Terms Used In Texas Business and Commerce Code Chapter 57 - Agricultural, Construction, Industrial, Mining, Forestry, Landscaping, and Outdoor Power Equipment Dealer Agreements
- Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
- A verdict of "not guilty."
- Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
- Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
- Affiliate: means a person who, directly or indirectly, through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with a specified person, including any direct or indirect parent or subsidiary. See Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
- Bailiff: a court officer who enforces the rules of behavior in courtrooms.
- Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts.
- Charge to the jury: The judge's instructions to the jury concerning the law that applies to the facts of the case on trial.
- Claimant: means a person, including a decedent's estate, seeking or who has sought recovery of damages in a health care liability claim. See Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Commissioner: means the commissioner of agriculture. See Texas Agriculture Code 1.003
- Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
- Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
- Control: means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of the person, whether through ownership of equity or securities, by contract, or otherwise. See Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- County election precinct: means an election precinct established under Section Texas Election Code 1.005
- Court: means any federal or state court. See Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- Devise: To gift property by will.
- Disclosure panel: means the Texas Medical Disclosure Panel. See Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Donor: The person who makes a gift.
- Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
- Emergency medical care: means bona fide emergency services provided after the sudden onset of a medical or traumatic condition manifesting itself by acute symptoms of sufficient severity, including severe pain, such that the absence of immediate medical attention could reasonably be expected to result in placing the patient's health in serious jeopardy, serious impairment to bodily functions, or serious dysfunction of any bodily organ or part. See Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Emergency medical services provider: means a licensed public or private provider to which Chapter Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
- Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
- Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
- Fair Debt Collection Practices Act: The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act is a set of United States statutes added as Title VIII of the Consumer Credit Protection Act. Its purpose is to ensure ethical practices in the collection of consumer debts and to provide consumers with an avenue for disputing and obtaining validation of debt information in order to ensure the information's accuracy. It is often used in conjunction with the Fair Credit Reporting Act. Source: OCC
- Federal judge: means :
(A) a judge, former judge, or retired judge of a United States court of appeals;
(B) a judge, former judge, or retired judge of a United States district court;
(C) a judge, former judge, or retired judge of a United States bankruptcy court; or
(D) a magistrate judge, former magistrate judge, or retired magistrate judge of a United States district court. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
- Final canvass: means the canvass from which the official result of an election is determined. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Finance charge: The total cost of credit a customer must pay on a consumer loan, including interest. The Truth in Lending Act requires disclosure of the finance charge. Source: OCC
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- General election: means an election, other than a primary election, that regularly recurs at fixed dates. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- General election for state and county officers: means the general election at which officers of the federal, state, and county governments are elected. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
- Health care: means any act or treatment performed or furnished, or that should have been performed or furnished, by any health care provider for, to, or on behalf of a patient during the patient's medical care, treatment, or confinement. See Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Health care institution: includes :
(A) an ambulatory surgical center;
(B) an assisted living facility licensed under Chapter Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Health care liability claim: means a cause of action against a health care provider or physician for treatment, lack of treatment, or other claimed departure from accepted standards of medical care, or health care, or safety or professional or administrative services directly related to health care, which proximately results in injury to or death of a claimant, whether the claimant's claim or cause of action sounds in tort or contract. See Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Health care provider: means any person, partnership, professional association, corporation, facility, or institution duly licensed, certified, registered, or chartered by the State of Texas to provide health care, including:
(i) a registered nurse;
(ii) a dentist;
(iii) a podiatrist;
(iv) a pharmacist;
(v) a chiropractor;
(vi) an optometrist;
(vii) a health care institution; or
(viii) a health care collaborative certified under Chapter Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Home and community support services agency: means a licensed public or provider agency to which Chapter Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Hospice: means a hospice facility or activity to which Chapter Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Hospital: means a licensed public or private institution as defined in Chapter Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Hospital system: means a system of hospitals located in this state that are under the common governance or control of a corporate parent. See Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
- Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
- Intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded: means a licensed public or private institution to which Chapter Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
- Joint meeting: An occasion, often ceremonial, when the House and Senate each adopt a unanimous consent agreement
- Joint session: When both chambers of a legislature adopt a concurrent resolution to meet together.
- Juror: A person who is on the jury.
- Law: means a constitution, statute, city charter, or city ordinance. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
- Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
- Legislative session: That part of a chamber's daily session in which it considers legislative business (bills, resolutions, and actions related thereto).
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
- Measure: means a question or proposal submitted in an election for an expression of the voters' will. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Medical care: means any act defined as practicing medicine under Section Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Mistrial: An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again from the selection of the jury.
- most recent federal census: means the United States decennial census immediately preceding the action in question. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
- National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
- Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
- Noneconomic damages: has the meaning assigned by Section Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Nursing home: means a licensed public or private institution to which Chapter Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
- Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
- Pharmacist: means one licensed under Chapter Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Physician: means :
(A) an individual licensed to practice medicine in this state;
(B) a professional association organized under the Texas Professional Association Act (Article 1528f, Vernon's Texas Civil Statutes) by an individual physician or group of physicians;
(C) a partnership or limited liability partnership formed by a group of physicians;
(D) a nonprofit health corporation certified under Section Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
- Political subdivision: means a county, city, or school district or any other governmental entity that:
(A) embraces a geographic area with a defined boundary;
(B) exists for the purpose of discharging functions of government; and
(C) possesses authority for subordinate self-government through officers selected by it. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
- Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- Professional or administrative services: means those duties or services that a physician or health care provider is required to provide as a condition of maintaining the physician's or health care provider's license, accreditation status, or certification to participate in state or federal health care programs. See Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Proposition: means the wording appearing on a ballot to identify a measure. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Public defender: Represent defendants who can't afford an attorney in criminal matters.
- Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
- Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
- Registered voter: means a person registered to vote in this state whose registration is effective. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
- Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
- Representative: means the spouse, parent, guardian, trustee, authorized attorney, or other authorized legal agent of the patient or claimant. See Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code 74.001
- Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
- Residence address: means the street address and any apartment number, or the address at which mail is received if the residence has no address, and the city, state, and zip code that correspond to a person's residence. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Revolving credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or open-end credit.) Source: OCC
- Sequester: To separate. Sometimes juries are sequestered from outside influences during their deliberations.
- Special election: means an election that is not a general election or a primary election. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- State judge: means :
(A) a judge, former judge, or retired judge of an appellate court, a district court, a constitutional county court, a county court at law, or a statutory probate court of this state;
(B) an associate judge appointed under Chapter Texas Election Code 1.005
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- Succeeding: means immediately following. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Swear: includes affirm. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
- Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
- Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
- Voir dire: The process by which judges and lawyers select a petit jury from among those eligible to serve, by questioning them to determine knowledge of the facts of the case and a willingness to decide the case only on the evidence presented in court. "Voir dire" is a phrase meaning "to speak the truth."
- Voting year: means the 12-month period beginning January 1 of each year. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Week: means seven consecutive days. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.