§ 4501 Self-Incrimination
§ 4502 Spouse
§ 4503 Attorney
§ 4504 Physician, Dentist, Podiatrist, Chiropractor and Nurse
§ 4505 Confidential Communication to Clergy Privileged
§ 4506 Eavesdropping Evidence; Admissibility; Motion to Suppress in Certain Cases
§ 4507 Psychologist
§ 4508 Social Worker
§ 4509 Library Records
§ 4510 Rape Crisis Counselor
§ R4511 Judicial Notice of Law
§ 4512 Competency of Interested Witness or Spouse
§ 4513 Competency of Person Convicted of Crime
§ R4514 Impeachment of Witness by Prior Inconsistent Statement
§ R4515 Form of Expert Opinion
§ R4516 Proof of Age of Child
§ R4517 Prior Testimony in a Civil Action
§ R4518 Business Records
§ 4519 Personal Transaction or Communication Between Witness and Decedent or Mentally Ill Person
§ R4520 Certificate or Affidavit of Public Officer
§ R4521 Lack of Record
§ R4522 Ancient Filed Maps, Surveys and Records Affecting Real Property
§ R4523 Search by Title Insurance or Abstract Company
§ R4524 Conveyance of Real Property Without the State
§ R4525 Copies of Statements Under Article Nine of the Uniform Commercial Code
§ R4526 Marriage Certificate
§ 4527 Death or Other Status of Missing Person
§ R4528 Weather Conditions
§ R4529 Inspection Certificate Issued by United States Department of Agriculture
§ 4530 Certificate of Population
§ R4531 Affidavit of Service or Posting Notice by Person Unavailable At Trial
§ R4532 Self-Authentication of Newspapers and Periodicals of General Circulation
§ R4532-A Admissibility of Graphic, Numerical, Symbolic or Pictorial Representations of Medical or Diagnostic Tests
§ 4532-B Enacted Without Section Heading
§ R4533 Market Reports
§ R4533-A Prima Facie Proof of Damages
§ R4533-B Proof of Payment by Joint Tort-Feasor
§ R4534 Standard of Measurement Used by Surveyor
§ R4536 Proof of Writing by Comparison of Handwriting
§ R4537 Proof of Writing Subscribed by Witness
§ R4538 Acknowledged, Proved or Certified Writing; Conveyance of Real Property Without the State
§ R4539 Reproductions of Original
§ R4540 Authentication of Official Record of Court or Government Office in the United States
§ R4540-A Presumption of Authenticity Based On a Party’s Production of Material Authored or Otherwise Created by the Party
§ R4541 Proof of Proceedings Before Justice of the Peace
§ R4542 Proof of Foreign Records and Documents
§ 4543 Proof of Facts or Writing by Methods Other Than Those Authorized in This Article
§ 4544 Contracts in Small Print
§ 4545 Admissibility of Collateral Source of Payment
§ 4546 Loss of Earnings and Impairment of Earning Ability in Actions for Medical, Dental or Podiatric Malpractice
§ 4547 Compromise and Offers to Compromise
§ 4548 Privileged Communications; Electronic Communication Thereof

Terms Used In New York Laws > Civil Practice Law and Rules > Article 45 - Evidence

  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.