Article 1 Organizing Permit
Article 2 Petition for Certificate of Authority
Article 3 Postincorporation Organization of Associations
Article 4 Issuance of Stock and Certificates
Article 5 Association Name, Office
Article 6 Conversions
Article 7 Power to Reorganize, Merge, Consolidate, or Transfer Assets
Article 8 Holding Companies and Stock Acquisitions
Article 9 Dissolution
Article 10 Mutual Holding Companies

Terms Used In California Codes > Financial Code > Division 2 > Chapter 2

  • Abstract of judgment: In a federal criminal proceeding, A certification from a U.S. District Court clerk that a judgment of restitution was entered against the defendant owing to the victim. If the defendant inherits, owns, or sells real property or holdings, these assets can then be attached at the state and local levels as well.
  • Account: means an arrangement under a terms-of-service agreement in which the custodian carries, maintains, processes, receives, or stores a digital asset of the user or provides goods or services to the user. See California Probate Code 871
  • Acquire: includes acquisition by gift, purchase, lease, eminent domain, or otherwise. See California Government Code 12271
  • Action: means an action for partition under this title. See California Code of Civil Procedure 872.010
  • Action: includes a civil action and a criminal action. See California Evidence Code 105
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Agency: means the Labor and Workforce Development Agency. See California Labor Code 18.5
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Aquaculture: means that form of agriculture devoted to the propagation, cultivation, maintenance, and harvesting of aquatic plants and animals in marine, brackish, and fresh water. See California Fish and Game Code 17
  • Archival value: means the ongoing usefulness or significance of a record based on the administrative, legal, fiscal, evidential, or historical information it contains, justifying its permanent preservation. See California Government Code 12271
  • Audiology aide: means any person meeting the minimum requirements established by the board. See California Business and Professions Code 2530.2
  • board: as used in this chapter means the Medical Board of California. See California Business and Professions Code 2002
  • Board: means the Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology and Hearing Aid Dispensers Board. See California Business and Professions Code 2530.2
  • business: includes every kind of business, governmental activity, profession, occupation, calling, or operation of institutions, whether carried on for profit or not. See California Evidence Code 1270
  • Carries: means engages in the transmission of electronic communications. See California Probate Code 871
  • Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts.
  • Catalogue of electronic communications: means information that identifies each person with which a user has had an electronic communication, the time and date of the communication, and the electronic address of the person. See California Probate Code 871
  • certificate: as used in this chapter are deemed to be synonomous. See California Business and Professions Code 2040
  • Cerumen removal: means the nonroutine removal of cerumen within the cartilaginous ear canal necessary for access in performance of audiological procedures that shall occur under physician and surgeon supervision. See California Business and Professions Code 2530.2
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • City: includes "city and county. See California Insurance Code 15
  • Clerk of court: An officer appointed by the court to work with the chief judge in overseeing the court's administration, especially to assist in managing the flow of cases through the court and to maintain court records.
  • Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
  • Cohort population: means the number of students that began a program on a cohort start date. See California Education Code 94928
  • Cohort start date: means the first class day after the cancellation period during which a cohort of students attends class for a specific program. See California Education Code 94928
  • Commissioner: means any county agricultural commissioner. See California Food and Agricultural Code 26
  • Commissioner: means the Insurance Commissioner of this State. See California Insurance Code 20
  • compensation: means the remuneration paid out of funds controlled by the employer in payment for the member's services performed during normal working hours or for time during which the member is excused from work because of any of the following:

    California Government Code 20630

  • Conduct: includes all active and passive behavior, both verbal and nonverbal. See California Evidence Code 125
  • Conduit: includes pipe, millrace, ditch, flume, siphon, tunnel, canal, and any other conduit or diversion used for the purpose of taking or receiving water from any river, creek, stream, or lake. See California Fish and Game Code 5900
  • Conservatee: includes a limited conservatee. See California Probate Code 29
  • Conservator: includes a limited conservator. See California Probate Code 30
  • Content of an electronic communication: means information concerning the substance or meaning of the communication, which meets all of the following requirements:

    California Probate Code 871

  • County: includes city and county. See California Fish and Game Code 32
  • County: includes city and county. See California Food and Agricultural Code 29
  • County: includes city and county. See California Health and Safety Code 14
  • County: includes "city and county. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Court: means the superior court presiding over the judicial proceedings which have been initiated under this code to administer the estate of the deceased user, or, if none, the superior court sitting in the exercise of jurisdiction under this code in the county of the user's domicile, and the court, as defined in this section, shall have exclusive jurisdiction over proceedings brought under this part. See California Probate Code 871
  • Custodian: means a person that carries, maintains, processes, receives, or stores a digital asset of a user. See California Probate Code 871
  • Day: means calendar day, and "week" means calendar week. See California Fish and Game Code 35
  • Declarant: is a person who makes a statement. See California Evidence Code 135
  • Department: means Department of Industrial Relations. See California Labor Code 19
  • depressed: means the condition of a fishery that exhibits declining fish population abundance levels below those consistent with maximum sustainable yield. See California Fish and Game Code 90.7
  • Designated recipient: means a person chosen by a user using an online tool to administer digital assets of the user. See California Probate Code 871
  • Devisee: means any person designated in a will to receive a devise. See California Probate Code 34
  • Digital asset: means an electronic record in which an individual has a right or interest. See California Probate Code 871
  • Director: means the Director of Fish and Wildlife. See California Fish and Game Code 39
  • Director: means Director of Industrial Relations. See California Labor Code 20
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • District: means fish and game district. See California Fish and Game Code 41
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • elective officer: includes any officer of the Senate or Assembly who is elected by vote of the members of either or both of the houses of the Legislature, and any appointive officer of a city or county occupying a fixed term of office, as well as officers of the state or contracting agencies elected by the people, and persons elected to a city council or a county board of supervisors. See California Government Code 20322
  • Electronic: means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities. See California Probate Code 871
  • Electronic communication service: means a custodian that provides to a user the ability to send or receive an electronic communication. See California Probate Code 871
  • Evidence: means testimony, writings, material objects, or other things presented to the senses that are offered to prove the existence or nonexistence of a fact. See California Evidence Code 140
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • expert: means a physician and surgeon, including a psychiatrist, or any person described by subdivision (b), (c), or (e) of Section 1010. See California Evidence Code 240
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Fiduciary: means personal representative, trustee, guardian, conservator, attorney-in-fact under a power of attorney, custodian under the California Uniform Transfer To Minors Act (Part 9 (commencing with Section 3900) of Division 4), or other legal representative subject to this code. See California Probate Code 39
  • Fiduciary: means an original, additional, or successor personal representative or trustee. See California Probate Code 871
  • Fishery: means both of the following:

    California Fish and Game Code 94

  • Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
    • You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
    • The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
    • The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
  • former testimony: means testimony given under oath in:

    California Evidence Code 1290

  • frog: means all species of frog. See California Fish and Game Code 6850
  • frog-jumping contest: means a contest generally and popularly known as a frog-jumping contest which is open to the public and is advertised or announced in a newspaper. See California Fish and Game Code 6880
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Graduates available for employment: means the number of graduates minus the number of graduates unavailable for employment. See California Education Code 94928
  • Graduates employed in the field: means graduates who are gainfully employed in a single position for which the institution represents the program prepares its graduates, beginning within six months after a student completes the applicable educational program. See California Education Code 94928
  • Graduates unavailable for employment: means graduates who, after graduation, die, become incarcerated, are called to active military duty, are international students that leave the United States or do not have a visa allowing employment in the United States, or are continuing their education at an accredited or bureau-approved postsecondary institution. See California Education Code 94928
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Health professional: means a physician and surgeon, registered nurse, nutritionist, dietitian, or state or local medically trained health official, who is competent to professionally evaluate nutritional need and to authorize supplemental foods, as determined by the state department. See California Health and Safety Code 123285
  • hearing: means the hearing at which a question under this code arises, and not some earlier or later hearing. See California Evidence Code 145
  • Hearing aid dispenser: as used in this article , means a person engaged in the practice of fitting or selling hearing aids to an individual with impaired hearing. See California Business and Professions Code 2538.14
  • Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court.
  • Heir: means any person, including the surviving spouse, who is entitled to take property of the decedent by intestate succession under this code. See California Probate Code 44
  • Information: means data, text, images, videos, sounds, codes, computer programs, software, databases, or other items with like characteristics. See California Probate Code 871
  • Instrument: means a will, a document establishing or modifying a trust, a deed, or any other writing that designates a beneficiary or makes a donative transfer of property. See California Probate Code 45
  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • interested person: includes any of the following:

    California Probate Code 48

  • item: includes but is not limited to any paper, document, book, map, or other type of record. See California Government Code 12220
  • Judgment creditor: means the person or persons who can bring an action to enforce a sister state judgment. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1710.10
  • Judgment debtor: means the person or persons against whom an action to enforce a sister state judgment can be brought. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1710.10
  • Jurisprudence: The study of law and the structure of the legal system.
  • Kelp: means kelp or other marine aquatic plants and the seeds thereof. See California Fish and Game Code 51
  • Labor Commissioner: means Chief of the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement. See California Labor Code 21
  • Law: includes constitutional, statutory, and decisional law. See California Evidence Code 160
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • license: means license, certificate, registration, or other means to engage in a business or profession regulated by this code or referred to in Section 1000 or 3600. See California Business and Professions Code 23.7
  • Licensee: means any person authorized by a license, certificate, registration, or other means to engage in a business or profession regulated by this code or referred to in Sections 1000 and 3600. See California Business and Professions Code 23.8
  • Lien: means a mortgage, deed of trust, or other security interest in property whether arising from contract, statute, common law, or equity. See California Code of Civil Procedure 872.010
  • Low income: means an income of not more than 185 percent of the poverty level as determined by the federal poverty income guidelines promulgated by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. See California Health and Safety Code 123285
  • Medical board: means the Medical Board of California. See California Business and Professions Code 2530.2
  • Mile: means either a statute mile (5,280 feet) or a nautical mile (6,077 feet) depending on the application. See California Fish and Game Code 55
  • Native amphibians: as used in this article means salamanders, toads, or any other member of the class amphibia native to California. See California Fish and Game Code 6895
  • Net: means any gear made of any kind of twine, thread, string, rope, wire, wood, or other materials used for the gilling, entangling, trapping, or impounding of fish. See California Fish and Game Code 56
  • Nutrition coupon: means a check that is limited as to value, food type, and food quantity and that has a limited period of validity. See California Health and Safety Code 123285
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • On-time graduates: means the number of students who complete a program within 100 percent of the published program length. See California Education Code 94928
  • Online tool: means an electronic service provided by a custodian that allows the user, in an agreement distinct from the terms-of-service agreement between the custodian and user, to provide directions for disclosure or nondisclosure of digital assets to a third person. See California Probate Code 871
  • Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
  • organizer: means a person who agrees to contribute funds to a proposed association to be used for its organization expenses. See California Financial Code 5400
  • Owner: means any person, including his or her legal representative, who has or had a legal or equitable interest in unclaimed property. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1601
  • Owner: includes the United States (except that for the purpose of Sections 5901, 5931, 5933, and 5938, "owner" does not include the United States as to any dam in the condition the dam existed on September 15, 1945), the State, a person, political subdivision, or district (other than a fish and game district) owning, controlling or operating a dam or pipe. See California Fish and Game Code 5900
  • Person: includes a natural person, firm, association, organization, partnership, business trust, corporation, limited liability company, or public entity. See California Evidence Code 175
  • Person: includes any individual, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, unincorporated association, or other legal entity. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1601
  • Person: includes any person, firm, partnership, association, corporation, company, limited liability company, syndicate, estate, trust, business trust, or organization of any kind. See California Financial Code 18
  • Person: means any natural person or any partnership, corporation, limited liability company, trust, or other type of association. See California Fish and Game Code 67
  • Person: means an individual, corporation, government or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, or other entity. See California Probate Code 56
  • Person: means any person, firm, association, organization, partnership, business trust, corporation, limited liability company, or company. See California Health and Safety Code 19
  • Person: means an individual, estate, business or nonprofit entity, public corporation, government or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or other legal entity. See California Probate Code 871
  • Person: means any person, association, organization, partnership, business trust, limited liability company, or corporation. See California Insurance Code 19
  • Person: means any person, association, organization, partnership, business trust, limited liability company, or corporation. See California Labor Code 18
  • Person: means any individual, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, or other organization or combination thereof, except that only individuals can be licensed under this chapter. See California Business and Professions Code 2530.2
  • Personal representative: means executor, administrator, administrator with the will annexed, special administrator, successor personal representative, public administrator acting pursuant to Section 7660, or a person who performs substantially the same function under the law of another jurisdiction governing the person's status. See California Probate Code 58
  • Personal representative: means an executor, administrator, special administrator, or person that performs substantially the same function under any other law. See California Probate Code 871
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Power of attorney: means a record that grants an agent authority to act in the place of the principal. See California Probate Code 871
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • practice of audiology: means the application of principles, methods, and procedures of measurement, testing, appraisal, prediction, consultation, counseling, and instruction related to auditory, vestibular, and related functions and the modification of communicative disorders involving speech, language, auditory behavior, or other aberrant behavior resulting from auditory dysfunction. See California Business and Professions Code 2530.2
  • Practice of fitting or selling hearing aids: as used in this article , means those practices used for the purpose of selection and adaptation of hearing aids, including direct observation of the ear, testing of hearing in connection with the fitting and selling of hearing aids, taking of ear mold impressions, fitting or sale of hearing aids, and any necessary postfitting counseling. See California Business and Professions Code 2538.11
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Process: signifies a writ or summons issued in the course of a judicial proceeding. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Property: includes real and personal property. See California Code of Civil Procedure 872.010
  • Property: means anything that may be the subject of ownership and includes both real and personal property and any interest therein. See California Probate Code 62
  • Property: includes both personal and real property. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
  • Public employee: means an officer, agent, or employee of a public entity. See California Evidence Code 195
  • Public record plant: means the plant, or any part thereof, or any record therein, of any person engaged in the business of searching or publishing public records or insuring or guaranteeing titles to real property, including copies of public records or abstracts and memoranda taken from public records that are owned by or in possession of that person or that are used by that person in his or her business. See California Government Code 12271
  • Purchase: means "buy" as defined in Section 24. See California Fish and Game Code 68
  • Real property: includes a leasehold interest in real property. See California Probate Code 68
  • Recipient: means low-income pregnant women, low-income post partum and lactating women, and low-income infants and children under five years of age, who are determined to be at nutritional risk by a health professional, based on criteria established by the state department. See California Health and Safety Code 123285
  • Record: means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in a perceivable form. See California Probate Code 871
  • Remote-computing service: means a custodian that provides to a user computer processing services or the storage of digital assets by means of an electronic communications system, as defined in Section 2510(14) of Title 18 of the United States Code. See California Probate Code 871
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Revocable trust: A trust agreement that can be canceled, rescinded, revoked, or repealed by the grantor (person who establishes the trust).
  • season: means "open season. See California Fish and Game Code 62
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Food and Agriculture. See California Food and Agricultural Code 35
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Labor and Workforce Development. See California Labor Code 19.5
  • Sister state judgment: means that part of any judgment, decree, or order of a court of a state of the United States, other than California, which requires the payment of money, but does not include a support order as defined in Section 155 of the Family Code. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1710.10
  • speech-language pathologist: is a person who practices speech-language pathology. See California Business and Professions Code 2530.2
  • Speech-language pathology aide: means any person meeting the minimum requirements established by the board, who works directly under the supervision of a speech-language pathologist. See California Business and Professions Code 2530.2
  • Speech-language pathology assistant: means a person who meets the academic and supervised training requirements set forth by the board and who is approved by the board to assist in the provision of speech-language pathology under the direction and supervision of a speech-language pathologist who shall be responsible for the extent, kind, and quality of the services provided by the speech-language pathology assistant. See California Business and Professions Code 2530.2
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Government Code 12.2
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Labor Code 12.2
  • spouse: includes a registered domestic partner, as required by Section 297. See California Civil Code 14
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Evidence Code 220
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Fish and Game Code 83
  • State: includes any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession subject to the legislative authority of the United States. See California Probate Code 74
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Insurance Code 28
  • Statement: means (a) oral or written verbal expression or (b) nonverbal conduct of a person intended by him as a substitute for oral or written verbal expression. See California Evidence Code 225
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • stock: means a species, subspecies, geographical grouping, or other category of fish capable of management as a unit. See California Fish and Game Code 98.5
  • Students available for graduation: means the cohort population minus the number of students unavailable for graduation. See California Education Code 94928
  • Students unavailable for graduation: means students who have died, been incarcerated, or called to active military duty. See California Education Code 94928
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which that term occurs unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Fish and Game Code 73
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which that term occurs unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Food and Agricultural Code 49
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which that term occurs, unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Business and Professions Code 15
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • subscription: includes mark. See California Financial Code 17
  • Take: means hunt, pursue, catch, capture, or kill, or attempt to hunt, pursue, catch, capture, or kill. See California Fish and Game Code 86
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Terms-of-service agreement: means an agreement that controls the relationship between a user and a custodian. See California Probate Code 871
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Transport: includes offer or receive for transportation. See California Fish and Game Code 88
  • Trust: includes the following:

    California Probate Code 82

  • Trustee: means a fiduciary with legal title to property under an agreement or declaration that creates a beneficial interest in another. See California Probate Code 871
  • Trustee: includes an original, additional, or successor trustee, whether or not appointed or confirmed by a court. See California Probate Code 84
  • unavailable as a witness: means that the declarant is any of the following:

    California Evidence Code 240

  • Unclaimed property: means any tangible personal property or intangible personal property, including choses in action in amounts certain, and all debts owed or entrusted funds or other property held by any federal agency or any officer or employee thereof, whether occasioned by contract or operation of law or otherwise, except bonuses and gratuities, which has remained unclaimed by the owner for:

    California Code of Civil Procedure 1601

  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • United States: means the United States of America, and in relation to any particular matter includes the officers, agents, employees, agencies, or instrumentalities authorized to act in relation thereto. See California Fish and Game Code 5900
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • User: means a person that has an account with a custodian. See California Probate Code 871
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Violation: includes a failure to comply with any requirement of the code. See California Labor Code 22
  • visually impaired: includes blindness and means having central visual acuity not to exceed 20/200 in the better eye, with corrected lenses, as measured by the Snellen test, or visual acuity greater than 20/200, but with a limitation in the field of vision such that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angle not greater than 20 degrees. See California Civil Code 54.6
  • WIC Program: means the California Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. See California Health and Safety Code 123285
  • Wildlife: means and includes all wild animals, birds, plants, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and related ecological communities, including the habitat upon which the wildlife depends for its continued viability. See California Fish and Game Code 89.5
  • Will: includes a codicil, a testamentary instrument that only appoints an executor, or an instrument that revokes or revises a testamentary instrument. See California Probate Code 871
  • will: includes codicil. See California Civil Code 14
  • Will: includes codicil. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Writ: means an order or precept in writing, issued in the name of the people, or of a court or judicial officer. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Writing: means handwriting, typewriting, printing, photostating, photographing, photocopying, transmitting by electronic mail or facsimile, and every other means of recording upon any tangible thing, any form of communication or representation, including letters, words, pictures, sounds, or symbols, or combinations thereof, and any record thereby created, regardless of the manner in which the record has been stored. See California Evidence Code 250
  • Writing: includes any form of recorded message capable of comprehension by ordinary visual means. See California Financial Code 8
  • Writing: includes printing and typewriting. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17