being written near the mark by a witness who writes his own name near the signer's name. See California Corporations Code 17
  • Spot rate: means the rate of exchange at which foreign money is sold by a bank or other dealer in foreign exchange for immediate or next day availability or for settlement by immediate payment in cash or equivalent, by charge to an account, or by an agreed delayed settlement not exceeding two days. See California Code of Civil Procedure 676.1
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Education Code 77
  • State: includes the District of Columbia and the territories when applied to the different parts of the United States, and the words "United States" may include the district and territories. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • State: means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. See California Code of Civil Procedure 676.1
  • State project: means any construction project undertaken by the state, or the state and federal government jointly, which will cause a sudden influx of people into the area affected and where sufficient housing, schools, and other community facilities are not available. See California Education Code 16502
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which that term occurs unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Food and Agricultural Code 49
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which the term appears unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Corporations Code 10
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • tax obligation: means the tax imposed under, or in accordance with, Part 1 (commencing with Section 6001), Part 1. See California Business and Professions Code 31
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Vexatious litigant: means a person who does any of the following:

    California Code of Civil Procedure 391

  • will: includes codicil. See California Civil Code 14
  • Will: includes codicil. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.