§ 1 Short title
§ 1a Definitions
§ 1b Requirements of Secretary of the Treasury regarding exemption of foreign exchange swaps and foreign exchange forwards from definition of the term “swap”
§ 2 Jurisdiction of Commission; liability of principal for act of agent; Commodity Futures Trading Commission; transaction in interstate commerce
§ 5 Findings and purpose
§ 6 Regulation of futures trading and foreign transactions
§ 6a Excessive speculation
§ 6b Contracts designed to defraud or mislead
§ 6b–1 Enforcement authority
§ 6c Prohibited transactions
§ 6d Dealing by unregistered futures commission merchants or introducing brokers prohibited; duties in handling customer receipts; conflict-of-interest systems and procedures; Chief Compliance Officer; rules to avoid duplicative regulations; swap requirements
§ 6e Dealings by unregistered floor trader or broker prohibited
§ 6f Registration and financial requirements; risk assessment
§ 6g Reporting and recordkeeping
§ 6h False self-representation as registered entity member prohibited
§ 6i Reports of deals equal to or in excess of trading limits; books and records; cash and controlled transactions
§ 6j Restrictions on dual trading in security futures products on designated contract markets and registered derivatives transaction execution facilities
§ 6k Registration of associates of futures commission merchants, commodity pool operators, and commodity trading advisors; required disclosure of disqualifications; exemptions for associated persons
§ 6l Commodity trading advisors and commodity pool operators; Congressional finding
§ 6m Use of mails or other means or instrumentalities of interstate commerce by commodity trading advisors and commodity pool operators; relation to other law
§ 6n Registration of commodity trading advisors and commodity pool operators; application; expiration and renewal; record keeping and reports; disclosure; statements of account
§ 6o Fraud and misrepresentation by commodity trading advisors, commodity pool operators, and associated persons
§ 6p Standards and examinations
§ 6q Special procedures to encourage and facilitate bona fide hedging by agricultural producers
§ 6r Reporting and recordkeeping for uncleared swaps
§ 6s Registration and regulation of swap dealers and major swap participants
§ 6t Large swap trader reporting
§ 7 Designation of boards of trade as contract markets
§ 7a–1 Derivatives clearing organizations
§ 7a–2 Common provisions applicable to registered entities
§ 7b Suspension or revocation of designation as registered entity
§ 7b–1 Designation of securities exchanges and associations as contract markets
§ 7b–2 Privacy
§ 7b–3 Swap execution facilities
§ 8 Application for designation as contract market or derivatives transaction execution facility; time; suspension or revocation of designation; hearing; review by court of appeals
§ 9 Prohibition regarding manipulation and false information
§ 9a Assessment of money penalties
§ 9b Rules prohibiting deceptive and other abusive telemarketing acts or practices
§ 9c Notice of investigations and enforcement actions
§ 10a Cooperative associations and corporations, exclusion from board of trade; rules of board inapplicable to payment of compensation by association
§ 11 Vacation on request of designation or registration as “registered entity”; redesignation or reregistration
§ 12 Public disclosure
§ 12a Registration of commodity dealers and associated persons; regulation of registered entities
§ 12b Trading ban violations; prohibition
§ 12c Disciplinary actions
§ 12d Commission action for noncompliance with export sales reporting requirements
§ 13 Violations generally; punishment; costs of prosecution
§ 13–1 Violations, prohibition against dealings in motion picture box office receipts or onion futures; punishment
§ 13a Nonenforcement of rules of government or other violations; cease and desist orders; fines and penalties; imprisonment; misdemeanor; separate offenses
§ 13a–1 Enjoining or restraining violations
§ 13a–2 Jurisdiction of States
§ 13b Manipulations or other violations; cease and desist orders against persons other than registered entities; punishment
§ 13c Responsibility as principal; minor violations
§ 15b Cotton futures contracts
§ 16 Commission operations
§ 16a Service fees and National Futures Association study
§ 17 Separability
§ 17a Separability of 1936 amendment
§ 17b Separability of 1968 amendment
§ 18 Complaints against registered persons
§ 19 Consideration of costs and benefits and antitrust laws
§ 20 Market reports
§ 21 Registered futures associations
§ 22 Research and information programs; reports to Congress
§ 23 Standardized contracts for certain commodities
§ 24 Customer property with respect to commodity broker debtors; definitions
§ 24a Swap data repositories
§ 25 Private rights of action
§ 26 Commodity whistleblower incentives and protection
§ 27 Definitions
§ 27a Exclusion of identified banking product
§ 27c Exclusion of certain other identified banking products
§ 27d Administration of the predominance test
§ 27f Contract enforcement

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 7 > Chapter 1

  • account: means an item for which appropriations are made in any appropriation Act and, for items not provided for in appropriation Acts, such term means an item for which there is a designated budget account identification code number in the President's budget. See 26 USC 33
  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • addict: means any individual who habitually uses any narcotic drug so as to endanger the public morals, health, safety, or welfare, or who is so far addicted to the use of narcotic drugs as to have lost the power of self-control with reference to his addiction. See 21 USC 802
  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Adjournment sine die: The end of a legislative session "without day." These adjournments are used to indicate the final adjournment of an annual or the two-year session of legislature.
  • administer: refers to the direct application of a controlled substance to the body of a patient or research subject by--

    (A) a practitioner (or, in his presence, by his authorized agent), or

    (B) the patient or research subject at the direction and in the presence of the practitioner,


    whether such application be by injection, inhalation, ingestion, or any other means. See 21 USC 802

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • agency: has the meaning given that term in section 551(1) of title 5. See 26 USC 5112
  • Agency of the United States Government: includes any agency, department, board, wholly or partly owned corporation, instrumentality, commission, or establishment of the United States Government. See 22 USC 2403
  • agent: means an authorized person who acts on behalf of or at the direction of a manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser. See 21 USC 802
  • Agreement: means the Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing, done at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in Rome, Italy, November 22, 2009, and signed by the United States November 22, 2009. See 20 USC 3489
  • Agriculture: includes aquaculture and fisheries. See 22 USC 2403
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Alternate valuation date: The earlier of the date six months after the decedent
  • alternative trading system: means an organization, association, or group of persons that--

    (A) is registered as a broker or dealer pursuant to section 15(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U. See 52 USC 21004

  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amendment in the nature of a substitute: An amendment that would strike out the entire text of a bill or other measure and insert a different full text.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • AMT: means the Alternative Minimum Tax for individuals under sections 55-59 of title 26, the term "EGTRRA" means the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-16), and the term "JGTRRA" means the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief and 1 Reconciliation Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-27). See 26 USC 1293
  • anabolic steroid: means any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens, progestins, corticosteroids, and dehydroepiandrosterone), and includes--

    (i) androstanediol--

    (I) 3?,17?-dihydroxy-5?-androstane. See 21 USC 802

  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • anonymous work: is a work on the copies or phonorecords of which no natural person is identified as author. See 20 USC 6082
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • applicant: means with respect to activities described in section 3984(a) of this title an institution of higher education and the other participants described in paragraph (3) of section 3984(a) of this title, and with respect to activities described in section 3984(b) of this title a local educational agency and the other participants described in paragraph (3) of section 3984(b) of this title. See 20 USC 3982
  • applicant: means a corporation applying for the right to establish, operate, and maintain a foreign-trade zone. See 21 USC 360ll
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 19 USC 2295
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States or his designee. See 34 USC 10251
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Balanced budget: A budget in which receipts equal outlays.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • baseline: means the projection (described in section 907 of this title) of current-year levels of new budget authority, outlays, receipts, and the surplus or deficit into the budget year and the outyears. See 26 USC 33
  • BBEDCA: means the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985. See 26 USC 1293
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • blind person: means a person whose central visual acuity does not exceed 20/200 in the better eye with correcting lenses or whose visual acuity, if better than 20/200, is accompanied by a limit to the field of vision in the better eye to such a degree that its widest diameter subtends an angle of no greater than twenty degrees. See 22 USC 2274
  • Board: means the Board of Directors of the Office of Compliance. See 26 USC 45
  • Board: means the National Recording Preservation Board. See 26 USC 401
  • Board: means the Merit Systems Protection Board under chapter 12 of title 5. See 49 USC 44903
  • Board: means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. See 52 USC 21004
  • Board: means the Board which is established to carry out the provisions of this chapter. See 21 USC 360ll
  • board of trade: means any organized exchange or other trading facility. See 52 USC 21004
  • breach: means , for any fiscal year, the amount (if any) by which new budget authority or outlays for that year (within a category of discretionary appropriations) is above that category's discretionary spending limit for new budget authority or outlays for that year, as the case may be. See 26 USC 33
  • Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
  • budget year: means , with respect to a session of Congress, the fiscal year of the Government that starts on October 1 of the calendar year in which that session begins. See 26 USC 33
  • budgetary effects: means the amount by which PAYGO legislation changes outlays flowing from direct spending or revenues relative to the baseline and shall be determined on the basis of estimates prepared under section 933 of this title. See 26 USC 1293
  • budgetary resources: means new budget authority, unobligated balances, direct spending authority, and obligation limitations. See 26 USC 33
  • Calendar of Business: A Senate publication sent to each lawmaker's office (and other offices) every day the Senate is in session. It contains information on, for instance, measures reported from the various standing committees, bills in conference, and the status of appropriation bills.
  • Canal: means the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, including its towpath. See 20 USC 6396
  • category: means the subsets of discretionary appropriations in section 901(c) of this title. See 26 USC 33
  • Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
  • CBO: means the Director of the Congressional Budget Office. See 26 USC 33
  • Chair: means the Chair of the Board of Directors of the Office of Compliance. See 26 USC 45
  • Chairman: means the Chairman of the National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Policies. See 26 USC 4218
  • Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
  • chemical mixture: means a combination of two or more chemical substances, at least one of which is not a list I chemical or a list II chemical, except that such term does not include any combination of a list I chemical or a list II chemical with another chemical that is present solely as an impurity. See 21 USC 802
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • children: means individuals who have not attained the age of 18. See 20 USC 6082
  • Circumstantial evidence: All evidence except eyewitness testimony.
  • Civil forfeiture: The loss of ownership of property used to conduct illegal activity.
  • cleared swap: means any swap that is, directly or indirectly, submitted to and cleared by a derivatives clearing organization registered with the Commission. See 52 USC 21004
  • Clerk of court: An officer appointed by the court to work with the chief judge in overseeing the court's administration, especially to assist in managing the flow of cases through the court and to maintain court records.
  • client: means any person or entity that employs or retains another person for financial or other compensation to conduct lobbying activities on behalf of that person or entity. See 26 USC 5112
  • Cloture: The only procedure by which the Senate can vote to place a time limit on consideration of a bill or other matter, and thereby overcome a filibuster. Under the cloture rule (Rule XXII), the Senate may limit consideration of a pending matter to 30 additional hours, but only by vote of three-fifths of the full Senate, normally 60 votes.
  • Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
  • collective work: is a work, such as a periodical issue, anthology, or encyclopedia, in which a number of contributions, constituting separate and independent works in themselves, are assembled into a collective whole. See 20 USC 6082
  • commerce: means (A) commerce between any place in any State and any place outside thereof. See 21 USC 360hh
  • commerce: means commerce between any State or the District of Columbia and any place outside thereof, or between points within the same State or the District of Columbia but through any place outside thereof, or within the District of Columbia. See 5 USC 8472
  • Commission: means the Keweenaw Historic Preservation Advisory Commission established by section 410yy-8 of this title. See
  • Commission: means the Commodity Futures Trading Commission established under section 2(a)(2) of this title. See 52 USC 21004
  • Commission: means the United States International Trade Commission. See 21 USC 862
  • Commissioner: means the Commissioner of the Rehabilitation Services Administration. See 22 USC 2274
  • Commissioner: means the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. See 38 USC 1912
  • Commissioner: means the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. See 38 USC 1912
  • Committee amendment: An amendment recommended by a committee in reporting a bill or other measure.
  • commodity: means wheat, cotton, rice, corn, oats, barley, rye, flaxseed, grain sorghums, mill feeds, butter, eggs, Solanum tuberosum (Irish potatoes), wool, wool tops, fats and oils (including lard, tallow, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, and all other fats and oils), cottonseed meal, cottonseed, peanuts, soybeans, soybean meal, livestock, livestock products, and frozen concentrated orange juice, and all other goods and articles, except onions (as provided by section 13-1 of this title) and motion picture box office receipts (or any index, measure, value, or data related to such receipts), and all services, rights, and interests (except motion picture box office receipts, or any index, measure, value or data related to such receipts) in which contracts for future delivery are presently or in the future dealt in. See 52 USC 21004
  • commodity pool: means any investment trust, syndicate, or similar form of enterprise operated for the purpose of trading in commodity interests, including any--

    (i) commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 52 USC 21004

  • commodity pool operator: means any person--

    (i) engaged in a business that is of the nature of a commodity pool, investment trust, syndicate, or similar form of enterprise, and who, in connection therewith, solicits, accepts, or receives from others, funds, securities, or property, either directly or through capital contributions, the sale of stock or other forms of securities, or otherwise, for the purpose of trading in commodity interests, including any--

    (I) commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 52 USC 21004

  • commodity trading advisor: means any person who--

    (i) for compensation or profit, engages in the business of advising others, either directly or through publications, writings, or electronic media, as to the value of or the advisability of trading in--

    (I) any contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 52 USC 21004

  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • community development corporation: means a private, nonprofit corporation whose board of directors is comprised of business, civic and community leaders, and whose principal purpose includes the provision of low-income housing or community economic development projects that primarily benefit low-income individuals and communities. See 34 USC 12211
  • compilation: includes collective works. See 20 USC 6082
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • computer program: is a set of statements or instructions to be used directly or indirectly in a computer in order to bring about a certain result. See 20 USC 6082
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Conferees: Legislators appointed to serve on conference committees. They are also called "managers." Conferees are usually appointed from the committee or committees that reported the legislation; they are expected to try and uphold their chamber's position on measures when they negotiate with conferees from the other chamber.
  • Conference committee: A temporary, ad hoc panel composed of conferees from both chamber of a legislature which is formed for the purpose of reconciling differences in legislation that has passed both chambers. Conference committees are usually convened to resolve bicameral differences on major and controversial legislation.
  • Conference report: The compromise product negotiated by the conference committee. The "conference report" is submitted to each chamber for its consideration, such as approval or disapproval.
  • Congressional Record: The substantially verbatim account of daily proceedings in Congress. It is printed for each day Congress is in session. At the back of each daily issue is the "Daily Digest," which summarizes the day's floor and committee activities.
  • construction: includes construction and initial equipment of new buildings, and expansion, remodeling, and alteration of existing buildings and equipment therein, including architect's services, but excluding off-site improvements. See 42 USC 12131
  • construction: means the erection, acquisition, renovation, repairs, remodeling, or expansion of new or existing buildings or other physical facilities, and the acquisition or installation of initial equipment therefor. See 34 USC 10251
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • contract of sale: includes sales, agreements of sale, and agreements to sell. See 52 USC 21004
  • control: means to add a drug or other substance, or immediate precursor, to a schedule under part B of this subchapter, whether by transfer from another schedule or otherwise. See 21 USC 802
  • controlled substance: means a drug or other substance, or immediate precursor, included in schedule I, II, III, IV, or V of part B of this subchapter. See 21 USC 802
  • controlled substance analogue: means a substance--

    (i) the chemical structure of which is substantially similar to the chemical structure of a controlled substance in schedule I or II. See 21 USC 802

  • Convention: means the International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, done at Brussels on June 14, 1983, and the Protocol thereto, done at Brussels on June 24, 1986, submitted to the Congress on June 15, 1987. See 21 USC 862
  • Convention on Psychotropic Substances: means the Convention on Psychotropic Substances signed at Vienna, Austria, on February 21, 1971. See 21 USC 802
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • cooperative association of producers: means any cooperative association, corporate, or otherwise, not less than 75 percent in good faith owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by producers of agricultural products and otherwise complying with sections 291 and 292 of this title, including any organization acting for a group of such associations and owned or controlled by such associations, except that business done for or with the United States, or any agency thereof, shall not be considered either member or nonmember business in determining the compliance of any such association with this chapter. See 52 USC 21004
  • cooperative bank: means an institution without capital stock organized and operated for mutual purposes and without profit, which--

    (A) either--

    (i) is an insured institution within the meaning of section 401(a) 2 of the National Housing Act (12 U. See 38 USC 1912

  • cooperative bank: means an institution without capital stock organized and operated for mutual purposes and without profit, which--

    (A) either--

    (i) is an insured institution within the meaning of section 401(a) 2 of the National Housing Act (12 U. See 38 USC 1912

  • copies: includes the material object, other than a phonorecord, in which the work is first fixed. See 20 USC 6082
  • Copyright Royalty Judge: is a Copyright Royalty Judge appointed under section 802 of this title, and includes any individual serving as an interim Copyright Royalty Judge under such section. See 20 USC 6082
  • corporation: includes associations, joint-stock companies, and insurance companies. See 38 USC 1912
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • corporation: includes associations, joint-stock companies, and insurance companies. See 38 USC 1912
  • corporation: means a public corporation and a private corporation, as defined in this chapter. See 21 USC 360ll
  • correctional option: includes community-based incarceration, weekend incarceration, boot camp prison, electronic monitoring of offenders, intensive probation, and any other innovative punishment designed to have the greatest impact on offenders who can be punished more effectively in an environment other than a traditional correctional facility. See 34 USC 10251
  • cost of construction: means all expenses found by the Director to be necessary for the construction of the project, including architect and engineering fees, but excluding land acquisition costs. See 34 USC 10251
  • cotton: means cotton of any variety produced within the continental United States, including linters. See 5 USC 8472
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • counterfeit substance: means a controlled substance which, or the container or labeling of which, without authorization, bears the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, number, or device, or any likeness thereof, of a manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser other than the person or persons who in fact manufactured, distributed, or dispensed such substance and which thereby falsely purports or is represented to be the product of, or to have been distributed by, such other manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser. See 21 USC 802
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 19 USC 2292
  • court: means a tribunal recognized as a part of the judicial branch of a State or of its local government units. See 34 USC 10251
  • covered employee: means any employee of--

    (A) the House of Representatives. See 26 USC 45

  • covered employee: means any employee of an employing office. See 49 USC 44903
  • covered executive branch official: means --

    (A) the President. See 26 USC 5112

  • covered legislative branch official: means --

    (A) a Member of Congress. See 26 USC 5112

  • Credit report: A detailed report of an individual's credit history prepared by a credit bureau and used by a lender in determining a loan applicant's creditworthiness. Source: OCC
  • criminal justice: means activities pertaining to crime prevention, control, or reduction, or the enforcement of the criminal law, including, but not limited to, police efforts to prevent, control, or reduce crime or to apprehend criminals, including juveniles, activities of courts having criminal jurisdiction, and related agencies (including but not limited to prosecutorial and defender services, juvenile delinquency agencies and pretrial service or release agencies), activities of corrections, probation, or parole authorities and related agencies assisting in the rehabilitation, supervision, and care of criminal offenders, and programs relating to the prevention, control, or reduction of narcotic addiction and juvenile delinquency. See 34 USC 10251
  • critical foreign language: means a foreign language that the Secretary determines, in consultation with the heads of such Federal departments and agencies as the Secretary determines appropriate, is critical to the national security and economic competitiveness of the United States. See 22 USC 7654
  • Cross examine: Questioning of a witness by the attorney for the other side.
  • current: means , with respect to OMB estimates included with a budget submission under section 1105(a) of title 31, the estimates consistent with the economic and technical assumptions underlying that budget and with respect to estimates made after that budget submission that are not included with it, estimates consistent with the economic and technical assumptions underlying the most recently submitted President's budget. See 26 USC 33
  • current year: means , with respect to a budget year, the fiscal year that immediately precedes that budget year. See 26 USC 33
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • debit: refers to the net total amount, when positive, by which costs recorded on the PAYGO scorecards for a fiscal year exceed savings recorded on those scorecards for that year. See 26 USC 1293
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Defense attorney: Represent defendants in criminal matters.
  • Department: means the Department of Education or any component thereof. See 42 USC 10175
  • Department of Agriculture: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 5 USC 8478
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • deposit insurance: refers to the expenses of the Federal deposit insurance agencies, and other Federal agencies supervising insured depository institutions, resulting from full funding of, and continuation of, the deposit insurance guarantee commitment in effect under current estimates. See 26 USC 33
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • derivative work: is a work based upon one or more preexisting works, such as a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted. See 20 USC 6082
  • derivatives clearing organization: means a clearinghouse, clearing association, clearing corporation, or similar entity, facility, system, or organization that, with respect to an agreement, contract, or transaction--

    (i) enables each party to the agreement, contract, or transaction to substitute, through novation or otherwise, the credit of the derivatives clearing organization for the credit of the parties. See 52 USC 21004

  • detoxification treatment: means the dispensing, for a period not in excess of one hundred and eighty days, of a narcotic drug in decreasing doses to an individual in order to alleviate adverse physiological or psychological effects incident to withdrawal from the continuous or sustained use of a narcotic drug and as a method of bringing the individual to a narcotic drug-free state within such period. See 21 USC 802
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • digital literacy skills: means the skills associated with using technology to enable users to find, evaluate, organize, create, and communicate information. See 42 USC 13370
  • digital transmission: is a transmission in whole or in part in a digital or other non-analog format. See 20 USC 6082
  • direct spending: means --

    (A) budget authority provided by law other than appropriation Acts. See 26 USC 33

  • Director: means the Director of the Institute appointed under section 9103 of this title. See 42 USC 13370
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • discretionary appropriations: means budgetary resources (except to fund direct-spending programs) provided in appropriation Acts. See 26 USC 33
  • Discretionary spending: Spending (budget authority and outlays)controlled in annual appropriations acts.
  • discretionary spending limit: shall mean the amounts specified in section 901 of this title. See 26 USC 33
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • dispense: means to deliver a controlled substance to an ultimate user or research subject by, or pursuant to the lawful order of, a practitioner, including the prescribing and administering of a controlled substance and the packaging, labeling or compounding necessary to prepare the substance for such delivery. See 21 USC 802
  • dispenser: means a practitioner who so delivers a controlled substance to an ultimate user or research subject. See 21 USC 802
  • distribute: means to deliver (other than by administering or dispensing) a controlled substance or a listed chemical. See 21 USC 802
  • distribute: means to sell, or to lease, bail, or otherwise transfer, or to offer to sell, lease, bail, or otherwise transfer. See 20 USC 7231c
  • distributor: means a person who so delivers a controlled substance or a listed chemical. See 21 USC 802
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • domestic: when applied to a corporation or partnership means created or organized in the United States or under the law of the United States or of any State unless, in the case of a partnership, the Secretary provides otherwise by regulations. See 38 USC 1912
  • domestic: when applied to a corporation or partnership means created or organized in the United States or under the law of the United States or of any State unless, in the case of a partnership, the Secretary provides otherwise by regulations. See 38 USC 1912
  • domestic building and loan association: means a domestic building and loan association, a domestic savings and loan association, and a Federal savings and loan association--

    (A) which either (i) is an insured institution within the meaning of section 401(a) 2 of the National Housing Act (12 U. See 38 USC 1912

  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • drug: has the meaning given that term by section 321(g)(1) of this title. See 21 USC 802
  • Drug Enforcement Administration: means the Drug Enforcement Administration in the Department of Justice. See 21 USC 802
  • electronic product: means (A) any manufactured or assembled product which, when in operation, (i) contains or acts as part of an electronic circuit and (ii) emits (or in the absence of effective shielding or other controls would emit) electronic product radiation, or (B) any manufactured or assembled article which is intended for use as a component, part, or accessory of a product described in clause (A) and which when in operation emits (or in the absence of effective shielding or other controls would emit) such radiation. See 21 USC 360hh
  • electronic product radiation: means --

    (A) any ionizing or non-ionizing electromagnetic or particulate radiation, or

    (B) any sonic, infrasonic, or ultrasonic wave, which is emitted from an electronic product as the result of the operation of an electronic circuit in such product. See 21 USC 360hh

  • electronic trading facility: means a trading facility that--

    (A) operates by means of an electronic or telecommunications network. See 52 USC 21004

  • eligible commercial entity: means , with respect to an agreement, contract or transaction in a commodity--

    (A) an eligible contract participant described in clause (i), (ii), (v), (vii), (viii), or (ix) of paragraph (18)(A) that, in connection with its business--

    (i) has a demonstrable ability, directly or through separate contractual arrangements, to make or take delivery of the underlying commodity. See 52 USC 21004

  • eligible contract participant: means --

    (A) acting for its own account--

    (i) a financial institution. See 52 USC 21004

  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • emergency: means a situation that--

    (A) requires new budget authority and outlays (or new budget authority and the outlays flowing therefrom) for the prevention or mitigation of, or response to, loss of life or property, or a threat to national security. See 26 USC 33

  • employee: includes an applicant for employment and a former employee. See 49 USC 44903
  • employee: means any individual who is an officer, employee, partner, director, or proprietor of a person or entity, but does not include--

    (A) independent contractors. See 26 USC 5112

  • employee: shall include a full-time life insurance salesman who is considered an employee for the purpose of chapter 21. See 38 USC 1912
  • employee: shall include a full-time life insurance salesman who is considered an employee for the purpose of chapter 21. See 38 USC 1912
  • employee: includes an applicant for employment and a former employee. See 26 USC 45
  • employee of the House of Representatives: includes an individual occupying a position the pay for which is disbursed by the Clerk of the House of Representatives, or another official designated by the House of Representatives, or any employment position in an entity that is paid with funds derived from the clerk-hire allowance of the House of Representatives but not any such individual employed by any entity listed in subparagraphs (C) through (I) of paragraph (3). See 26 USC 45
  • employee of the Office of the Architect of the Capitol: includes any employee of the Office of the Architect of the Capitol or the Botanic Garden. See 26 USC 45
  • employee of the Senate: includes any employee whose pay is disbursed by the Secretary of the Senate, but not any such individual employed by any entity listed in subparagraphs (C) through (I) of paragraph (3). See 26 USC 45
  • employing office: means --

    (A) the personal office of a Member of the House of Representatives or of a Senator. See 26 USC 45

  • employing office: means --

    (A) each office, agency, or other component of the Executive Office of the President. See 49 USC 44903

  • En banc: In the bench or "full bench." Refers to court sessions with the entire membership of a court participating rather than the usual quorum. U.S. courts of appeals usually sit in panels of three judges, but may expand to a larger number in certain cases. They are then said to be sitting en banc.
  • Engrossed bill: The official copy of a bill or joint resolution passed by a chamber of the legislature.
  • enrolled actuary: means a person who is enrolled by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries established under subtitle C of the title III of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. See 38 USC 1912
  • enrolled actuary: means a person who is enrolled by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries established under subtitle C of the title III of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. See 38 USC 1912
  • Enrolled bill: The final copy of a bill or joint resolution which has passed both chambers in identical form. It is printed on parchment paper, signed by appropriate officials, and submitted to the President/Governor for signature.
  • entered: means entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, in the customs territory of the United States. See 21 USC 862
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • equipment: includes machinery, utilities, and built-in equipment and any necessary enclosures or structures to house them, and includes all other items necessary for the functioning of a particular facility as a facility for the provision of educational services, including items such as instructional equipment and necessary furniture, printed, published, and audio-visual instructional materials, and books, periodicals, documents, and other related materials. See 20 USC 3982
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • establishment: is a store, shop, or any similar place of business open to the general public for the primary purpose of selling goods or services in which the majority of the gross square feet of space that is nonresidential is used for that purpose, and in which nondramatic musical works are performed publicly. See 20 USC 6082
  • evaluation: means the administration and conduct of studies and analyses to determine the impact and value of a project or program in accomplishing the statutory objectives of this chapter. See 34 USC 10251
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • exchanged basis property: means property having a basis determined under any provision of subtitle A (or under any corresponding provision of prior income tax law) providing that the basis shall be determined in whole or in part by reference to other property held at any time by the person for whom the basis is to be determined. See 38 USC 1912
  • excluded commodity: means --

    (i) an interest rate, exchange rate, currency, security, security index, credit risk or measure, debt or equity instrument, index or measure of inflation, or other macroeconomic index or measure. See 52 USC 21004

  • Executive Calendar: A list of executive business (i.e., treaties and nominations) available for consideration.
  • Executive Director: means the Executive Director of the Office of Compliance. See 26 USC 45
  • Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • export elevator: means any grain elevator, warehouse, or other storage or handling facility in the United States as determined by the Secretary, from which grain is shipped from the United States to an area outside thereof. See 5 USC 8478
  • export grain: means grain for shipment from the United States to any place outside thereof. See 5 USC 8478
  • export port location: means a commonly recognized port of export in the United States or Canada, as determined by the Secretary, from which grain produced in the United States is shipped to any place outside the United States. See 5 USC 8478
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Farmers: includes fishermen and other persons employed in cultivating and harvesting food resources from salt and fresh waters. See 22 USC 2403
  • Federal agency: means any establishment in the executive branch of the United States Government. See 21 USC 862
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal property: means any building, land, or other real property owned, leased, or occupied by any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States (including the Department of Defense and the United States Postal Service), or any other instrumentality wholly owned by the United States, or by any department or agency of the District of Columbia or any territory or possession of the United States. See 22 USC 2274
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • felony: means any Federal or State offense classified by applicable Federal or State law as a felony. See 21 USC 802
  • felony drug offense: means an offense that is punishable by imprisonment for more than one year under any law of the United States or of a State or foreign country that prohibits or restricts conduct relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, anabolic steroids, or depressant or stimulant substances. See 21 USC 802
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • fiduciary: means a guardian, trustee, executor, administrator, receiver, conservator, or any person acting in any fiduciary capacity for any person. See 38 USC 1912
  • fiduciary: means a guardian, trustee, executor, administrator, receiver, conservator, or any person acting in any fiduciary capacity for any person. See 38 USC 1912
  • financial gain: includes receipt, or expectation of receipt, of anything of value, including the receipt of other copyrighted works. See 20 USC 6082
  • financial institution: means --

    (A) a corporation operating under the fifth undesignated paragraph of section 25 of the Federal Reserve Act (12 U. See 52 USC 21004

  • fiscal year: means an accounting period of 12 months ending on the last day of any month other than December. See 38 USC 1912
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • fish: means finfish, mollusks, crustaceans, and all other forms of marine animal and plant life other than marine mammals and birds. See 20 USC 3489
  • Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
    • You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
    • The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
    • The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
  • floor broker: means any person--

    (i) who, in or surrounding any pit, ring, post, or other place provided by a contract market for the meeting of persons similarly engaged, shall purchase or sell for any other person--

    (I) any commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 52 USC 21004

  • floor trader: means any person--

    (i) who, in or surrounding any pit, ring, post, or other place provided by a contract market for the meeting of persons similarly engaged, purchases, or sells solely for such person's own account--

    (I) any commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 52 USC 21004

  • food service or drinking establishment: is a restaurant, inn, bar, tavern, or any other similar place of business in which the public or patrons assemble for the primary purpose of being served food or drink, in which the majority of the gross square feet of space that is nonresidential is used for that purpose, and in which nondramatic musical works are performed publicly. See 20 USC 6082
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • foreign: when applied to a corporation or partnership means a corporation or partnership which is not domestic. See 38 USC 1912
  • foreign: when applied to a corporation or partnership means a corporation or partnership which is not domestic. See 38 USC 1912
  • foreign entity: means a foreign principal (as defined in section 1(b) of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 (22 U. See 26 USC 5112
  • foreign estate: means an estate the income of which, from sources without the United States which is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, is not includible in gross income under subtitle A. See 38 USC 1912
  • foreign futures authority: means any foreign government, or any department, agency, governmental body, or regulatory organization empowered by a foreign government to administer or enforce a law, rule, or regulation as it relates to a futures or options matter, or any department or agency of a political subdivision of a foreign government empowered to administer or enforce a law, rule, or regulation as it relates to a futures or options matter. See 52 USC 21004
  • foreign trust: means any trust other than a trust described in subparagraph (E) of paragraph (30). See 38 USC 1912
  • foreign trust: means any trust other than a trust described in subparagraph (E) of paragraph (30). See 38 USC 1912
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
  • function: includes any duty, obligation, power, authority, responsibility, right, privilege, activity, or program. See 42 USC 10175
  • Function: includes any duty, obligation, power, authority, responsibility, right, privilege, discretion, or activity. See 22 USC 2403
  • futures commission merchant: means an individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust--

    (i) that--

    (I) is--

    (aa) engaged in soliciting or in accepting orders for--

    (AA) the purchase or sale of a commodity for future delivery. See 52 USC 21004

  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • General Counsel: means the General Counsel of the Office of Compliance. See 26 USC 45
  • Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
  • grain: means corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, flaxseed, sorghum, soybeans, mixed grain, and any other food grains, feed grains, and oilseeds for which standards are established under section 76 of this title. See 5 USC 8478
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • grantee: means a corporation to which the privilege of establishing, operating, and maintaining a foreign-trade zone has been granted. See 21 USC 360ll
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Gross estate: The total fair market value of all property and property interests, real and personal, tangible and intangible, of which a decedent had beneficial ownership at the time of death before subtractions for deductions, debts, administrative expenses, and casualty losses suffered during estate administration.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court.
  • historical park: means the Adams National Historical Park established in section 410eee-2 of this title. See 20 USC 9513
  • homepage: means the opening or main page or screen of the website of an online pharmacy that is viewable on the Internet. See 21 USC 802
  • hybrid instrument: means a security having one or more payments indexed to the value, level, or rate of, or providing for the delivery of, one or more commodities. See 52 USC 21004
  • immediate precursor: means a substance--

    (A) which the Attorney General has found to be and by regulation designated as being the principal compound used, or produced primarily for use, in the manufacture of a controlled substance. See 21 USC 802

  • Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
  • including: when used in a definition contained in this title shall not be deemed to exclude other things otherwise within the meaning of the term defined. See 38 USC 1912
  • including: when used in a definition contained in this title shall not be deemed to exclude other things otherwise within the meaning of the term defined. See 38 USC 1912
  • Indian tribal government: means the governing body of any tribe, band, community, village, or group of Indians, or (if applicable) Alaska Natives, which is determined by the Secretary, after consultation with the Secretary of the Interior, to exercise governmental functions. See 38 USC 1912
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 19 USC 2297
  • individual retirement plan: means --

    (A) an individual retirement account described in section 408(a), and

    (B) an individual retirement annuity described in section 408(b). See 38 USC 1912

  • individual retirement plan: means --

    (A) an individual retirement account described in section 408(a), and

    (B) an individual retirement annuity described in section 408(b). See 38 USC 1912

  • indoor facility: means a building that is enclosed. See 20 USC 6082
  • infringing semiconductor chip product: is a semiconductor chip product which is made, imported, or distributed in violation of the exclusive rights of the owner of a mask work under this chapter. See 20 USC 7231c
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • innocent purchaser: is a person who purchases a semiconductor chip product in good faith and without having notice of protection with respect to the semiconductor chip product. See 20 USC 7231c
  • Institute: means the Institute of Museum and Library Services established under section 9102 of this title. See 42 USC 13370
  • institution of higher education: means an educational institution in any State which (A) admits as regular students only individuals having a certificate of graduation from a school providing secondary education, or the recognized equivalent of such a certificate. See 42 USC 12131
  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • interested person: means any person having a contract or other financial interest in grain as the owner, seller, purchaser, warehouseman, or carrier, or otherwise. See 5 USC 8478
  • international financial institutions: means the International Monetary Fund, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Development Association, International Finance Corporation, Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, African Development Bank, African Development Fund, Asian Development Bank, Inter-American Development Bank 2 Bank for Economic Cooperation and Development in the Middle East and North Africa,,3 and Inter-American Investment Corporation. See 26 USC 4218
  • international organization: means a public international organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U. See 38 USC 1912
  • international organization: means a public international organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U. See 38 USC 1912
  • Internet: means collectively the myriad of computer and telecommunications facilities, including equipment and operating software, which comprise the interconnected worldwide network of networks that employ the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, or any predecessor or successor protocol to such protocol, to communicate information of all kinds by wire or radio. See 21 USC 802
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • interstate commerce: means commerce--

    (A) between any State, territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 52 USC 21004

  • interstate or foreign commerce: means commerce from any State to or through any other State, or to or through any foreign country. See 5 USC 8478
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • introducing broker: means any person (except an individual who elects to be and is registered as an associated person of a futures commission merchant)--

    (i) who--

    (I) is engaged in soliciting or in accepting orders for--

    (aa) the purchase or sale of any commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 52 USC 21004

  • IUU fishing: means any activity set out in paragraph 3 of the 2001 FAO International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing. See 20 USC 3489
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Joint meeting: An occasion, often ceremonial, when the House and Senate each adopt a unanimous consent agreement
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • joint return: means a single return made jointly under section 6013 by a husband and wife. See 38 USC 1912
  • joint return: means a single return made jointly under section 6013 by a husband and wife. See 38 USC 1912
  • joint work: is a work prepared by two or more authors with the intention that their contributions be merged into inseparable or interdependent parts of a unitary whole. See 20 USC 6082
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Law clerk: Assist judges with research and drafting of opinions.
  • Layover: Informal term for a period of delay required by rule. For example, when a bill or other measure is reported from committee, it may be considered on the floor only after it "lies over" for one legislative day and after the written report has been available for two calendar days. Layover periods may be waived by unanimous consent.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
  • levy: includes the power of distraint and seizure by any means. See 38 USC 1912
  • levy: includes the power of distraint and seizure by any means. See 38 USC 1912
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Librarian: means the Librarian of Congress. See 26 USC 401
  • library: includes --

    (A) a public library. See 42 USC 13451

  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Life estate: A property interest limited in duration to the life of the individual holding the interest (life tenant).
  • Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
  • list I chemical: means a chemical specified by regulation of the Attorney General as a chemical that is used in manufacturing a controlled substance in violation of this subchapter and is important to the manufacture of the controlled substances, and such term includes (until otherwise specified by regulation of the Attorney General, as considered appropriate by the Attorney General or upon petition to the Attorney General by any person) the following:

    (A) Anthranilic acid, its esters, and its salts. See 21 USC 802

  • listed chemical: means any list I chemical or any list II chemical. See 21 USC 802
  • listed IUU vessel: means a vessel that is included in a list of vessels having engaged in IUU fishing or fishing-related activities in support of IUU fishing that has been adopted by a regional fisheries management organization of which the United States is a member, or a list adopted by a regional fisheries management organization of which the United States is not a member if the Secretary determines the criteria used by that organization to create the IUU list is comparable to criteria adopted by RFMOs of which the United States is a member for identifying IUU vessels and activities. See 20 USC 3489
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • lobbying activities: means lobbying contacts and efforts in support of such contacts, including preparation and planning activities, research and other background work that is intended, at the time it is performed, for use in contacts, and coordination with the lobbying activities of others. See 26 USC 5112
  • lobbying contact: means any oral or written communication (including an electronic communication) to a covered executive branch official or a covered legislative branch official that is made on behalf of a client with regard to--

    (i) the formulation, modification, or adoption of Federal legislation (including legislative proposals). See 26 USC 5112

  • lobbying firm: means a person or entity that has 1 or more employees who are lobbyists on behalf of a client other than that person or entity. See 26 USC 5112
  • lobbyist: means any individual who is employed or retained by a client for financial or other compensation for services that include more than one lobbying contact, other than an individual whose lobbying activities constitute less than 20 percent of the time engaged in the services provided by such individual to that client over a 3-month period. See 26 USC 5112
  • lot: means a specific quantity of grain identified as such. See 5 USC 8478
  • Magistrate judges: Judicial officers who assist U.S. district judges in getting cases ready for trial, who may decide some criminal and civil trials when both parties agree to have the case heard by a magistrate judge instead of a judge.
  • maintenance treatment: means the dispensing, for a period in excess of twenty-one days, of a narcotic drug in the treatment of an individual for dependence upon heroin or other morphine-like drugs. See 21 USC 802
  • major security-based swap participant: has the meaning given the term in section 3(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See 52 USC 21004
  • major swap participant: means any person who is not a swap dealer, and--

    (i) maintains a substantial position in swaps for any of the major swap categories as determined by the Commission, excluding--

    (I) positions held for hedging or mitigating commercial risk. See 52 USC 21004

  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • Majority whip: See Whips.
  • Mandatory spending: Spending (budget authority and outlays) controlled by laws other than annual appropriations acts.
  • manufacture: means the production, preparation, propagation, compounding, or processing of a drug or other substance, either directly or indirectly or by extraction from substances of natural origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis, and includes any packaging or repackaging of such substance or labeling or relabeling of its container. See 21 USC 802
  • manufacturer: means any person engaged in the business of manufacturing, assembling, or importing of electronic products. See 21 USC 360hh
  • manufacturer: means a person who manufactures a drug or other substance. See 21 USC 802
  • marihuana: means all parts of the plant Cannabis sativa L. See 21 USC 802
  • marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 19 USC 2296
  • mask work: is a series of related images, however fixed or encoded--

    (A) having or representing the predetermined, three-dimensional pattern of metallic, insulating, or semiconductor material present or removed from the layers of a semiconductor chip product. See 20 USC 7231c

  • member: means , with respect to a registered entity or derivatives transaction execution facility, an individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust--

    (A) owning or holding membership in, or admitted to membership representation on, the registered entity or derivatives transaction execution facility. See 52 USC 21004

  • Member of Congress: means a Senator or a Representative in, or Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, the Congress. See 26 USC 5112
  • Member of the House of Representatives: means a Representative in, or a Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, the Congress. See 26 USC 48B
  • migratory child: means a child or youth who made a qualifying move in the preceding 36 months--

    (A) as a migratory agricultural worker or a migratory fisher. See 20 USC 6399

  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Minority whip: See Whips.
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • mobile retail vendor: means a person or entity that makes sales at retail from a stand that is intended to be temporary, or is capable of being moved from one location to another, whether the stand is located within or on the premises of a fixed facility (such as a kiosk at a shopping center or an airport) or whether the stand is located on unimproved real estate (such as a lot or field leased for retail purposes). See 21 USC 802
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • motion picture exhibition facility: means a movie theater, screening room, or other venue that is being used primarily for the exhibition of a copyrighted motion picture, if such exhibition is open to the public or is made to an assembled group of viewers outside of a normal circle of a family and its social acquaintances. See 20 USC 6082
  • multilateral development banks: means the multilateral development institutions other than the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency. See 26 USC 4218
  • multilateral development institutions: means the international financial institutions other than the International Monetary Fund. See 26 USC 4218
  • narcotic drug: means any of the following whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:

    (A) Opium, opiates, derivatives of opium and opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation. See 21 USC 802

  • narrow-based security index: means an index--

    (i) that has 9 or fewer component securities. See 52 USC 21004

  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • Native Hawaiian: as used in this subchapter , means a descendant of not less than one-half part of the blood of the races inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands previous to the year 1778. See 20 USC 7231c
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • nonrecognition transaction: means any disposition of property in a transaction in which gain or loss is not recognized in whole or in part for purposes of subtitle A. See 38 USC 1912
  • nonsecurity category: means all discretionary appropriations not included in the security category defined in subparagraph (B). See 26 USC 33
  • notice of protection: means having actual knowledge that, or reasonable grounds to believe that, a mask work is protected under this chapter. See 20 USC 7231c
  • NTID: means the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. See 42 USC 12131
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 19 USC 2291
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • obscene: means , with respect to a project, that--

    (A) the average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find that such project, when taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest. See 42 USC 13370

  • Office: means the Office of Compliance. See 26 USC 45
  • office: includes any office, institute, council, unit, organizational entity, or component thereof. See 42 USC 10175
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 19 USC 2291
  • Officer or employee: means civilian personnel and members of the Armed Forces of the United States Government. See 22 USC 2403
  • official agency: means any State or local governmental agency, or any person, designated by the Secretary pursuant to subsection (f) of section 79 of this title for the conduct of official inspection (other than appeal inspection), or subsection (c) of section 79a of this title for the conduct of official weighing or supervision of weighing (other than appeal weighing). See 5 USC 8478
  • official grade designation: means a numerical or sample grade designation, specified in the standards relating to kind, class, quality, and condition of grain, provided for in this chapter. See 5 USC 8478
  • official inspection: means the determination (by original inspection, and when requested, reinspection and appeal inspection) and the certification, by official inspection personnel of the kind, class, quality, or condition of grain, under standards provided for in this chapter, or the condition of vessels and other carriers or receptacles for the transportation of grain insofar as it may affect the quality or condition of such grain. See 5 USC 8478
  • official inspection personnel: means persons licensed or otherwise authorized by the Secretary pursuant to section 84 of this title to perform all or specified functions involved in official inspection, official weighing, or supervision of weighing, or in the supervision of official inspection, official weighing or supervision of weighing. See 5 USC 8478
  • official mark: means any symbol prescribed by regulations of the Secretary to show the official determination of official inspection or official weighing. See 5 USC 8478
  • official sample: means a sample obtained from a lot of grain by, and submitted for official inspection by, official inspection personnel (the term "official sampling" shall be construed accordingly). See 5 USC 8478
  • official sampling: shall be construed accordingly). See 5 USC 8478
  • official weighing: means the determination and certification by official inspection personnel of the quantity of a lot of grain under standards provided for in this chapter, based on the actual performance of weighing or the physical supervision thereof, including the physical inspection and testing for accuracy of the weights and scales and the physical inspection of the premises at which the weighing is performed and the monitoring of the discharge of grain into the elevator or conveyance (the terms "officially weigh" and "officially weighed" shall be construed accordingly). See 5 USC 8478
  • officially inspected: shall be construed accordingly). See 5 USC 8478
  • officially weighed: shall be construed accordingly). See 5 USC 8478
  • old Schedules: means title I of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U. See 21 USC 862
  • OMB: means the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. See 26 USC 33
  • opioid: means any drug or other substance having an addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining liability similar to morphine or being capable of conversion into a drug having such addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining liability. See 21 USC 802
  • opium poppy: means the plant of the species Papaver somniferum L. See 21 USC 802
  • option: means an agreement, contract, or transaction that is of the character of, or is commonly known to the trade as, an "option" "privilege" "indemnity" "bid" "offer" "put" "call" "advance guaranty" or "decline guaranty". See 52 USC 21004
  • Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
  • organization: means a person or entity other than an individual. See 26 USC 5112
  • organized exchange: means a trading facility that--

    (A) permits trading--

    (i) by or on behalf of a person that is not an eligible contract participant. See 52 USC 21004

  • Original bill: A bill which is drafted by a committee. It is introduced by the committee or subcommittee chairman after the committee votes to report it.
  • Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
  • outyear: means a fiscal year one or more years after the budget year. See 26 USC 33
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • paid or accrued: shall be construed according to the method of accounting upon the basis of which the taxable income is computed under subtitle A. See 38 USC 1912
  • Park: means the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, as herein established. See 20 USC 6396
  • park: means the Keweenaw National Historical Park established by section 410yy-2(a)(1) of this title. See
  • park: means the Lewis and Clark National Historical Park designated in section 410kkk-1 of this title. See 21 USC 353a
  • Parliamentarian: The Parliamentarian is an advisor on the interpretation of legislative rules and procedures.
  • partner: includes a member in such a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or organization. See 38 USC 1912
  • partner: includes a member in such a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or organization. See 38 USC 1912
  • partnership: includes a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or other unincorporated organization, through or by means of which any business, financial operation, or venture is carried on, and which is not, within the meaning of this title, a trust or estate or a corporation. See 38 USC 1912
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • partnership: includes a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or other unincorporated organization, through or by means of which any business, financial operation, or venture is carried on, and which is not, within the meaning of this title, a trust or estate or a corporation. See 38 USC 1912
  • PAYGO Act: refers to a bill or joint resolution that affects direct spending or revenue relative to the baseline. See 26 USC 1293
  • Per stirpes: The legal means by which the children of a decedent, upon the death of an ancestor at a level above that of the decedent, receive by right of representation the share of the ancestor
  • performance: may be construed to mean "exercise". See 49 USC 41702
  • performing rights society: is a n association, corporation, or other entity that licenses the public performance of nondramatic musical works on behalf of copyright owners of such works, such as the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP), Broadcast Music, Inc. See 20 USC 6082
  • person: means any State or local subdivision thereof, agency of such State or subdivision, corporation, or partnership that owns or operates or otherwise controls and provides children's services or any individual who owns or operates or otherwise controls and provides such services. See 20 USC 6082
  • person: shall be construed to mean and include an individual, a trust, estate, partnership, association, company or corporation. See 38 USC 1912
  • person: import s the plural or singular, and includes individuals, associations, partnerships, corporations, and trusts. See 52 USC 21004
  • person: import s the plural or the singular, as the case demands, and includes an individual, a partnership, a corporation, or two or more persons having a joint or common interest. See 5 USC 8472
  • person: means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other business entity. See 5 USC 8478
  • person: shall be construed to mean and include an individual, a trust, estate, partnership, association, company or corporation. See 38 USC 1912
  • person or entity: means any individual, corporation, company, foundation, association, labor organization, firm, partnership, society, joint stock company, group of organizations, or State or local government. See 26 USC 5112
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Petit jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
  • phonorecords: includes the material object in which the sounds are first fixed. See 20 USC 6082
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Point of order: A claim made by a legislator from the floor that a rule of the legislature is being violated. If the Chair sustains the point of order, the action in violation of the rule is not permitted.
  • poppy straw: means all parts, except the seeds, of the opium poppy, after mowing. See 21 USC 802
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • practice of telemedicine: means , for purposes of this subchapter, the practice of medicine in accordance with applicable Federal and State laws by a practitioner (other than a pharmacist) who is at a location remote from the patient and is communicating with the patient, or health care professional who is treating the patient, using a telecommunications system referred to in section 1395m(m) of title 42, which practice--

    (A) is being conducted--

    (i) while the patient is being treated by, and physically located in, a hospital or clinic registered under section 823(f) of this title. See 21 USC 802

  • practitioner: means a physician, dentist, veterinarian, scientific investigator, pharmacy, hospital, or other person licensed, registered, or otherwise permitted, by the United States or the jurisdiction in which he practices or does research, to distribute, dispense, conduct research with respect to, administer, or use in teaching or chemical analysis, a controlled substance in the course of professional practice or research. See 21 USC 802
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Private law: A private bill enacted into law. Private laws have restricted applicability, often addressing immigration and naturalization issues affecting individuals.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • production: includes the manufacture, planting, cultivation, growing, or harvesting of a controlled substance. See 21 USC 802
  • proprietor: is a n individual, corporation, partnership, or other entity, as the case may be, that owns an establishment or a food service or drinking establishment, except that no owner or operator of a radio or television station licensed by the Federal Communications Commission, cable system or satellite carrier, cable or satellite carrier service or programmer, provider of online services or network access or the operator of facilities therefor, telecommunications company, or any other such audio or audiovisual service or programmer now known or as may be developed in the future, commercial subscription music service, or owner or operator of any other transmission service, shall under any circumstances be deemed to be a proprietor. See 20 USC 6082
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • prudential regulator: means --

    (A) the Board in the case of a swap dealer, major swap participant, security-based swap dealer, or major security-based swap participant that is--

    (i) a State-chartered bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve System. See 52 USC 21004

  • pseudonymous work: is a work on the copies or phonorecords of which the author is identified under a fictitious name. See 20 USC 6082
  • public corporation: means a State, political subdivision thereof, a municipality, a public agency of a State, political subdivision thereof, or municipality, or a corporate municipal instrumentality of one or more States. See 21 USC 360ll
  • Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • publication: has the meaning given such term in section 101 of title 17. See 26 USC 401
  • publicly: means --

    (1) to perform or display it at a place open to the public or at any place where a substantial number of persons outside of a normal circle of a family and its social acquaintances is gathered. See 20 USC 6082

  • qualifying move: means a move due to economic necessity--

    (A) from one residence to another residence. See 20 USC 6399

  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Quorum call: A call of the roll to establish whether a quorum is present. If any legislator "suggests the absence of a quorum," the presiding officer must direct the roll to be called.
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • Reconciliation bill: A bill containing changes in law recommended pursuant to reconciliation instructions in a budget resolution. If the instructions pertain to only one committee in a chamber, that committee reports the reconciliation bill. If the instructions pertain to more than one committee, the Budget Committee reports an omnibus reconciliation bill, but it may not make substantive changes in the recommendations of the other committees.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • registered entity: means --

    (A) a board of trade designated as a contract market under section 7 of this title. See 52 USC 21004

  • Registry version: means , with respect to a sound recording, the version of a recording first published or offered for mass distribution whether as a publication or a broadcast, or as complete a version as bona fide preservation and restoration activities by the Librarian, an archivist other than the Librarian, or the copyright legal owner can compile in those cases where the original material has been irretrievably lost or the recording is unpublished. See 26 USC 401
  • regulated person: means a person who manufactures, distributes, imports, or exports a listed chemical, a tableting machine, or an encapsulating machine or who acts as a broker or trader for an international transaction involving a listed chemical, a tableting machine, or an encapsulating machine. See 21 USC 802
  • regulated seller: means a retail distributor (including a pharmacy or a mobile retail vendor), except that such term does not include an employee or agent of such distributor. See 21 USC 802
  • regulated transaction: means --

    (A) a distribution, receipt, sale, importation, or exportation of, or an international transaction involving shipment of, a listed chemical, or if the Attorney General establishes a threshold amount for a specific listed chemical, a threshold amount, including a cumulative threshold amount for multiple transactions (as determined by the Attorney General, in consultation with the chemical industry and taking into consideration the quantities normally used for lawful purposes), of a listed chemical, except that such term does not include--

    (i) a domestic lawful distribution in the usual course of business between agents or employees of a single regulated person. See 21 USC 802

  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • residential property: means a single-family dwelling, the construction of which began before July 1, 1991, together with such land on which the dwelling and appurtenant buildings are located as is in the same ownership as such dwelling and as the Secretary designates as reasonably necessary for the owner's continued use and occupancy of the dwelling. See 20 USC 6395
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • retail distributor: means a grocery store, general merchandise store, drug store, or other entity or person whose activities as a distributor relating to ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine products are limited almost exclusively to sales for personal use, both in number of sales and volume of sales, either directly to walk-in customers or in face-to-face transactions by direct sales. See 21 USC 802
  • revised nonsecurity category: means discretionary appropriations other than in budget function 050. See 26 USC 33
  • revised security category: means discretionary appropriations in budget function 050. See 26 USC 33
  • Revocable trust: A trust agreement that can be canceled, rescinded, revoked, or repealed by the grantor (person who establishes the trust).
  • Revolving credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or open-end credit.) Source: OCC
  • Roll call vote : A vote in which each legislator votes "yea" or "nay" as his or her name is called by the Clerk, so that the names of legislators voting on each side are recorded.
  • scheduled listed chemical product: means , subject to subparagraph (B), a product that--

    (i) contains ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine. See 21 USC 802

  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Education. See 22 USC 2274
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Education. See 22 USC 7654
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Education. See 42 USC 10175
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Education. See 42 USC 12131
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior. See 20 USC 6396
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior. See 20 USC 9513
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior. See 21 USC 353a
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. See 38 USC 1912
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Health and Human Services. See 20 USC 6082
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury. See 52 USC 21004
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. See 38 USC 1912
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States or delegates of the Secretary. See 5 USC 8478
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce or his or her designee. See 20 USC 3489
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce. See 21 USC 360ll
  • Secretary of the Treasury: means the Secretary of the Treasury, personally, and shall not include any delegate of his. See 38 USC 1912
  • Secretary of the Treasury: means the Secretary of the Treasury, personally, and shall not include any delegate of his. See 38 USC 1912
  • security: means a security as defined in section 2(a)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U. See 52 USC 21004
  • security category: includes discretionary appropriations associated with agency budgets for the Department of Defense, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the intelligence community management account (95-0401-0-1-054), and all budget accounts in budget function 150 (international affairs). See 26 USC 33
  • security future: means a contract of sale for future delivery of a single security or of a narrow-based security index, including any interest therein or based on the value thereof, except an exempted security under section 3(a)(12) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U. See 52 USC 21004
  • security futures product: means a security future or any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege on any security future. See 52 USC 21004
  • security-based swap: has the meaning given the term in section 3(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See 52 USC 21004
  • security-based swap dealer: has the meaning given the term in section 3(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See 52 USC 21004
  • Sentencing guidelines: A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Sequester: To separate. Sometimes juries are sequestered from outside influences during their deliberations.
  • sequestration: refer to or mean the cancellation of budgetary resources provided by discretionary appropriations or direct spending law. See 26 USC 33
  • serious bodily injury: means bodily injury which involves--

    (A) a substantial risk of death. See 21 USC 802

  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Services: include any service, repair, training of personnel, or technical or other assistance or information used for the purposes of furnishing nonmilitary assistance. See 22 USC 2403
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • shareholder: includes a member in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 38 USC 1912
  • shareholder: includes a member in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 38 USC 1912
  • significant price discovery contract: means an agreement, contract, or transaction subject to section 2(h)(5) of this title. See 52 USC 21004
  • Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs: means the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs signed at New York, New York, on March 30, 1961. See 21 USC 802
  • sound recording: has the meaning given such term in section 101 of title 17. See 26 USC 401
  • State: means a State, territory, possession, Puerto Rico, or the District of Columbia. See 22 USC 2274
  • State: includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 42 USC 10175
  • State: means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 42 USC 12131
  • State: includes the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territories to which this title is made applicable by an Act of Congress. See 20 USC 6082
  • State: means any State, and includes the District of Columbia. See 20 USC 6396
  • State: includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa. See 21 USC 360hh
  • State: means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. See 26 USC 5112
  • State: includes the District of Columbia. See 26 USC 6055
  • State: shall be construed to include the District of Columbia, where such construction is necessary to carry out provisions of this title. See 38 USC 1912
  • State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands: Provided, That for the purposes of section 10156(a) of this title, American Samoa and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands shall be considered as one state 1 and that for these purposes 67 per centum of the amounts allocated shall be allocated to American Samoa, and 33 per centum to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 34 USC 10251
  • State: means any one of the States (including Puerto Rico) or territories or possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia). See 5 USC 8478
  • State: shall be construed to include the District of Columbia, where such construction is necessary to carry out provisions of this title. See 38 USC 1912
  • State: means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. See 21 USC 802
  • State: includes any State, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. See 21 USC 360ll
  • State agency for higher education: means the State board of higher education or other agency or officer primarily responsible for the State supervision of higher education, or if there is no such officer or agency, an officer or agency designated by the Governor or by State law. See 20 USC 3982
  • State library administrative agency: means the official agency of a State charged by the law of the State with the extension and development of public library services throughout the State. See 42 USC 13451
  • State plan: means the document which gives assurances that the officially designated State library administrative agency has the fiscal and legal authority and capability to administer all aspects of this subchapter, provides assurances for establishing the State's policies, priorities, criteria, and procedures necessary to the implementation of all programs under this subchapter, submits copies for approval as required by regulations promulgated by the Director, identifies a State's library needs, and sets forth the activities to be taken toward meeting the identified needs supported with the assistance of Federal funds made available under this subchapter. See 42 USC 13451
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Statutes at large: A chronological listing of the laws enacted each Congress. They are published in volumes numbered by Congress.
  • stock: includes shares in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 38 USC 1912
  • stock: includes shares in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 38 USC 1912
  • student: means any individual--

    (i) who is temporarily present in the United States--

    (I) under subparagraph (F) or (M) of section 101(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, or

    (II) as a student under subparagraph (J) or (Q) of such section 101(15), and


    (ii) who substantially complies with the requirements for being so present. See 38 USC 1912

  • submitted sample: means a sample submitted by or for an interested person for official inspection, other than an official sample. See 5 USC 8478
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 19 USC 2291
  • substituted basis property: means property which is--

    (A) transferred basis property, or

    (B) exchanged basis property. See 38 USC 1912

  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • supervision of weighing: means such supervision by official inspection personnel of the grain-weighing process as is determined by the Secretary to be adequate to reasonably assure the integrity and accuracy of the weighing and of certificates which set forth the weight of the grain and such physical inspection by such personnel of the premises at which the grain weighing is performed as will reasonably assure that all the grain intended to be weighed has been weighed and discharged into the elevator or conveyance. See 5 USC 8478
  • Supplemental appropriation: Budget authority provided in an appropriations act in addition to regular or continuing appropriations already provided. Supplemental appropriations generally are made to cover emergencies, such as disaster relief, or other needs deemed too urgent to be postponed until the enactment of next year's regular appropriations act.
  • swap: includes a master agreement that provides for an agreement, contract, or transaction that is a swap under subparagraph (A), together with each supplement to any master agreement, without regard to whether the master agreement contains an agreement, contract, or transaction that is not a swap pursuant to subparagraph (A). See 52 USC 21004
  • swap data repository: means any person that collects and maintains information or records with respect to transactions or positions in, or the terms and conditions of, swaps entered into by third parties for the purpose of providing a centralized recordkeeping facility for swaps. See 52 USC 21004
  • swap dealer: means any person who--

    (i) holds itself out as a dealer in swaps. See 52 USC 21004

  • swap execution facility: means a trading system or platform in which multiple participants have the ability to execute or trade swaps by accepting bids and offers made by multiple participants in the facility or system, through any means of interstate commerce, including any trading facility, that--

    (A) facilitates the execution of swaps between persons. See 52 USC 21004

  • target area: means any area defined in an application for assistance under this part that has a population whose income does not exceed the median for the area within which the target area is located. See 34 USC 12211
  • Tax Court: means the United States Tax Court. See 38 USC 1912
  • Tax Court: means the United States Tax Court. See 38 USC 1912
  • tax return preparer: means any person who prepares for compensation, or who employs one or more persons to prepare for compensation, any return of tax imposed by this title or any claim for refund of tax imposed by this title. See 38 USC 1912
  • taxable year: means the calendar year, or the fiscal year ending during such calendar year, upon the basis of which the taxable income is computed under subtitle A. See 38 USC 1912
  • taxable year: means the calendar year, or the fiscal year ending during such calendar year, upon the basis of which the taxable income is computed under subtitle A. See 38 USC 1912
  • taxpayer: means any person subject to any internal revenue tax. See 38 USC 1912
  • taxpayer: means any person subject to any internal revenue tax. See 38 USC 1912
  • technical rectifications: means rectifications of an editorial character or minor technical or clerical changes which do not affect the substance or meaning of the text, such as--

    (A) errors in spelling, numbering, or punctuation. See 21 USC 862

  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • TIN: means the identifying number assigned to a person under section 6109. See 38 USC 1912
  • TIN: means the identifying number assigned to a person under section 6109. See 38 USC 1912
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • trade or business: includes the performance of the functions of a public office. See 38 USC 1912
  • trade or business: includes the performance of the functions of a public office. See 38 USC 1912
  • trading facility: means a person or group of persons that constitutes, maintains, or provides a physical or electronic facility or system in which multiple participants have the ability to execute or trade agreements, contracts, or transactions--

    (i) by accepting bids or offers made by other participants that are open to multiple participants in the facility or system. See 52 USC 21004

  • transaction: includes a series of transactions. See 38 USC 1912
  • transaction: includes a series of transactions. See 38 USC 1912
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • transfer of copyright ownership: is a n assignment, mortgage, exclusive license, or any other conveyance, alienation, or hypothecation of a copyright or of any of the exclusive rights comprised in a copyright, whether or not it is limited in time or place of effect, but not including a nonexclusive license. See 20 USC 6082
  • transferred basis property: means property having a basis determined under any provision of subtitle A (or under any corresponding provision of prior income tax law) providing that the basis shall be determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis in the hands of the donor, grantor, or other transferor. See 38 USC 1912
  • transmission program: is a body of material that, as an aggregate, has been produced for the sole purpose of transmission to the public in sequence and as a unit. See 20 USC 6082
  • treaty party: is a country or intergovernmental organization other than the United States that is a party to an international agreement. See 20 USC 6082
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • ultimate user: means a person who has lawfully obtained, and who possesses, a controlled substance for his own use or for the use of a member of his household or for an animal owned by him or by a member of his household. See 21 USC 802
  • United States: includes the several States, territories, and possessions of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. See 22 USC 2274
  • United States: when used in a geographic sense, means all places and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. See 21 USC 802
  • United States: when used in a geographical sense, comprises the several States, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the organized territories under the jurisdiction of the United States Government. See 20 USC 6082
  • United States: when used in a geographical sense includes only the States and the District of Columbia. See 38 USC 1912
  • United States: means the States (including Puerto Rico) and the territories and possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia). See 5 USC 8478
  • United States: when used in a geographical sense includes only the States and the District of Columbia. See 38 USC 1912
  • United States person: means --

    (A) a citizen or resident of the United States,

    (B) a domestic partnership,

    (C) a domestic corporation,

    (D) any estate (other than a foreign estate, within the meaning of paragraph (31)), and

    (E) any trust if--

    (i) a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust, and

    (ii) one or more United States persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust. See 38 USC 1912

  • United States person: means --

    (A) a citizen or resident of the United States,

    (B) a domestic partnership,

    (C) a domestic corporation,

    (D) any estate (other than a foreign estate, within the meaning of paragraph (31)), and

    (E) any trust if--

    (i) a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust, and

    (ii) one or more United States persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust. See 38 USC 1912

  • University: means Gallaudet University. See 42 USC 12131
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • useful article: is a n article having an intrinsic utilitarian function that is not merely to portray the appearance of the article or to convey information. See 20 USC 6082
  • User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
  • Value: means --

    (1) with respect to an excess defense article, the actual value of the article plus the gross cost incurred by the United States Government in repairing, rehabilitating, or modifying the article, except that for purposes of section 2392(d) of this title such actual value shall not be taken into account. See 22 USC 2403

  • Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 19 USC 2294
  • vending facility: means automatic vending machines, cafeterias, snack bars, cart services, shelters, counters, and such other appropriate auxiliary equipment as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe as being necessary for the sale of the articles or services described in section 107a(a)(5) of this title and which may be operated by blind licensees. See 22 USC 2274
  • vending machine income: means receipts (other than those of a blind licensee) from vending machine operations on Federal property, after cost of goods sold (including reasonable service and maintenance costs), where the machines are operated, serviced, or maintained by, or with the approval of, a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States, or commissions paid (other than to a blind licensee) by a commercial vending concern which operates, services, and maintains vending machines on Federal property for, or with the approval of, a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States. See 22 USC 2274
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 19 USC 2293
  • vessel: means any vessel, ship of another type, or boat used for, equipped to be used for, or intended to be used for, fishing or fishing-related activities, including container vessels that are carrying fish that have not been previously landed. See 20 USC 3489
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • Victim advocate: work with prosecutors and assist the victims of a crime.
  • Whips: Assistants to the floor leaders who are also elected by their party conferences. The Majority and Minority Whips (and their assistants) are responsible for mobilizing votes within their parties on major issues. In the absence of a party floor leader, the whip often serves as acting floor leader.
  • whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 19 USC 2291
  • withholding agent: means any person required to deduct and withhold any tax under the provisions of section 1441, 1442, 1443, or 1461. See 38 USC 1912
  • work of the United States Government: is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the United States Government as part of that person's official duties. See 20 USC 6082
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 19 USC 2291
  • zone: means a "foreign-trade zone" as provided in this chapter. See 21 USC 360ll