Terms Used In New York Laws > Education > Title 1 > Article 21
- Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
- Adjusted gross estate: The gross estate, less funeral expenses, expenses of estate administration during probate, debts of the estate, and casualty losses suffered during estate administration.
- affiliate: means an entity which directly, indirectly or constructively controls a vendor of such enumerated services or is controlled by such vendor or is under the control of, along with such vendor, a common parent. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Affiliated livery vehicle: means a for-hire motor vehicle with a seating capacity of up to six persons, including the driver, other than a black car or luxury limousine, that is authorized and licensed by the taxi and limousine commission of a city of one million or more to be dispatched by a base station located in such a city and regulated by such taxi and limousine commission; and the charges for service provided by an affiliated livery vehicle are on the basis of flat rate, time, mileage, or zones and not on a garage to garage basis. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
- Article: means a prose composition, including commentaries, reviews, editorials, op-eds, letters to the editor, and reader comments on articles. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Authorized expenditures: shall mean those expenditures determined by the commissioner to be reasonable and necessary for the adequate and proper enforcement of the provisions of this chapter, and for implementing an accident reporting system and vessel and related equipment anti-theft program and/or an "I love NY waterways" boating safety program and/or a boating noise level enforcement program. See N.Y. Navigation Law 79-A
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- Bequest: Property gifted by will.
- Bus: means any motor vehicle with a seating capacity of at least fifteen persons, excluding the driver, that does not otherwise qualify as a limousine. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Cap amount: means three hundred percent of the annualized average daily newsstand price of the three newspapers with the largest total paid national daily circulation. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Chambers: A judge's office.
- Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
- Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
- Construction: includes construction of new buildings, acquisition of existing buildings, and expansion, remodeling, alteration, and renovation of existing buildings, and initial equipment of such new, newly acquired, expanded, remodeled, altered or renovated buildings;
b. See N.Y. Education Law 1002
- Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
- core documents: shall mean those public documents for which library users have the most significant and frequent need. See N.Y. New York State Printing and Public Documents Law 10
- corporation: shall mean every public authority and public benefit corporation a majority of the governing board members of which are either appointed by the governor or serve as members by virtue of their service as an officer of a state department, division, agency, board or bureau, or combination thereof. See N.Y. New York State Printing and Public Documents Law 10
- county: shall mean any county in this state, except a county wholly within a city. See N.Y. Tax Law 1215
- Customer: shall include : every purchaser of tangible personal property or services; every patron paying or liable for the payment of any amusement charge; and every occupant of a room or rooms in a hotel. See N.Y. Tax Law 1131
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- Devise: To gift property by will.
- diesel motor fuel: means diesel motor fuel as defined in subdivision fourteen of section two hundred eighty-two of this chapter. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
- Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
- Donee: The recipient of a gift.
- Dower: A widow
- Eligible governmental entity: shall mean the Lake George park commission or a county enforcing the provisions of this chapter and having an accident reporting system and vessel and related equipment anti-theft program and/or an "I love NY waterways" boating safety program and/or boating noise level enforcement program approved by the commissioner. See N.Y. Navigation Law 79-A
- Entertainment event: shall include concerts, athletic contests or exhibitions, other than amateur sports competition, and other similar forms of entertainment, irrespective of both the kind of facility or site where such event is held and whether such event has an admission charge subject to tax, where the person or persons performing at such event do not perform on a regular, systematic or recurring basis at the same location. See N.Y. Tax Law 1131
- Entertainment promoter: shall include any person who either directly or indirectly rents, leases or grants a license to use space to an entertainment vendor at the facility or site of an entertainment event, or who under any other arrangement authorizes such a vendor to sell tangible personal property at such facility or site, and any person who has any management responsibility with respect to such a vendor making such sales at such an event. See N.Y. Tax Law 1131
- Entertainment vendor: shall include any person who makes sales of tangible personal property subject to tax at an entertainment event. See N.Y. Tax Law 1131
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- executor: means the executor or administrator of the estate of the decedent, or, if there is no executor or administrator appointed, qualified and acting, then any person or entity in actual or constructive possession of any property of the decedent. See N.Y. Tax Law 951-A
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- farming: includes agriculture, floriculture, horticulture, aquaculture and silviculture; stock, dairy, poultry, fruit, fur bearing animal, graping, truck and tree farming; ranching; operating nurseries, greenhouses, vineyard trellises or other similar structures used primarily for the raising of agricultural, horticultural,
or silvicultural commodities; operating orchards; raising, growing and harvesting crops, livestock and livestock products, as defined in subdivision two of section three hundred one of the agriculture and markets law; and raising, growing and harvesting woodland products, including, but not limited to, timber, logs, lumber, pulpwood, posts and firewood. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
- You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
- The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
- The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
- General news: means matters of general interest and reports of current events. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
- Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
- Gross estate: The total fair market value of all property and property interests, real and personal, tangible and intangible, of which a decedent had beneficial ownership at the time of death before subtractions for deductions, debts, administrative expenses, and casualty losses suffered during estate administration.
- Handicapped person: means any person who in the judgment of the department is under a physical or mental disability which constitutes a substantial handicap to employment but which is of such a nature that vocational rehabilitation services may reasonably be expected to render him fit to engage in gainful employment, and also any person under a physical or mental disability which constitutes a substantial handicap to employment and for whom vocational rehabilitation services are necessary to ascertain his rehabilitation potential. See N.Y. Education Law 1002
- Home service provider: shall mean a facilities-based carrier or reseller as defined in subparagraph (iv) of this paragraph, with which the mobile telecommunications customer contracts for the provision of mobile telecommunications service. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- hotel: includes an apartment hotel, a motel, boarding house or club, whether or not meals are served. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Individuals with severe disabilities: means persons for whom competitive employment has either not traditionally occurred or has been interrupted or intermittent as a result of having a permanent and substantially disabling physical, sensory, or mental condition. See N.Y. Education Law 1002
- Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
- Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
- Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
- Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
- Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- Licensed service area: shall mean the geographic area in which a home service provider is authorized by law or contract to provide mobile telecommunications service to a mobile telecommunications customer. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Life estate: A property interest limited in duration to the life of the individual holding the interest (life tenant).
- Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
- Marital deduction: The deduction(s) that can be taken in the determination of gift and estate tax liabilities because of the existence of a marriage or marital relationship.
- Mobile telecommunications customer: shall mean either (A) a person or entity that contracts with a home service provider for mobile telecommunications services; or (B) if the end user of mobile telecommunications services is not the contracting party, the end user of the mobile telecommunications service, but this clause (B) applies only for the purpose of determining the place of primary use. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Mobile telecommunications service: shall mean commercial mobile radio service. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- motor fuel: means motor fuel as defined in subdivision two of section two hundred eighty-two of this chapter. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- News content: means the articles, photographs, and video and audio material concerning general news or specialized news and does not include listings, advertisements, catalogs, compilations, databases, or the like. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Non-news content: means any information other than news content. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- person: includes an individual, a trustee, a corporation, an association, a joint-stock company, a partnership, a limited liability company and a bank. See N.Y. Tax Law 951-A
- person: includes an individual, partnership, limited liability company, society, association, joint stock company, corporation, estate, receiver, trustee, assignee, referee, and any other person acting in a fiduciary or representative capacity, whether appointed by a court or otherwise, and any combination of the foregoing. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- person required to collect any tax imposed by this article: shall include : every vendor of tangible personal property or services; every recipient of amusement charges; every operator of a hotel; and every marketplace provider with respect to sales of tangible personal property it facilitates as described in paragraph one of subdivision (e) of section eleven hundred one of this article. See N.Y. Tax Law 1131
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Petroleum products: means diesel motor fuel as defined in subdivision fourteen of section two hundred eighty-two of this chapter, other than kerosene or propane used for residential purposes, or motor fuel as defined in subdivision two of section two hundred eighty-two of this chapter. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- population: shall mean the number of people in the particular taxing jurisdiction as shown by the latest federal census. See N.Y. Tax Law 1215
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- Prepaid telephone calling service: means the right to exclusively purchase telecommunication services, that must be paid for in advance and enable the origination of one or more intrastate, interstate or international telephone calls using an access number (such as a toll free network access number) and/or authorization code, whether manually or electronically dialed, for which payment to a vendor must be made in advance, whether or not that right is represented by the transfer by the vendor to the purchaser of an item of tangible personal property. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Program year: shall mean the calendar year. See N.Y. Navigation Law 79-A
- public document: shall mean any final annual, biennial, regular, statutorily mandated or other report, study or multi-year plan issued by a state agency in multiple copies, which has been distributed to the public, except items issued strictly for administrative or operational purposes, inter-agency and intra-agency memoranda, drafts of reports, public service announcements, written opinions rendered in cases determined in the court of appeals, appellate divisions of the supreme court or any other court of record and any public documents or portions thereof that are compiled for law enforcement purposes and which, if disclosed, would interfere with law enforcement investigations or judicial proceedings, deprive a person of the right to a fair trial or impartial adjudication, identify a confidential source or disclose confidential information relating to a criminal investigation or reveal criminal investigative techniques or procedures, other than routine techniques and procedures. See N.Y. New York State Printing and Public Documents Law 10
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Remainderman: One entitled to the remainder of an estate after a particular reserved right or interest, such as a life tenancy, has expired.
- Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
- Reseller: shall mean a provider who purchases telecommunications service from another telecommunications service provider and then resells, uses as a component part of, or integrates the purchased services into a mobile telecommunications service. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Right of survivorship: The ownership rights that result in the acquisition of title to property by reason of having survived other co-owners.
- Right to use or possess: includes the rights of a room remarketer as described in paragraph eight of this subdivision. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
- Show: shall include a flea market, craft show, antique show, coin show, stamp show, comic book show, fair and any similar show, whether held regularly or of a temporary nature, at which more than one vendor displays for sale or sells tangible personal property or services subject to tax. See N.Y. Tax Law 1131
- Show promoter: shall include any person who, either directly or indirectly, rents, leases or grants a license to use space to any person for the display for sale or for the sale of tangible personal property or services subject to tax, at more than three shows during the calendar year, or who operates more than three shows during the calendar year. See N.Y. Tax Law 1131
- Specialized news: means matters of a specialized interest, such as legal, mercantile, financial, theatrical, entertainment news, political, religious, or sporting matters. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- state agency: shall mean any state office, department, division, board, bureau, commission or corporation, provided, however, it shall not include the New York state legislature or any of its standing, special, select and joint committees, subcommittees and legislative commissions. See N.Y. New York State Printing and Public Documents Law 10
- State aid: shall mean payments by the state to an eligible governmental entity in accordance with the provisions of this article. See N.Y. Navigation Law 79-A
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
- Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- Supported employment: means paid competitive work performed by individuals with severe disabilities who require intensive support services to obtain such employment and extended support to sustain such employment, and which is performed in an integrated setting which
provides regular interactions with individuals who do not have disabilities, other than paid caregivers. See N.Y. Education Law 1002
- tangible personal property: means corporeal personal property, including money held for numismatic purposes, and does not include deposits in banks, mortgages, debts, receivables, shares of stock, bonds, notes, credits, evidences of an interest in property, evidences of debt, or choses in action generally. See N.Y. Tax Law 951-A
- Tax: shall include any tax imposed by sections eleven hundred five, or eleven hundred ten, and any amount payable to the tax commission by a person required to file a return, as provided in section eleven hundred thirty-seven. See N.Y. Tax Law 1131
- Taxing jurisdiction: shall mean any of the several states, the District of Columbia, or any territory or possession of the United States, any municipality, city, county, township, parish, transportation district, or assessment jurisdiction, or any other political subdivision within the territorial limits of the United States with the authority to impose a tax, charge, or fee. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- taxpayer: means the estate of the decedent and any other person subject to or liable for any tax imposed by this article. See N.Y. Tax Law 951-A
- Temporary vendor: shall include any person who makes sales of tangible personal property or services subject to tax (other than at a show or entertainment event) in not more than two consecutive quarterly periods in any twelve month period, as such quarterly periods are described in subdivision (b) of section eleven hundred thirty-six of this article. See N.Y. Tax Law 1131
- Tenancy by the entirety: A type of joint tenancy between husband and wife that is recognized in some States. Neither party can sever the joint tenancy relationship; when a spouse dies, the survivor acquires full title to the property.
- this chapter: includes any "related statute" or any "related income or earnings tax statute" as defined in section eighteen hundred of this article. See N.Y. Tax Law 1801
- Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
- vendor: includes :
(A) A person making sales of tangible personal property or services, the receipts from which are taxed by this article;
(B) A person maintaining a place of business in the state and making sales, whether at such place of business or elsewhere, to persons within the state of tangible personal property or services, the use of which is taxed by this article;
(C) A person who solicits business either:
(I) by employees, independent contractors, agents or other representatives; or
(II) by distribution of catalogs or other advertising matter, without regard to whether such distribution is the result of regular or systematic solicitation, if such person has some additional connection with the state which satisfies the nexus requirement of the United States constitution; and by reason thereof makes sales to persons within the state of tangible personal property or services, the use of which is taxed by this article;
(D) A person who makes sales of tangible personal property or services, the use of which is taxed by this article, and who regularly or systematically delivers such property or services in this state by means other than the United States mail or common carrier;
(E) A person who regularly or systematically solicits business in this state by the distribution, without regard to the location from which such distribution originated, of catalogs, advertising flyers or letters, or by any other means of solicitation of business, to persons in this state and by reason thereof makes sales to persons within the state of tangible personal property, the use of which is taxed by this article, if such solicitation satisfies the nexus requirement of the United States constitution;
(F) A person making sales of tangible personal property, the use of which is taxed by this article, where such person retains an ownership interest in such property and where such property is brought into this state by the person to whom such property is sold and the person to whom such property is sold becomes or is a resident or uses such property in any manner in carrying on in this state any employment, trade, business or profession;
(G) Any other person making sales to persons within the state of tangible personal property or services, the use of which is taxed by this article, who may be authorized by the commissioner of taxation and finance to collect such tax by part IV of this article;
(H) The state of New York, any of its agencies, instrumentalities, public corporations (including a public corporation created pursuant to agreement or compact with another state or Canada) or political subdivisions when such entity sells services or property of a kind ordinarily sold by private persons; and
(I) A seller of tangible personal property or services, the use of which is taxed by this article if either (I) an affiliated person that
is a vendor as otherwise defined in this paragraph uses in the state trademarks, service marks, or trade names that are the same as those the seller uses; or (II) an affiliated person engages in activities in the state that inure to the benefit of the seller, in its development or maintenance of a market for its goods or services in the state, to the extent that those activities of the affiliate are sufficient to satisfy the nexus requirement of the United States constitution. See N.Y. Tax Law 1101
- Vocational rehabilitation services: means :
a. See N.Y. Education Law 1002
- Workshop: means a place where any manufacture or handiwork is carried on and which is operated for the principle purpose of providing gainful employment to severely handicapped persons (a) as an interim step in the rehabilitation process for those who cannot be absorbed in the competitive labor market; or (b) during such time as employment opportunities for them in the competitive labor market do not exist. See N.Y. Education Law 1002