Article 18 Application of This Title
Article 19 Licensing of Drivers
Article 19-A Special Requirements for Bus Drivers
Article 19-B Special Requirements for Commercial Motor Carriers
Article 20 Suspension and Revocation
Article 21 Alcohol and Drug Rehabilitation Program
Article 21-A Restricted Use Licenses
Article 21-B Medical Advisory Board
Article 21-C Certificates for Escort Vehicles

Terms Used In New York Laws > Vehicle and Traffic > Title 5

  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affiliate: means a person who directly or indirectly owns or controls, is owned or controlled by, or is under common ownership or control with, another person. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-OO
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Allocable share: means allocable share as that term is defined in the master settlement agreement. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-OO
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-at-law: A person who is legally qualified and licensed to practice law, and to represent and act for clients in legal proceedings.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Bidis: means a product containing tobacco that is wrapped in temburni leaf (diospyros melanoxylon) or tendra leaf (diospyros exculpra), or any other product offered to consumers as "beedies" or "bidis". See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-AA
  • cigarette: includes "roll-your-own" (i. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-OO
  • Commercial driver: shall mean every person who is self-employed or employed by a commercial motor carrier and who drives a commercial motor vehicle for hire or profit. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 509-P
  • Commercial motor carrier: shall mean any person, corporation, or entity, who directs one or more commercial motor vehicles and who operates a commercial motor vehicle wholly within or partly within and partly without this state in connection with the operation or administration of any business. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 509-P
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • conservatee: means a person who has suffered substantial impairment of his ability to care for his property or has become unable to provide for himself or others dependent upon him for support for whom a conservator of his property has been appointed, pursuant to section 77. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 1701
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Council: means the New York state council on graduate medical education. See N.Y. Public Health Law 901
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Disclosure statement: means a written statement submitted initially and/or amended annually containing such information as the commissioner by regulation may require on forms to be prescribed by the commissioner. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1400
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • dispose of: means to sell, convey, exchange, mortgage, release or lease. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 1701
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Dower: A widow
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Enforcement officer: means the enforcement officer designated pursuant to article thirteen-E of this chapter to enforce such article and hold hearings pursuant thereto; provided that in a city with a population of more than one million it shall also mean an officer or employee or any agency of such city that is authorized to enforce any local law of such city related to the regulation of the sale of tobacco products to minors. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-AA
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • facility: shall mean any governmental or private agency, department, institution, clinic, laboratory, hospital, nursing care facility, health maintenance organization, association or other similar entity that provides medical care. See N.Y. Public Health Law 2000
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • GVWR: shall mean the weight of a vehicle consisting of the unladen weight and the maximum carrying capacity recommended by the manufacturer of such vehicle. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 509-P
  • Herbal cigarette: means any product made primarily of an herb or combination of herbs, and intended to be smoked in any of the methods that tobacco is smoked, including but not limited to, as a cigarette, cigar or pipe filler. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-AA
  • incompetent person: means a person incompetent to manage his affairs of whose property a committee has been appointed pursuant to section 78. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 1701
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • interest in real property: includes any term, estate or other interest in real property, vested or contingent, of an infant in being, an incompetent person, or a conservatee including an inchoate right of dower and a possibility of reverter, and also the contingent interest of an infant not in being. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 1701
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • Master settlement agreement: means the settlement agreement (and related documents) entered into on November twenty-third, nineteen hundred ninety-eight by the state and leading United States tobacco product manufacturers. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-OO
  • member of the armed forces: shall include active duty military personnel; members of the reserve components of the armed forces; members of the national guard on active duty, including personnel on full time active guard duty, personnel on part-time national guard training, and national guard military technicians (civilians who are required to wear military uniforms); and active duty United States coast guard personnel. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 501-A
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • Motel or hotel: shall mean establishments distinguished as hotels, motels, bungalow colonies, or any other establishment comparable or equivalent to any of those previously mentioned. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-J
  • Motor vehicle: includes every vehicle operated or driven upon a public highway which is propelled by any power other than muscular power, except (a) electrically-driven invalid chairs being operated or driven by an invalid, (b) vehicles which run only upon rails or tracks, and (c) snowmobiles as defined in article forty-seven of the vehicle and traffic law. See N.Y. Penal Law 150.00
  • Nicotine water: means bottled water that is laced with nicotine. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-AA
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Officer: shall mean the commissioner, the health commissioner of a city with a population of over fifty thousand, the health commissioner of a county or part-county health district, the state district health officer, in whose jurisdiction a children's overnight camp, summer day camp, or the primary inclement weather facility of the children's traveling summer day camp is located, or if there be no such facility then the state district health officer in whose jurisdiction the central office is located, any county health director having all the powers and duties prescribed in section three hundred fifty-two of this chapter, the state district sanitary engineer or a grade one public health administrator qualified and appointed pursuant to part eleven of the sanitary code and serving as primary administrator of all health programs in a county or part-county health district. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1392
  • Officer: shall mean the health commissioner of a city of fifty thousand population and over or of a county or part-county health district, or the state district health officer, in whose jurisdiction a hotel or motel is located or any county health director having all the powers and duties prescribed in section three hundred fifty-two of this chapter. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-J
  • Parent: means the birth or adoptive parent, the guardian, or person otherwise authorized to make a contract of enrollment for a child. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1400
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: means a person, firm, company, corporation, partnership, sole proprietor, limited partnership or association. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-AA
  • person: means an individual, partnership, committee, association, corporation or any other organization or group of persons. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-OO
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • pesticide: means any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any insect, rodent, fungi, weeds, or other forms of plant or animal life or viruses, except viruses on or in living man or animals. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1602
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • possibility of reverter: means the possibility that upon breach of a condition or termination of an estate by limitation the right of re-entry will vest in, or real property will revert to, an infant, incompetent person or conservatee or his heirs solely or in common with others. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 1701
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • President: means the president of the New York state higher education services corporation. See N.Y. Public Health Law 901
  • Primary care medical training program: means a graduate medical education training program in New York state defined by the commissioner, in consultation with the council, pursuant to regulations, as providing appropriate training in primary care medicine. See N.Y. Public Health Law 901
  • Primary care physician: means a physician specialist in the field of family practice, general pediatrics, primary care internal medicine or primary care obstetrics and gynecology; who provides coordinated primary care services. See N.Y. Public Health Law 901
  • Primary care practitioner: means a midwife, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant who is licensed or certified to practice in New York state and who provides or arranges for coordinated primary care services. See N.Y. Public Health Law 901
  • Primary care practitioner program: means a full or part-time graduate, undergraduate or certificate course of study, approved or registered by the regents or a program registered by the department of education or determined by the department of education to be the equivalent required to practice as a licensed or certified primary care practitioner. See N.Y. Public Health Law 901
  • Private club: means an organization with no more than an insignificant portion of its membership comprised of people under the age of eighteen years that regularly receives dues and/or payments from its members for the use of space, facilities and services. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-AA
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Released claims: means released claims as that term is defined in the master settlement agreement. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-OO
  • Releasing parties: means releasing parties as that term is defined in the master settlement agreement. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-OO
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Shisha: means any product made primarily of tobacco or other leaf, or any combination thereof, smoked or intended to be smoked in a hookah or water pipe. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-AA
  • short form: means an abbreviated version of the disclosure statement containing such information from the disclosure statement as the commissioner may require. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1400
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summer day camp: shall mean a property consisting of a tract of land and any tents, vehicles, buildings or other structures that may be pertinent to its use, any part of which may be occupied on a scheduled basis at any time between June first and September fifteenth in any year by children under sixteen years of age under general supervision, for the purpose of indoor or outdoor organized group activities, involving nonpassive recreational activities with significant risk of injury, as such activities are defined by the department in rules and regulations, for a period of less than twenty-four hours on any day the property is so occupied, and on which no provisions are made for overnight occupancy by such children. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1392
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tobacco business: means a sole proprietorship, corporation, limited liability company, partnership or other enterprise in which the primary activity is the sale, manufacture or promotion of tobacco, tobacco products and accessories, either at wholesale or retail, and in which the sale, manufacture or promotion of other products is merely incidental. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-AA
  • Tobacco product manufacturer: means an entity that after the effective date of this article directly (and not exclusively through any affiliate):

    (a) manufacturers cigarettes anywhere that such manufacturer intends to be sold in the United States, including cigarettes intended to be sold in the United States through an importer (except where such importer is an original participating manufacturer (as that term is

    defined in the master settlement agreement) that will be responsible for the payments under the master settlement agreement with respect to such cigarettes as a result of the provisions of subsections II(mm) of the master settlement agreement and that pays the taxes specified in subsection II(z) of the master settlement agreement, and provided that the manufacturer of such cigarettes does not market or advertise such cigarettes in the United States);

    (b) is the first purchaser anywhere for resale in the United States of cigarettes manufactured anywhere that the manufacturer does not intend to be sold in the United States; or

    (c) becomes a successor of an entity described in paragraph (a) or (b) of this subdivision. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-OO

  • Tobacco products: means one or more cigarettes or cigars, bidis, chewing tobacco, powdered tobacco, nicotine water or any other tobacco products. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1399-AA
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Traveling summer day camp: shall mean a summer day camp which regularly operates in the period between May fifteenth and September fifteenth and which regularly transports children under the age of sixteen on a regular schedule to a facility, site, or property, including any tract of land, beach, park, stadium, building, tents or other structures pertinent to its use and primarily for the purposes of organized group activity. See N.Y. Public Health Law 1392
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Underserved area: means an area or medically underserved population designated by the commissioner pursuant to regulation, and in consultation with the respective health systems agency, as having a shortage of primary care physicians or primary care practitioners. See N.Y. Public Health Law 901
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.