Article 1 General Provisions 32-5A-1 – 32-5A-13
Article 2 Traffic Signs, Signals and Markings 32-5A-30 – 32-5A-37
Article 3 Operation and Use of Vehicles Generally 32-5A-50 – 32-5A-62
Article 4 Driving on and Use of Roadways Generally; Overtaking and Passing 32-5A-80 – 32-5A-93
Article 5 Right-of-way 32-5A-110 – 32-5A-116
Article 6 Turning, Starting and Stopping Generally 32-5A-130 – 32-5A-139
Article 7 Special Stops Required 32-5A-150 – 32-5A-155
Article 8 Speed Restrictions 32-5A-170 – 32-5A-178
Article 8A County and Municipal Reduced Speed School Zone Act 32-5A-180 – 32-5A-186
Article 9 Serious Traffic Offenses 32-5A-190 – 32-5A-195
Article 9A Safe Streets Act 32-5A-200 – 32-5A-205
Article 10 Pedestrians’ Rights and Duties 32-5A-210 – 32-5A-222
Article 11 Motorcycles 32-5A-240 – 32-5A-245
Article 12 Bicycles and Play Vehicles 32-5A-260 – 32-5A-266
Article 13 Bicycle Safety 32-5A-280 – 32-5A-286
Article 14 Suspension of Driving Privileges for Alcohol Related Offenses 32-5A-300 – 32-5A-309
Article 15 Possession of Open Container of Alcoholic Beverages in Motor Vehicle Prohibited 32-5A-330
Article 16 Text Messaging While Operating a Motor Vehicle; Prohbited 32-5A-350 – 32-5A-352

Terms Used In Alabama Code > Title 32 > Chapter 5A

  • Account: means any deposit or credit account with a bank, including a demand, time, savings, passbook, share draft, or like account, other than an account evidenced by a certificate of deposit;

    (2) "Afternoon" means the period of a day between noon and midnight;

    (3) "Banking day" means the part of a day on which a bank is open to the public for carrying on substantially all of its banking functions;

    (4) "Clearing house" means an association of banks or other payors regularly clearing items;

    (5) "Customer" means a person having an account with a bank or for whom a bank has agreed to collect items, including a bank that maintains an account at another bank;

    (6) "Documentary draft" means a draft to be presented for acceptance or payment if specified documents, certificated securities (Section 7-8-102) or instructions for uncertificated securities (Section 7-8-308), or other certificates, statements, or the like are to be received by the drawee or other payor before acceptance or payment of the draft;

    (7) "Draft" means a draft as defined in Section 7-3-104 or an item, other than an instrument, that is an order;

    (8) "Drawee" means a person ordered in a draft to make payment;

    (9) "Item" means an instrument or a promise or order to pay money handled by a bank for collection or payment. See Alabama Code 7-4-104

  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • aldot: The Alabama State Department of Transportation provided for in Section 23-1-20. See Alabama Code 23-8-3
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • alley: A street or highway intended to provide access to the rear or side of lots or buildings in urban districts and not intended for the purpose of through vehicular traffic. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • applicant: A natural person who files a written application with the governing body of any county or municipality or public corporation in accordance with the provisions of Section 11-99B-3. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Articles of incorporation: include amended and restated articles of incorporation and, in the case of a corporation existing on January 1, 1981, its certificate of incorporation, including any amended certificate, and also include, except where the context otherwise requires, articles of merger. See Alabama Code 10A-2-1.40
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: Includes, but is not limited to, an unincorporated nonprofit association as defined in Chapter 17 and an unincorporated professional association as defined in Article 1 of Chapter 30. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • ATRIP-II COMMITTEE: The Alabama Transportation Rehabilitation and Improvement Program Committee-II established pursuant to this chapter. See Alabama Code 23-8-3
  • ATRIP-II PROJECTS: Those road and bridge rehabilitation and improvement projects submitted to and received by the ATRIP-II Committee for funding in accordance with this chapter. See Alabama Code 23-8-3
  • ATTENDING PHYSICIAN: The physician selected by, or assigned to, the patient and who has primary responsibility for the treatment and care of the patient. See Alabama Code 22-19-141
  • authority: Any authority created pursuant to Act No. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • AUTHORIZED EMERGENCY VEHICLE: Such fire department vehicles, police vehicles, and ambulances as are publicly owned, and such other publicly or privately owned vehicles as are designated by the Secretary of the Alabama State Law Enforcement Agency or the chief of police of an incorporated city. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • AUTHORIZING RESOLUTION: A resolution, adopted by a governing body in accordance with the provisions of Section 11-99B-3, that authorizes the incorporation of a district. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • AUTHORIZING SUBDIVISION: Any county or municipality or public corporation the governing body of which shall have adopted an authorizing resolution. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Bicycle: includes , but is not limited to, a human-powered vehicle designed to transport by the act of pedaling which has more than two wheels when the vehicle is used on a public roadway, public bicycle path, or other public road or right-of-way, but does not include a tricycle. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • bicycle: Every device propelled by human power upon which any person may ride, having two tandem wheels either of which is more than 14 inches in diameter. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • board: The board of directors of a district. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • BOARD OF DIRECTORS: The board of directors of the corporation. See Alabama Code 23-6-1
  • bonds: Bonds, notes, and certificates representing an obligation to pay money. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • bonds: Either general obligation bonds, limited obligation, or revenue bonds, or a combination thereof, issued after the effective date of this act by a city, county, or entities or authorities thereof in connection with the financing, in whole or in part, of eligible facilities. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • bus: Every motor vehicle designed for carrying more than 10 passengers and used for the transportation of persons; and every motor vehicle other than a taxicab, designed and used for the transportation of persons for compensation. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • chairman: The Chairman of the Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. See Alabama Code 22-19-121
  • city: Any city in this state. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • code: The Code of Alabama 1975, as amended. See Alabama Code 23-6-1
  • Committee membership: Legislators are assigned to specific committees by their party. Seniority, regional balance, and political philosophy are the most prominent factors in the committee assignment process.
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Consumer lease: means a lease that a lessor regularly engaged in the business of leasing or selling makes to a lessee who is an individual and who takes under the lease primarily for a personal, family, or household purpose, if the total payments to be made under the lease contract, excluding payments for options to renew or buy, do not exceed $100,000. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • contribution: A tangible or intangible benefit that a person transfers to an entity in consideration for an ownership interest in the entity or otherwise in the person's capacity as an owner or a member. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • CONTROLLED-ACCESS HIGHWAY: Every highway, street, or roadway in respect to which owners or occupants of abutting lands and other persons have no legal right of access to or from the same except at such points only and in such manner as may be determined by the public authority having jurisdiction over such highway, street, or roadway. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • CONVENTION FACILITIES: Any property, real, personal or mixed, which is necessary or desirable in connection with a convention or meeting center, or similar facility, including without limitation, auditoriums, exhibition halls, facilities for food preparation and serving, parking facilities, and administrative offices in connection therewith. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • corporation: Includes a domestic or foreign business corporation as defined in Chapter 2 or Chapter 2A, as applicable, a domestic or foreign nonprofit corporation as defined in Chapter 3, a domestic or foreign professional corporation as defined in Chapter 4, and those entities specified in Chapter 20 as corporate. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • corporation: The public corporation authorized to be created by this chapter. See Alabama Code 23-6-1
  • costs: As applied to any road and bridge project, all costs of construction or acquisition of any part thereof, including, but without limitation to, the costs of supervising, inspecting, and constructing any such project and all costs and expenses incidental thereto, the costs of locating, surveying and mapping, development of engineering plans and specifications, resurfacing, restoration and rehabilitation, acquisition of rights-of-way, utility relocation, and improvements which directly facilitate and control traffic flow, including grade separation of intersections, widening of lanes, channelization of traffic, and traffic-control systems. See Alabama Code 23-8-3
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • county: Any county in the state. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • county: Any county in this state. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • court: Every court and judge having jurisdiction in a case. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • crosswalk: Either of the following:

    a. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1

  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • delegate: A person attending a national or regional convention or meeting in this state. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • department: The Alabama State Law Enforcement Agency acting directly or through its duly authorized officers and agents. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • director: An individual who serves on the board of directors, by whatever name known, of a foreign or domestic corporation. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • director: The Secretary of the Alabama State Law Enforcement Agency. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • director: A member of the board of directors of the district. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Distribution: means a direct or indirect transfer of money or other property, except its own shares, or incurrence of indebtedness by a corporation to or for the benefit of any one or more of its shareholders in respect of any of its shares. See Alabama Code 10A-2-1.40
  • district: A public corporation organized pursuant to the provisions of this chapter. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • domestic: With respect to an entity, that the entity is formed and exists pursuant to this title. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • domestic corporation: means a business corporation, which is not a foreign corporation, incorporated under or subject to the provisions of this chapter. See Alabama Code 10A-2-1.40
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • driver: Every person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • ELIGIBLE FACILITIES: Any convention facilities owned by a city, county, or entities or authorities thereof in which the bonds for the facilities are issued after the effective date hereof, or such facilities for which the construction, or substantial expansion, reconstruction, or renovation is completed after May 11, 1989. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • Employee: includes an officer but not a director. See Alabama Code 10A-2-1.40
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Entity: includes corporation and foreign corporation; nonprofit corporation; for profit and nonprofit association; business trust; estate; partnership; limited liability company; trust; and two or more persons having a joint or common economic interest; and state, United States, and foreign government. See Alabama Code 10A-2-1.40
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • ESTIMATED INVESTMENT MULTIPLIER: The number of times initial expenditures by delegates will be respent on additional goods and services in this state, as determined in Section 11-100-4(h). See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • explosives: Any chemical compound or mechanical mixture that is commonly used or intended for the purpose of producing an explosion and which contains any oxidizing and combustive units or other ingredients in such proportions, quantities, or packing that an ignition by fire, by friction, by concussion, by percussion, or by detonator of any part of the compound or mixture may cause such a sudden generation of highly heated gases that the resultant gaseous pressures are capable of producing destructive effects on contiguous objects or of destroying life or limb. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Finance lease: means a lease with respect to which:

    (i) the lessor does not select, manufacture, or supply the goods;

    (ii) the lessor acquires the goods or the right to possession and use of the goods in connection with the lease; and

    (iii) one of the following occurs:

    (A) the lessee receives a copy of the contract by which the lessor acquired the goods or the right to possession and use of the goods before signing the lease contract;

    (B) the lessee's approval of the contract by which the lessor acquired the goods or the right to possession and use of the goods is a condition to effectiveness of the lease contract;

    (C) the lease contract or a separate accurate and complete statement delivered to the lessee discloses in writing (a) all express warranties and other rights provided to the lessee by the lessor and the supplier in connection with the lease contract (b) that there are no other express warranties or rights provided to the lessee by the lessor or the supplier in connection with the lease contract, and (c) in a consumer lease, any waiver, disclaimer, or other negation of express or implied warranties and any limitation or modification of remedy or liquidation of damages for breach of those warranties or other rights of the lessee in a manner as provided in this article or in Article 2, as applicable; or

    (D) the lessor, before the lessee signs the lease contract, informs the lessee in writing (a) of the identity of the supplier, unless the lessee has selected the supplier and directed the lessor to purchase the goods from the supplier, (b) that the lessee is entitled under this article to all warranties and other rights provided to the lessee by the supplier in connection with the lease contract, and (c) to contact the supplier to receive an accurate and complete statement from the supplier of any such express warranties and other rights and any disclaimers or limitations of them or of remedies. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103

  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • foreign: With respect to an entity, that the entity is formed and existing under the laws of a jurisdiction other than this state. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Goods: means all things that are movable at the time of identification to the lease contract, or are fixtures (Section 7-2A-309), but the term does not include money, documents, instruments, accounts, chattel paper, general intangibles, or minerals or the like, including oil and gas, before extraction. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • GOVERNING BODY: With respect to a county, its county commission, and, with respect to a municipality, its city or town council, board of commissioners, or other like governing body and, with respect to a public corporation, its board of directors. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • GOVERNMENT SECURITIES: Any bonds or other obligations which as to principal and interest constitute direct obligations of, or are unconditionally guaranteed by, the United States of America, including obligations of any federal agency to the extent such obligations are unconditionally guaranteed by the United States of America and any certificates or any other evidences of an ownership interest in such obligations of, or unconditionally guaranteed by, the United States of America or in specified portions thereof (which may consist of the principal thereof or the interest thereon). See Alabama Code 23-6-1
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • highway: The entire width between the boundary lines of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • HOUSE TRAILER: Either of the following:

    a. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1

  • Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
  • incorporators: The persons forming a public corporation organized pursuant to the provisions of this chapter. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • individual: A natural person and the estate of an incompetent or deceased natural person. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • INDUSTRIAL ACCESS ROADS AND BRIDGES: The planning, design, and construction of roads and bridges on the public highway and street system providing access to active military installations or property used primarily for military purposes or to projects that conduct an activity specified in subdivision (1) of Section 40-18-372, including necessary right-of-way and utility activities provided by state law. See Alabama Code 23-6-1
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • intersection: Any of the following:

    a. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1

  • Irrevocable trust: A trust arrangement that cannot be revoked, rescinded, or repealed by the grantor.
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • law: Unless the context requires otherwise, both statutory and common law. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • Lease: means a transfer of the right to possession and use of goods for a term in return for consideration, but a sale, including a sale on approval or a sale or return, or retention or creation of a security interest is not a lease. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • Lease agreement: means the bargain, with respect to the lease, of the lessor and the lessee in fact as found in their language or by implication from other circumstances including course of dealing or usage of trade or course of performance as provided in this article. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • Lease contract: means the total legal obligation that results from the lease agreement as affected by this article and any other applicable rules of law. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • legislature: The Legislature of Alabama. See Alabama Code 23-6-1
  • legislature: The Legislature of Alabama. See Alabama Code 23-8-3
  • Lessee: means a person who acquires the right to possession and use of goods under a lease. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • Lessor: means a person who transfers the right to possession and use of goods under a lease. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • LOCAL AUTHORITIES: Either of the following:

    a. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1

  • mail: To deposit in the United States mail properly addressed and with postage prepaid. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • member: Any county, municipality, or public corporation which elects one or more directors to the board of a district. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • merger: The combination of one or more domestic entities with one or more domestic entities or non-code organizations resulting in:

    (A) one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations;

    (B) the creation of one or more new domestic entities or non-code organizations, or one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations; or

    (C) one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations and the creation of one or more new domestic entities or non-code organizations. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03

  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • month: means a calendar month. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • MOTOR VEHICLE: Every vehicle which is self-propelled and every vehicle which is propelled by electric power obtained from overhead trolley wires, but not operated upon rails, except for electric personal assistive mobility devices. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • MOTOR-DRIVEN CYCLE: Every motorcycle, including every motor scooter, with a motor that produces not more than five brake horsepower nor exceeds 150 cubic centimeter engine displacement, and weighs less than 200 pounds fully equipped, and every bicycle with a motor attached. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • motorcycle: Every motor vehicle having a seat or saddle for the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground, but excluding a tractor. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • municipality: Any incorporated city or town of the state. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • NATIONAL OR REGIONAL MEETING: A meeting, convention, show, or other function which is intended primarily for delegates from outside the state. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • NET INTEREST INCOME: Interest earned from an investment, net of that which represents a return of accrued interest, and the amount required to offset the amortization of any premium, paid in connection with the purchase of such investment. See Alabama Code 23-6-1
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • non compos mentis: include all persons of unsound mind. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • nonresident: Every person who is not a resident of this state. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • oath: includes affirmation. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • officer: An individual elected, appointed, or designated as an officer of an entity by the entity's governing authority or under the entity's governing documents. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • OFFICIAL TRAFFIC-CONTROL DEVICES: All signs, signals, markings, and devices not inconsistent with this title placed or erected by authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction, for the purpose of regulating, warning, or guiding traffic. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • operator: A person who travels on a bicycle seated on a saddle seat from which that person is intended to and can pedal the bicycle. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • organ: Any human organ, human bone or human tissue, or any other part or portions of the human body, retrieved in Alabama except that the term "organ" shall not include blood, blood products, or eyes or corneas of the eye for the purposes established by this article. See Alabama Code 22-19-121
  • organ: Organs, tissues, eyes, bones, arteries, blood or other fluids and any other part or portions of a human body. See Alabama Code 22-19-141
  • owner: A person, other than a lienholder, having the property in or title to a vehicle. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • partner: A limited partner or general partner. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • partnership: Includes a general partnership, a limited liability partnership, a foreign limited liability partnership, a limited partnership, a foreign limited partnership, a limited liability limited partnership, and a foreign limited liability limited partnership. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • passenger: Any person who travels on a bicycle in any manner except as an operator. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • pedestrian: Any person afoot. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • person: An individual, including the estate of an incompetent or deceased individual, or an organization, whether created by the laws of this state or another state or foreign country, including, without limitation, a general partnership, limited liability partnership, limited partnership, limited liability limited partnership, limited liability company, corporation, professional corporation, nonprofit corporation, professional association, trustee, personal representative, fiduciary, as defined in Section 19-3-150 or person performing in any similar capacity, business trust, estate, trust, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • person: Any person, firm, partnership, association, joint venture, or corporation, and any combination of persons herein specified, but "person" shall not include the United States or any agency or instrumentality thereof, except in the case of voluntary submission to the policies and procedures and standards for quality assurance established by this article and by the "chairman". See Alabama Code 22-19-121
  • person: Unless limited to a natural person by the context in which it is used, such term includes a public or private corporation, a municipality, a county or an agency, department or instrumentality of the state, or of a county or municipality. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • person: Every natural person, firm, copartnership, association, or corporation. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • personal property: includes money, goods, chattels, things in action and evidence of debt, deeds and conveyances. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • Personal Property Instrument: means any instrument or document affecting the title to personal property only (as distinguished from real property) that may be now or hereafter required to be filed or titled for record in the probate office, in accordance with the applicable requirements of the laws of this state, including, without limitation, Sections 35-4-50 and 35-4-90. See Alabama Code 45-23-83.01
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • POLICE OFFICER: Every officer authorized to direct or regulate traffic or to make arrests for violations of traffic regulations. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • PRINCIPAL OFFICE: The place at which the certificate of incorporation and amendments thereto, the bylaws, and the minutes of proceedings of the board of a district are kept. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • project: Any capital improvement, facility, structure, building, property, or appurtenances thereto of any nature, type, or description which any member is authorized by any law of the state to own, acquire, construct, or finance. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • property: Includes all property, whether real, personal, or mixed, or tangible or intangible, or any right or interest therein. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • property: Real and personal property and interests therein. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • PROTECTIVE BICYCLE HELMET: A piece of headgear which meets or exceeds the impact standard for protective bicycle helmets set by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) or the Snell Memorial Foundation, or which is otherwise approved by the Alabama Department of Public Safety. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • PUBLIC BICYCLE PATH: A right-of-way under the jurisdiction and control of the state, or a local political subdivision thereof, for use primarily by bicyclists and pedestrians. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • PUBLIC CORPORATION: Any public corporation organized under the laws of the state. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • PUBLIC REVENUES: Any one or more of the items of tax proceeds and other revenues that a municipality or county is authorized to pledge for its bonds under the provisions of Section 11-81-16. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • PUBLIC ROADWAY: A right-of-way under the jurisdiction and control of the state or a local political subdivision thereof for use primarily by motor vehicular traffic. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • QUALITY ASSURANCE: The policies and procedures and standards of quality for the acquisition and/or transportation of donated organs, bones, and tissue retrieved in Alabama. See Alabama Code 22-19-121
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • railroad: A carrier of persons or property upon cars other than street cars, operated upon stationary rails. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • RAILROAD TRAIN: A steam engine, electric or other motor, with or without cars coupled thereto, operated upon rails. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • real property: includes lands, tenements and hereditaments. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • Real Property Instrument: means and includes any instrument or document affecting the title to real property that may now or hereafter be filed for record in the probate office pursuant to the applicable requirements of the laws of this state, including, without limitation, Section 12-13-43, and all statutes providing for the filing and recording of notices or statements of liens of any kind, notices of judgment, and plats or maps showing subdivisions of real estate. See Alabama Code 45-23-83.01
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • registration: The registration certificate or certificates and registration plates issued under the laws of this state pertaining to the registration of vehicles. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • RESIDENCE DISTRICT: The territory contiguous to and including a highway not comprising a business district when the property on such highway for a distance of 300 feet or more is in the main improved with residences or residences and buildings in use for business. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • RESTRAINING SEAT: A seat separate from the saddle seat of the operator of the bicycle or a bicycle trailer or similar product that is fastened securely to the frame of the bicycle and is adequately equipped to restrain the passenger in the seat and protect the passenger from the moving parts of the bicycle. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • REVENUE BONDS: Bonds issued by a city, county or authority which are limited or special, rather than general obligations of the issuer and which are not payable from the proceeds of an ad valorem tax. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • RIGHT-OF-WAY: The right of one vehicle or pedestrian to proceed in a lawful manner in preference to another vehicle or pedestrian approaching under such circumstances of direction, speed, and proximity as to give rise to danger of collision unless one grants precedence to the other. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • roadway: That portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the berm or shoulder. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • SAFETY ZONE: The area or space officially set apart within a roadway for the exclusive use of pedestrians and which is protected or is so marked or indicated by adequate signs as to be plainly visible at all times while set apart as a safety zone. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • SCHOOL BUS: Every motor vehicle that complies with the color and identification requirements set forth by statute or regulation and is used to transport children to or from school or in connection with school activities, but not including buses operated by common carriers in urban transportation of school children. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Secretary: means the corporate officer to whom the board of directors has delegated responsibility under Section 10A-2-8. See Alabama Code 10A-2-1.40
  • Sentencing guidelines: A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Source: U.S. Courts
  • service: Any service pertaining to the acquisition and/or transporting of organs, bones, or tissues retrieved in Alabama. See Alabama Code 22-19-121
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Shareholder: means the person in whose name shares are registered in the records of a corporation or the beneficial owner of shares to the extent of the rights granted by a nominee certificate on file with a corporation. See Alabama Code 10A-2-1.40
  • Shares: means the units into which the proprietary interests in a corporation are divided. See Alabama Code 10A-2-1.40
  • sidewalk: That portion of a street between the curb lines, or the lateral lines of a roadway, and the adjacent property lines, intended for use by pedestrians. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • state: Includes, when referring to a part of the United States, a state or commonwealth, and its agencies and governmental subdivisions, and a territory or possession, and its agencies and governmental subdivisions, of the United States. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • state: The State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 23-6-1
  • state: The State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 23-8-3
  • state: The State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 11-99B-1
  • state: A state, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a province of Canada. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • STATE ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS: Payments to a city, county or entities or authorities thereof, under this chapter. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • stop: When required, means complete cessation from movement. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • street: The entire width between boundary lines of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • subscription: include a mark when the person cannot write, if his name is written near the mark, and witnessed by a person who writes his own name as a witness, and include with respect to corporate securities facsimile signature placed upon any instrument or writing with intent to execute or authenticate such instrument or writing. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • subsidiary: An entity or organization at least 50 percent of:

    (A) the ownership or membership interest of which is owned by a parent entity or parent organization; or

    (B) the voting power of which is possessed by a parent entity or parent organization. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03

  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Supplier: means a person from whom a lessor buys or leases goods to be leased under a finance lease. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • traffic: Pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, and other conveyances either singly or together while using any highway for purposes of travel. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • TRAFFIC-CONTROL SIGNAL: Any device, whether manually, electrically, or mechanically operated, by which traffic is alternately directed to stop and permitted to proceed. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • trailer: Every vehicle with or without motive power, other than a pole trailer, designed for carrying persons or property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and so constructed that no part of its weight rests upon the towing vehicle. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • tricycle: A three-wheeled human-powered vehicle designed for use by a child under the age of six. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • truck: Every motor vehicle designed, used, or maintained primarily for the transportation of property. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • TRUCK PLATOON: A group of individual commercial trucks traveling in a unified manner at electronically coordinated speeds at following distances that are closer than would be reasonable and prudent without the electronic coordination. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • trustee: A person who serves as a trustee of a trust, including a real estate investment trust. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • URBAN DISTRICT: The territory contiguous to and including any street which is built up with structures devoted to business, industry, or dwelling houses situated at intervals of less than 100 feet for a distance of a quarter of a mile or more. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
  • Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
  • vehicle: Every device in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, excepting devices moved by human power or used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks or electric personal assistive mobility devices; provided, that for the purposes of this title, a bicycle or a ridden animal shall be deemed a vehicle, except those provisions of this title, which by their very nature can have no application. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Voting group: means all shares of one or more classes or series that under the articles of incorporation or this chapter are entitled to vote and be counted together collectively on a matter at a meeting of shareholders. See Alabama Code 10A-2-1.40
  • writing: includes typewriting and printing on paper. See Alabama Code 1-1-1