§ 501 Definitions
§ 502 Retirement System
§ 503 Membership of System
§ 504 Retirement Board; Members; Terms of Office; Vacancies
§ 505 Election of the Active Teacher Members of the Board
§ 505-A Election of Retired Teacher Member of Board
§ 506 Board Meetings; Oaths of Office; Quorum; Expenses
§ 507 Officers of Board; Custody of Funds
§ 508 Investment of Funds; Interest; Accounts; Reports
§ 508-A New York State Teachers’ Retirement System Mwbe Asset Management and Financial Institution Strategy
§ 509 Statements of Teachers’ Service; Determination of Service Creditable; Service Certificates
§ 510 Superannuation Retirement
§ 511 Disability Retirement
§ 511-A Special Service Retirement
§ 512 Withdrawal and Death Benefits
§ 512-A Deferred Retirement
§ 512-B Loans
§ 513 Optional Allowances
§ 514 Benefits to Participants in Old Retirement Fund
§ 515 Funds Enumerated
§ 516 Annuity Savings Fund; Contributions and Payments
§ 517 Annuity Reserve Fund; Pension Accumulation Fund
§ 518 Pension Reserve Fund
§ 518-A Supplemental Retirement Allowance Fund
§ 519 Expense Fund
§ 520 Duties of Employer
§ 521 Collection of Contributions
§ 522 Transfer of Contributions Between Retirement Systems
§ 523 State Supervision
§ 524 Exemption From Taxation and Execution
§ 525 Protection Against Fraud
§ 526 Merger of Local Teachers’ Retirement and Pension Systems With the State System
§ 527 (Enacted Without Section Heading)
§ 528 Pensions-Providing-for-Increased-Take-Home-Pay
§ 529 Pensions Providing for Increased Take Home Pay for Certain Teachers
§ 530 Pensions-Providing-for-Increased-Take-Home-Pay-for-Teachers
§ 531 Abandonment of Unclaimed Contributions or Other Benefits; Transfer to the Pension Accumulation Fund
§ 532 Supplemental Retirement Allowance
§ 532-A Cost-of-Living Adjustment
§ 533 Non-Contributory Retirement Plan
§ 535 Career Retirement Plan
§ 536 Deductions From Benefits of Certain Retired Members
§ 537 Lump Sum Payment of De Minimis Service Retirement Benefit
§ 538 Excess Benefit Plan
§ 539 Certain Actions by Retiring Members

Terms Used In New York Laws > Education > Title 1 > Article 11 - State Teachers' Retirement System for Public School Teachers

  • Accumulated contributions: shall mean the sum of all the amounts deducted from the compensation of a contributor, and credited to his individual account in the annuity savings fund together with regular interest thereon. See
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Aggregate floor area: means the sum of the gross areas of the several floors of a building or structure, measured from the exterior faces of exterior walls or from the center lines of walls separating two buildings or structures. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAA
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Annuity: shall mean the annual payments for life derived from contributions made by contributor as provided in this article. See
  • Annuity reserve: shall mean the present value of all payments to be made on account of any annuity, or benefit in lieu of any annuity, computed upon the basis of such mortality tables as shall be adopted by the retirement board with regular interest. See
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Applicant: means any person obligated to pay real property taxes on the property for which an exemption from real property taxes under this title is sought or in the case of exempt property, the record owner or lessee thereof. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAA
  • Applicant: means any person or corporation obligated to pay real property taxes on the property for which an exemption is sought, or in the case of exempt property, the record owner thereof, provided, however, that such property is not commercial property located in an area designated as excluded pursuant to section four hundred eighty-nine-ccc of this title;

    2. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAA

  • Applicant: means any person obligated to pay real property taxes on the property for which an exemption from or abatement or deferral of real property tax payments is sought, or in the case of exempt property, the record owner or lessee thereof. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Approved plans: means plans submitted to and approved by the department of buildings in connection with an applicant's building permit, including any amendments to such plans approved by such department before final inspection of the work for which such permit was issued. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAA
  • Approved plans: means plans submitted to and approved by the department of buildings in connection with the applicant's building permit, including any amendments to such plans approved by such department before final inspection of the work for which such permit was issued. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assessing unit: means a city, town or village. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-B
  • Assessing unit: means a city, town or village. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-BB
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-at-law: A person who is legally qualified and licensed to practice law, and to represent and act for clients in legal proceedings.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Beneficiary: shall mean any person in receipt of a retirement allowance or other benefit as provided by this article. See
  • Benefit period: means the period of time when a recipient is eligible to receive benefits pursuant to this title. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAA
  • Benefit period: means the period of time when a recipient is eligible to receive benefits pursuant to this title, including in the case of a recipient of a certificate of eligibility for commercial construction work in a deferral area, the period of time tax payments are to be deferred, the interim period when no tax payments are to be deferred and no deferred tax payments are required to be made, and the period of time when the deferred tax payments are to be made. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Board: means the industrial and commercial incentive board;

    3. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAA

  • Certificate of eligibility: means the document issued by the department of finance pursuant to section four hundred eighty-nine-ddddd of this title. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAA
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
  • city: as used in this title , shall mean any such city. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 350
  • Commercial: means any non-residential property used primarily for the buying, selling or otherwise providing of goods or services, provided that the use of such property has not been designated as a restricted commercial use pursuant to section four hundred eighty-nine-ccc of this title;

    4. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAA

  • Commercial construction work: means the construction of a new building or structure or the modernization, rehabilitation, expansion or improvement of an existing building or structure for use as commercial property. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAAA
  • Commercial construction work: means the construction of a new building or structure, or portion thereof, or the modernization, rehabilitation, expansion, or other improvement of an existing building or structure, or portion thereof, for use as commercial property. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Commercial exclusion area: means an area as defined in subdivision four of section four hundred eighty-nine-gggggg of this title. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAAA
  • Commercial property: means nonresidential property on which will exist after completion of commercial construction work a building or structure, or portion thereof, used for the buying, selling or otherwise providing of goods or services including hotel services, or for other lawful business, commercial or manufacturing activities; provided that property or portions of property dedicated to utility property shall not be considered commercial property for purposes of this title. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAAA
  • Commercial property: means nonresidential property (a) on which will exist after completion of commercial construction work, a building or structure used for the buying, selling or otherwise providing of goods or services including hotel services, or for other lawful business, commercial or manufacturing activities; and (b) (i) where, except as provided in subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph and paragraph (c) of this subdivision, not more than fifteen per centum of the total net square footage of any building or structure on such property was used for manufacturing activities at any one or more times during the twenty-four months immediately preceding the date of application for a certificate of eligibility or (ii) where not more than fifteen per centum of the total net square footage of any building or structure on such property was used for manufacturing activities at any one or more times during the sixty months immediately preceding the date of application for a certificate of eligibility if such property is located, in whole or in part, in the area in the borough of Manhattan lying south of the center line of 96th Street; and (c) in the commercial revitalization area, and with respect to an application for a certificate of eligibility filed on or after July first, two thousand, "commercial property" means nonresidential property on which will exist after completion of commercial construction work, a building or structure used for the buying, selling or otherwise providing of goods or services including hotel services, or for other lawful business, commercial or manufacturing activities. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Commercial revitalization area: means any area of a city having a population of one million or more, provided that in the city of New York a commercial revitalization area shall mean any district that is zoned C4, C5, C6, M1, M2, or M3 in accordance with the zoning resolution of such city in any area of such city except the area lying south of the center line of 96th Street in the borough of Manhattan. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Commission: means the temporary commercial incentive area boundary commission. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Commissioner: means the commissioner of finance of a city that has enacted a local law pursuant to this title. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAAA
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Construction: means the building of new industrial or commercial structures on vacant or predominantly vacant land, or the modernization, rehabilitation or expansion or other improvement of an existing commercial structure where such modernization, rehabilitation, expansion or other improvement is not physically or functionally integrated with the existing structure or results in additional usable square footage fifty per centum greater than the square footage of the existing structure;

    5. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAA

  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contributor: shall mean any member of the retirement system who has an account in the annuity savings fund as provided by this article. See
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Deferral area: means an area in which deferral of payment of real property taxes in accordance with subdivision four of section four hundred eighty-nine-bbbb of this title shall be available to a recipient who has performed commercial construction work. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Department: means the department of finance of a city that has enacted a local law pursuant to this title. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAAA
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Dower: A widow
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Employer: shall mean the state of New York, the city, the village, school district board or trustee, or other agency of and within the state by which a teacher is paid. See
  • Enterprise risk: means any activity, circumstance, event, or series of events involving one or more subsidiaries of a parent corporation that, if not remedied promptly, is likely to have a material adverse effect upon the financial condition or liquidity of the parent corporation, including anything that would cause the parent corporation's risk-based capital to fall into company action level as set forth in section one thousand three hundred twenty-two of this chapter, or that would cause further transaction of business to be hazardous to the insurer's policyholders or creditors or the public. See N.Y. Insurance Law 1702
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • equalization increase or decrease: means an increase or decrease in the assessed value of property which is not attributable to construction work, fire, demolition, destruction or other change in the physical characteristics of the property (excluding gradual physical deterioration or obsolescence), or to a change in the description or boundaries of the property. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Excluded area: means each area specified in paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of subdivision five of section four hundred eighty-nine-cccc of this title. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • exemption base: shall mean , with respect to property that is the subject of a certificate of eligibility with an effective date of June thirtieth, nineteen hundred ninety-two or before: (i) for the first, second and third taxable years following the effective date of a certificate of eligibility, the assessed value of improvements made since the effective date of such certificate which are attributable exclusively to commercial or industrial construction work described in approved plans; and (ii) for all other years, the assessed value of such improvements which have been made before the fourth taxable status date following the effective date of such certificate. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • exemption base: shall mean : (a) for the first through fifth taxable years following the effective date of a certificate of eligibility, the assessed value of improvements made since the effective date of such certificate which are attributable exclusively to residential construction work or a combination of residential construction work and commercial construction work described in approved plans; and (b) for all other years, the assessed value of such improvements which have been made before the sixth taxable status date following the effective date of such certificate. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAA
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Final average salary: shall mean the average annual compensation earnable as a teacher during the five years of service immediately preceding his date of retirement, or it shall mean the average annual compensation earnable as a teacher during any five consecutive years of state service, said five years to be selected by the applicant prior to date of retirement. See
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • harassment: shall mean any act or omission by or on behalf of an owner that (i) causes or is intended to cause any person lawfully entitled to occupancy of a dwelling unit to vacate such dwelling unit or to surrender or waive any rights in relation to such occupancy, and (ii) includes one or more of the following acts or omissions, provided that there shall be a rebuttable presumption that such acts or omissions were intended to cause such person to vacate such dwelling unit or to surrender or waive any rights in relation to such occupancy, except that such presumption shall not apply to such acts or omissions with respect to a private dwelling, as defined in paragraph six of subdivision a of section 27-2004:

    a. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2004

  • Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court.
  • Holding company operating subsidiary: means a subsidiary (other than a separate account subsidiary) engaged or organized to engage in either or both of the following activities (1) the ownership and management of other subsidiaries, and (2) the raising of capital (debt or equity) that could be loaned to, or invested in, other subsidiaries or loaned to the parent corporation, provided that any such subsidiary may in addition engage in the ownership and management of assets authorized as investments for the parent corporation. See N.Y. Insurance Law 1702
  • Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Industrial: means property used primarily for the manufacturing or assembling of goods or the processing of raw materials;

    6. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAA

  • Industrial construction work: means the construction of a new building or structure or the modernization, rehabilitation, expansion or improvement of an existing building or structure for use as industrial property. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAAA
  • Industrial construction work: means the construction of a new building or structure or the modernization, rehabilitation, expansion or improvement of an existing building or structure for use as industrial property. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Industrial property: means nonresidential property on which will exist after completion of industrial construction work a building or structure, or portion thereof, with at least seventy-five percent of the total net square footage of the property used or immediately available and held out for manufacturing activities involving assembling goods or the fabrication or processing of raw materials; provided that property or portions of property dedicated to utility property shall not be considered industrial property for purposes of this title. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAAA
  • Industrial property: means nonresidential property on which will exist after completion of industrial construction work a building or structure wherein at least seventy-five per centum of the total net square footage is used or immediately available and held out for use for manufacturing activities involving the assembly of goods or the fabrication or processing of raw materials. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Initial assessed value: means the lesser of (a) the taxable assessed value of real property appearing on the books of the annual record of the assessed valuation of real property on the effective date of a recipient's certificate of eligibility or (b) the assessed value to which such assessment is thereafter reduced pursuant to application to the tax commission or court order. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAA
  • Initial assessed value: means the lesser of (a) the taxable assessed value of real property appearing on the books of the annual record of the assessed valuation of real property on the effective date of a recipient's certificate of eligibility or (b) the assessed value to which such assessment is thereafter reduced pursuant to application to the tax commission or court order. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Investment subsidiary: means a subsidiary (other than a separate account subsidiary) engaged or organized to engage exclusively in the ownership and management of assets (other than equity securities of subsidiaries) authorized as investments for the parent corporation and of other investment subsidiaries. See N.Y. Insurance Law 1702
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legal tender: coins, dollar bills, or other currency issued by a government as official money. Source: U.S. Mint
  • Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Life estate: A property interest limited in duration to the life of the individual holding the interest (life tenant).
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Local government: when used in this title, unless otherwise expressly stated or unless the context otherwise requires, means a county, city or town with the power to assess real property for the purpose of taxation. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 308
  • Member of a holding company system: shall include a holding company, a controlled insurer, a controlled person, and any person who alone or in concert with any other persons directly or indirectly controls a holding company or controls a person who controls a holding company. See N.Y. Insurance Law 2701
  • Minimum required expenditure: means expenditure for residential construction work or a combination of residential construction work and commercial construction work in an amount equal to twenty per centum of the initial assessed value; provided, however, that if the department of finance, after consultation with the deputy mayor for finance and economic development, determines that a greater expenditure is required to encourage significant development of mixed-use property, it may establish by rule a higher percentage of initial assessed value, not to exceed fifty per centum thereof, as the minimum required expenditure. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAA
  • Minimum required expenditure: means the amount that an applicant must expend on construction work for a project in order to qualify for benefits as provided in this title. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAAA
  • Minimum required expenditure: means expenditure for commercial, renovation or industrial construction work in an amount equal to twenty per centum of the initial assessed value; provided, however, that with respect to a recipient who filed an application on or after July first, nineteen hundred ninety-five for a certificate of eligibility for industrial construction work or for commercial construction work in a special exemption area or a regular exemption area, minimum required expenditure means expenditure for such work in an amount equal to ten per centum of the initial assessed value; provided, however, that with respect to a recipient who filed an application on or after July first,

    nineteen hundred ninety-five for a certificate of eligibility for industrial construction work and for the purpose of receiving an abatement of real property taxes in accordance with paragraph (c) of subdivision one of section four hundred eighty-nine-bbbb of this title, minimum required expenditure means expenditure for such work in an amount equal to twenty-five per centum of the initial assessed value; and provided further that if the department of finance, after consultation with the deputy mayor for finance and economic development, determines that a greater expenditure is required to encourage significant industrial and commercial development it may establish by rule a higher percentage of initial assessed value, not to exceed fifty per centum thereof, as the minimum required expenditure. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA

  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Mixed-use property: means property on which will exist, after completion of residential construction work or a combination of residential construction work and commercial construction work, a building or structure used for both residential and commercial purposes, provided that after completion of such construction work, more than twenty-five per centum of the aggregate floor area of such building or

    structure is used or held out for use as commercial, community facility or accessory use space. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAA

  • Mixed-use property: means property on which exists, or will exist upon completion of construction work, a building or structure used for both residential and nonresidential purposes. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAAA
  • Mixed-use property: means property on which exists, or will exist upon completion of construction work, a building or structure used for both residential and nonresidential purposes. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • New entrant: shall mean any teacher who is a member of the retirement system except a present teacher. See
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Parent corporation: means a parent corporation of a type described in subsection (a), (b) or (c) of section one thousand seven hundred one of this article. See N.Y. Insurance Law 1702
  • peaking unit: shall mean a generating unit that: (a) is determined by the New York independent system operator or a federal or New York state energy regulatory commission to constitute a peaking unit as set forth in section 5. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAAA
  • Pension: shall mean the annual payments for life derived from payments made by an employer as provided in this article. See
  • Pension reserve: shall mean the present value of all payments to be made on account of any pension, or benefit in lieu of any pension, computed upon the basis of such mortality tables as shall be adopted by the retirement board with regular interest. See
  • Person: means an individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, association, agency, trust, estate, foreign or domestic government or subdivision thereof, or other entity. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAA
  • person: shall be deemed to include, in addition to those mentioned hereinabove, all the officers, directors and persons having an interest in more than ten percent of the issued and outstanding stock of the owner as herein defined, as holder or beneficial owner thereof, if such person be a corporation other than a banking organization as defined in section two of the banking law, a national banking association, a federal savings and loan association, the mortgage facilities corporation, savings banks life insurance fund, the savings banks retirement system, an authorized insurer as defined in section one hundred seven of the insurance law, or a trust company or other corporation organized under the laws of this state all the capital stock of which is owned by at least twenty savings banks or by at least twenty savings and loan associations or a subsidiary corporation all of the capital stock of which is owned by such trust company or other corporation. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2004
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Predominantly vacant land: means land, including land under water, on which not more than fifteen percent of the lot area contains enclosed, permanent improvements; in addition, such land may include existing foundations. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAA
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • Present teacher: shall mean any teacher who was a teacher on or before the first day of August, nineteen hundred twenty-one, whose membership in the retirement system created by this article has been continuous and

    a. See

  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Proceeds: shall mean the face or other pay-out value of an insurance policy or annuity plus reasonable interest to date of payment as shall be prescribed by regulations promulgated by the superintendent. See N.Y. Insurance Law 2701
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Railroad company: means a corporation, joint stock company, association, partnership, individual or other person operating a railroad system wholly within the state of New York as a common carrier by rail, including but not limited to a street, surface, underground or elevated railroad, whether as owner, lessee, mortgagee, trustee, receiver or assignee of railroad real property. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-B
  • Railroad company: means a corporation , joint stock company, association, partnership, individual or other person operating a railroad system both within and without the State of New York as a common carrier by rail, including but not limited to a street, surface, underground or elevated railroad and any corporation created under or in compliance with the rail passenger service act of nineteen hundred seventy or the regional rail reorganization act of nineteen hundred seventy-three as those acts were amended to April first, nineteen hundred seventy-six, whether as owner, lessee, mortgagee, trustee, receiver or assignee of railroad real property. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-BB
  • Railroad real property: means the land, real estate and real property (as defined in subdivision twelve of section one hundred two of this chapter) of a railroad company, which is used by such railroad company for transportation purposes and which is subject to real property taxation except as provided in this title, and includes (a) such property leased to such railroad company, (b) such property used for transportation purposes by such railroad company under a trackage right or other operating agreement, title to which is in other than a railroad company, as defined in subdivision two of this section and subdivision two of section four hundred eighty-nine-bb of this chapter, (c) such property used or occupied by such railroad company, title to which is in the state or in any municipal corporation thereof under any of the grade crossing elimination acts, and (d) such tangible property of such railroad company situated in, upon, under or above any street, highway, public place or public waters; but does not include the value of any franchise, right or permission to construct, maintain or operate, in, under, above, on or through, streets, highways or public places. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-B
  • Railroad real property: means the land, real estate and real property (as defined in subdivision twelve of section one hundred two of this chapter) of a railroad company, which is used by such railroad company for transportation purposes and which is subject to real property taxation except as provided in this title, and includes (a) such property leased to such railroad company, (b) such property used for transportation purposes by such railroad company under a trackage right or other operating agreement, title to which is in other than a railroad company as defined in subdivision two of this section and subdivision two of section four hundred eighty-nine-b of this chapter, (c) such property used or occupied by such railroad company, title to which is in the state or in any municipal corporation thereof under any of the grade crossing elimination acts, and (d) the tangible property of such railroad company situated in, upon, under or above any street, highway, public place or public waters; but does not include the value of any franchise, right or permission to construct, maintain or operate, in, under, above, on or through, streets, highways or public places. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-BB
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Reconstruction: means the modernization, rehabilitation, expansion or other improvement of an existing commercial or industrial structure where the total proposed project cost is in an amount equal to at least twenty percentum of the assessed value of the property at the time an application for a certificate of eligibility pursuant to this title is made, and where such modernization, rehabilitation, expansion or other improvement is physically and functionally integrated with the existing structure and does not create additional usable square footage greater than fifty per centum of the usable square footage of the existing structure except in a case where the existing structure has been substantially destroyed by fire or other casualty;

    8. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAA

  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Regular exemption area: means an area in which a regular exemption from taxes in accordance with subdivision three of section four hundred eighty-nine-bbbb of this title shall be available to a recipient who performs commercial construction work. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Remainderman: One entitled to the remainder of an estate after a particular reserved right or interest, such as a life tenancy, has expired.
  • Renovation exemption area: means the area specified in paragraph (d) of subdivision five of section four hundred eighty-nine-cccc of this title in which a renovation exemption from taxes in accordance with subdivision five of section four hundred eighty-nine-bbbb of this title shall be available to a recipient who performs renovation construction work. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Residential construction work: means the creation, modernization, rehabilitation, expansion or other improvement of dwelling units, other than dwelling units in a hotel, in the portion of mixed-use property to be used for residential purposes. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAA
  • Residential property: means property, other than property used for hotel purposes, on which exists or will exist, upon completion of construction work, a building or structure used for residential purposes. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Restricted activity: means any entertainment activity which the department of finance has identified in rules as an activity which, in the public interest, should not be encouraged through the benefits of this title. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAA
  • Restricted activity: means any entertainment activity that the department has identified in rules promulgated pursuant to a local law

    enacted pursuant to this title as an activity which, in the public interest, should not be encouraged through the benefits of this title. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAAA

  • Restricted activity: means any entertainment activity which the department of finance has identified in regulations promulgated pursuant to a local law enacted pursuant to this title as an activity which, in the public interest, should not be encouraged through the benefits of this title. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Retail purposes: means any activity that consists predominately of (a) the final sale of tangible personal property or services by a vendor as defined in section eleven hundred one of the tax law, (b) the sale of services that generally involve the physical, mental, and/or spiritual care of individuals or the physical care of the personal property of individuals, (c) retail banking services, or (d) the final sale of food and/or beverage by a vendor as defined in section eleven hundred one of the tax law, including the assembly, processing or packaging of goods, provided that sales of such tangible personal property or services are predominantly to purchasers who personally visit the facilities at which such sales are made or such property and services are provided. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAAA
  • Retirement allowance: shall mean the pension plus the annuity. See
  • Retirement board: shall mean the retirement board provided by section five hundred four of this article. See
  • Retirement fund: shall mean the state teachers' retirement fund for public school teachers of the state of New York as created by chapter one hundred forty of the laws of nineteen hundred ten, chapter four hundred forty-nine of the laws of nineteen hundred eleven, chapter forty-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fourteen, chapter one hundred three of the laws of nineteen hundred nineteen and chapter one hundred sixty-one of the laws of nineteen hundred twenty-three. See
  • Retirement system: shall mean the New York state teachers' retirement system provided for in section five hundred two of this article. See
  • Service: shall mean actual teaching or supervision by the teacher during regular school hours of the day, and shall mean governmental service in the state of New York in another capacity where the teacher was a member of the New York state employees retirement system, and where such service was credited to the teacher in the said New York state employees retirement system. See
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Special exemption area: means an area in which the commission has determined that a special exemption from real property taxes in accordance with subdivision two of section four hundred eighty-nine-bbbb of this title shall be available to a recipient who performs commercial construction work and, in addition, means the area specified in paragraph (d) of subdivision four of section four hundred eighty-nine-cccc of this title. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAA
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subsidiary: means subsidiaries of the types described in subsection (b) of section one thousand seven hundred four of this article and subsidiaries acquired or held under this article, section one thousand four hundred five or section four thousand two hundred forty of this chapter, but shall not include a subsidiary acquired or held under section one thousand four hundred four of this chapter or a subsidiary acquired or held by an insurer authorized to make investments by subsection (c) of section one thousand four hundred three of this chapter. See N.Y. Insurance Law 1702
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • taxation: means an ad valorem charge or special ad valorem levy imposed upon real property by or on behalf of a county, city, town, village, school district or special district. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-B
  • taxation: means an ad valorem charge or special ad valorem levy imposed upon real property by or on behalf of a county, city, town, village, school district or special district. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-BB
  • Teacher: shall mean any regular teacher, special teacher, including any school librarian or physical training teacher, principal, vice-principal,

    supervisor,

    supervisory

    principal,

    director, superintendent, city superintendent, assistant city superintendent, district superintendent and other member of the teaching or professional staff of any class, public school, vocational school, truant reformatory school or parental school, and of any or all classes of schools within the state of New York, including schools on the Indian reservation, conducted under the order and superintendence of and wholly or partly at the expense of the New York state education department or of a duly elected board of education, board of school directors or board of trustees of the state or of any city or school district thereof, provided that no person shall be deemed a teacher within the meaning of this article who is not so employed for full time outside vacation periods. See

  • tenant: includes "expansion tenant" "new tenant" and "renewal tenant. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 499-A
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Utility property: means property and equipment as described in paragraphs (c), (d), (e), (f) and (i) of subdivision twelve of section one hundred two of this chapter that is used in the ordinary course of business by its owner or any other entity or property as described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of subdivision twelve of section one hundred two of this chapter that is owned by any entity that uses in the ordinary course of business property and equipment as described in paragraphs (c), (d), (e), (f) and (i) of subdivision twelve of section one hundred two of this chapter, without regard to the classification of such property and equipment for real property tax purposes pursuant to section eighteen hundred two of this chapter, except that any such property and equipment used solely to serve the building to which they are attached shall not be deemed utility property. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 489-AAAAAA