Article 1 General Provisions 32-5A-1 – 32-5A-13
Article 2 Traffic Signs, Signals and Markings 32-5A-30 – 32-5A-37
Article 3 Operation and Use of Vehicles Generally 32-5A-50 – 32-5A-62
Article 4 Driving on and Use of Roadways Generally; Overtaking and Passing 32-5A-80 – 32-5A-93
Article 5 Right-of-way 32-5A-110 – 32-5A-116
Article 6 Turning, Starting and Stopping Generally 32-5A-130 – 32-5A-139
Article 7 Special Stops Required 32-5A-150 – 32-5A-155
Article 8 Speed Restrictions 32-5A-170 – 32-5A-178
Article 8A County and Municipal Reduced Speed School Zone Act 32-5A-180 – 32-5A-186
Article 9 Serious Traffic Offenses 32-5A-190 – 32-5A-196
Article 9A Safe Streets Act 32-5A-200 – 32-5A-205
Article 10 Pedestrians’ Rights and Duties 32-5A-210 – 32-5A-222
Article 11 Motorcycles 32-5A-240 – 32-5A-245
Article 12 Bicycles and Play Vehicles 32-5A-260 – 32-5A-267
Article 13 Bicycle Safety 32-5A-280 – 32-5A-286
Article 14 Suspension of Driving Privileges for Alcohol Related Offenses 32-5A-300 – 32-5A-309
Article 15 Possession of Open Container of Alcoholic Beverages in Motor Vehicle Prohibited 32-5A-330
Article 16 Text Messaging While Operating a Motor Vehicle; Prohbited 32-5A-350 – 32-5A-352

Terms Used In Alabama Code > Title 32 > Chapter 5A - Rules of the Road

  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • affiliate: With respect to any lender, any person, firm or corporation controlled by, or under common control with, such lender, and any person, firm or corporation controlling such lender. See Alabama Code 2-3A-2
  • AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS: Farming, ranching, the production of agricultural commodities (including, without limitation, the products of aquaculture and silvaculture) or the treating, processing, storing, manufacturing, marketing, distribution or exporting of agricultural commodities; provided, however, that such term shall not include any operation the principal purpose of which is the selling at retail of agricultural commodities or related products; provided, further, that costs of agricultural operations shall specifically include, but not be limited to, costs of acquiring and improving real and personal property, repairs, annual operating expenses, family living expenses and refinancing of debt incurred for any such costs. See Alabama Code 2-3A-2
  • alley: A street or highway intended to provide access to the rear or side of lots or buildings in urban districts and not intended for the purpose of through vehicular traffic. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • applicant: A natural person who files a written application with the governing body of a county or municipality, or two or more thereof, in accordance with Section 11-101A-3. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • APPOINTING AUTHORITY: The sheriff, or any designee of the sheriff who is exempt pursuant to Section 45-28-234. See Alabama Code 45-28-234
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • authority: The public corporation organized pursuant to the provisions of this article. See Alabama Code 2-3A-2
  • authority: Any authority created pursuant to Act No. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • authority: A public corporation organized pursuant to this chapter. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • authority: The Shoals Economic Development Authority. See Alabama Code 45-39-92
  • AUTHORIZED EMERGENCY VEHICLE: Such fire department vehicles, police vehicles, and ambulances as are publicly owned, and such other publicly or privately owned vehicles as are designated by the Secretary of the Alabama State Law Enforcement Agency or the chief of police of an incorporated city. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • AUTHORIZING RESOLUTION: A resolution adopted by the governing body of an authorizing subdivision in accordance with Section 11-101A-3, that authorizes the incorporation of an authority under this chapter. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • AUTHORIZING SUBDIVISION: Each county and municipality with the governing body of which an application for the incorporation of an authority under this chapter is filed. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bailiff: a court officer who enforces the rules of behavior in courtrooms.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bicycle: includes , but is not limited to, a human-powered vehicle designed to transport by the act of pedaling which has more than two wheels when the vehicle is used on a public roadway, public bicycle path, or other public road or right-of-way, but does not include a tricycle. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • bicycle: Every device propelled by human power upon which any individual may ride, having two tandem wheels either of which is more than 14 inches in diameter. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • board: The Personnel Board of the Office of the Sheriff of Etowah County created by this part. See Alabama Code 45-28-234
  • board: The board of directors of the authority. See Alabama Code 2-3A-2
  • board: The Agricultural Center Board created by Sections 2-6-1 and 2-6-2. See Alabama Code 2-6-50
  • board: The board of directors of an authority. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • board: The board of directors of the authority comprised of the members of the Shoals Economic Development Authority. See Alabama Code 45-39-92
  • bonds: Bonds, notes, certificates, bond, grant or revenue anticipation notes or any other evidence of indebtedness representing an obligation to pay money. See Alabama Code 2-3A-2
  • bonds: Those bonds, including the refunding bonds, issued under and pursuant to the provisions of this article. See Alabama Code 2-5A-30
  • bonds: Either general obligation bonds, limited obligation, or revenue bonds, or a combination thereof, issued after the effective date of this act by a city, county, or entities or authorities thereof in connection with the financing, in whole or in part, of eligible facilities. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • bonds: Any bonds authorized to be issued by an authority hereunder, including refunding bonds. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • burning: No garbage or rubbish containing garbage or other putrescible materials or hazardous wastes shall be burned except in approved incinerators meeting the regulations of the Alabama Department of Environmental Management requirements and air pollution controls as now established or as may later be established. See Alabama Code 45-43-170.03
  • bus: Every motor vehicle designed for carrying more than 10 passengers and used for the transportation of individuals and every motor vehicle other than a taxicab, designed and used for the transportation of individuals for compensation. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Capital offense: A crime punishable by death.
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • city: Any city in this state. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • city: The City of Midfield, Alabama. See Alabama Code 45-37A-331.02
  • CIVIL FINE: The monetary amount assessed by the city pursuant to this part for an adjudication of civil liability for a traffic signal violation, including municipal court costs associated with the infraction. See Alabama Code 45-37A-331.02
  • CIVIL VIOLATION: There is hereby created a noncriminal category of state law called a civil violation created and existing for the sole purpose of carrying out the terms of this part. See Alabama Code 45-37A-331.02
  • CLASSIFIED SERVICE: All Alabama Peace Officers' Standards and Training Commission-certified custodial, administrative, and clerical employees of the Office of the Sheriff of Etowah County not specifically exempted as command staff in subsection (b) of Section 45-28-234. See Alabama Code 45-28-234
  • code: The Code of Alabama 1975. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • coliseum: The existing coliseum building located in the Alabama Agricultural Center in the City of Montgomery. See Alabama Code 2-6-50
  • coliseum: The existing Garrett Coliseum and the grounds and other buildings and structures associated therewith, all owned by the Agricultural Center Board and located in the City of Montgomery, Alabama. See Alabama Code 2-6-70
  • commissioner: The Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 2-1-1
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • COMMUNITY SCHOOLS ADVISORY COMMITTEE: A committee of citizens organized to advise community school coordinators, administrators, and local boards of education in the involvement of citizens in the educational process and in the use of public school facilities. See Alabama Code 16-63-3
  • COMMUNITY SCHOOLS COORDINATOR: An employee of a local board of education whose responsibility it is to promote and direct maximum use of the public schools and public school facilities as centers for community education. See Alabama Code 16-63-3
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • CONTROLLED-ACCESS HIGHWAY: Every highway, street, or roadway in respect to which owners or occupants of abutting lands and other persons have no legal right of access to or from the same except at such points only and in such manner as may be determined by the public authority having jurisdiction over the highway, street, or roadway. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • CONVENTION FACILITIES: Any property, real, personal or mixed, which is necessary or desirable in connection with a convention or meeting center, or similar facility, including without limitation, auditoriums, exhibition halls, facilities for food preparation and serving, parking facilities, and administrative offices in connection therewith. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • cooperative: A cooperative marketing association for marketing of farm products. See Alabama Code 2-1-1
  • CORPORATION: Any public corporation which may be organized pursuant to any law now in force or hereafter enacted for the purpose of acquiring title to and completing the construction and equipment of the coliseum and the necessary facilities in connection therewith. See Alabama Code 2-6-50
  • corporation: The public corporation authorized to be created by this article. See Alabama Code 2-6-70
  • county: Any county in this state. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • county: Any county in the state. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • county: Jefferson County in Alabama. See Alabama Code 45-37A-331.02
  • crosswalk: Either of the following:

    a. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1

  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • delegate: A person attending a national or regional convention or meeting in this state. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • department: The Alabama State Law Enforcement Agency acting directly or through its duly authorized officers and agents. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • department: Alabama Department of Environmental Management. See Alabama Code 45-43-170.03
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • director: The Secretary of the Alabama State Law Enforcement Agency. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • director: A member of the board of the authority. See Alabama Code 2-3A-2
  • director: A member of the board of an authority. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • driver: Every individual who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • ELECTRIC BICYCLE: A bicycle equipped with fully operable pedals, a saddle or seat for the rider, and an electric motor of less than 750 watts that meets the requirements of one of the following three classes:

    a. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1

  • ELIGIBLE FACILITIES: Any convention facilities owned by a city, county, or entities or authorities thereof in which the bonds for the facilities are issued after the effective date hereof, or such facilities for which the construction, or substantial expansion, reconstruction, or renovation is completed after May 11, 1989. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • employee: Any person not exempt pursuant to Section 45-28-234. See Alabama Code 45-28-234
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • ESTIMATED INVESTMENT MULTIPLIER: The number of times initial expenditures by delegates will be respent on additional goods and services in this state, as determined in Section 11-100-4(h). See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • exception: A person, household, business, industry, or any property owner may store, haul, and dispose of his or her own solid wastes on his or her land or otherwise, provided such storage, haulage, or disposal is accomplished pursuant to a certificate of exception as provided by the state. See Alabama Code 45-43-170.03
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • explosives: Any chemical compound or mechanical mixture that is commonly used or intended for the purpose of producing an explosion and which contains any oxidizing and combustive units or other ingredients in such proportions, quantities, or packing that an ignition by fire, by friction, by concussion, by percussion, or by detonator of any part of the compound or mixture may cause such a sudden generation of highly heated gases that the resultant gaseous pressures are capable of producing destructive effects on contiguous objects or of destroying life or limb. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • FEDERAL SECURITIES: Direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged, or obligations issued by a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on which is fully and unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • FISCAL YEAR: A fiscal year of an authorizing subdivision. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • GARBAGE DISPOSAL: Garbage and rubbish containing garbage shall be disposed of by sanitary landfill, approved incineration, composting, or by other means now available or which may later become available as approved by the governing body. See Alabama Code 45-43-170.03
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • GOVERNING BODY: With respect to a county, its county commission or other like governing body, and with respect to a municipality, its city or town council, board of commissioners, or other like governing body. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • haulage: Trucks or other vehicles engaged in the business of hauling garbage and rubbish which use public roads shall be so covered, secured, or sealed that there will be no loss during haulage to cause littering of county or municipal roads, streets, and highways, or cause a nuisance or hazard to the public health. See Alabama Code 45-43-170.03
  • highway: The entire width between the boundary lines of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • HOUSE TRAILER: Either of the following:

    a. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1

  • Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
  • incorporators: The persons forming a public corporation organized pursuant to this chapter. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • indenture: A mortgage, mortgage indenture, mortgage and trust indenture, or trust indenture executed by an authority as security for any of its securities. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • intersection: Any of the following:

    a. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1

  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • LEASE AGREEMENT: Any agreement of lease covering all or any part of the properties comprising the Alabama Agricultural Center, including the coliseum and any facilities necessary in connection therewith, which may be made between the board and the corporation pursuant to the provisions of this article. See Alabama Code 2-6-50
  • legislature: The Legislature of the state. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • lender: Any federal or state chartered bank, federal land bank, production credit association, bank for cooperatives, federal or state chartered savings and loan association or building and loan association, small business investment company or any other institution qualified within this state to originate and service loans, including, but without limitation to, insurance companies, credit unions and mortgage loan companies. See Alabama Code 2-3A-2
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • LOCAL AUTHORITIES: Either of the following:

    a. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1

  • mail: To deposit in the United States mail properly addressed and with postage prepaid. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • MARKET FACILITY: Any facility for the inspection, grading, standardization, classification, refrigeration, dehydration, canning, packing, processing, cold storage and marketing of agricultural and kindred products permitted to be acquired and constructed by the Board of Agriculture and Industries pursuant to Section 2-3-20. See Alabama Code 2-6-70
  • member: An individual resident and registered voter of Lauderdale County or Colbert County, who has been appointed to the authority by their respective governing bodies to serve in a representative capacity. See Alabama Code 45-39-92
  • month: means a calendar month. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • MOTOR VEHICLE: Every vehicle that is self-propelled and every vehicle that is propelled by electric power obtained from overhead trolley wires, but not operated upon rails, except for electric personal assistive mobility devices and electric bicycles. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • MOTOR-DRIVEN CYCLE: Every motorcycle, including every motor scooter, with a motor that produces not more than five brake horsepower nor exceeds 150 cubic centimeter engine displacement, and weighs less than 200 pounds fully equipped, and every bicycle with a motor attached. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • motorcycle: Every motor vehicle having a seat or saddle for the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground, but excluding a tractor and an electric bicycle. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • MUNICIPAL COURT: The Municipal Court of the City of Midfield. See Alabama Code 45-37A-331.02
  • municipality: An incorporated city or town of the state. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • NATIONAL OR REGIONAL MEETING: A meeting, convention, show, or other function which is intended primarily for delegates from outside the state. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • nonresident: Every individual who is not a resident of this state. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • OFFICIAL TRAFFIC-CONTROL DEVICES: All signs, signals, markings, and devices not inconsistent with this title placed or erected by authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction, for the purpose of regulating, warning, or guiding traffic. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • operator: A person who travels on a bicycle seated on a saddle seat from which that person is intended to and can pedal the bicycle. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • owner: A person, other than a lienholder, having the property in or title to a vehicle. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • owner: The owner of a motor vehicle as shown on the motor vehicle registration records of the Alabama Department of Revenue or the analogous department or agency of another state or country. See Alabama Code 45-37A-331.02
  • passenger: Any person who travels on a bicycle in any manner except as an operator. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • pedestrian: Any individual afoot. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • PERMITTED INVESTMENTS: (i) Government securities; (ii) bonds, debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness issued by any of the following agencies: bank for cooperatives; federal intermediate credit banks; Federal Financing Bank; federal home loan banks; Federal Farm Credit Bank; Export-Import Bank of the United States; federal land banks; or Farmers Home Administration or any other agency or corporation which has been or may hereafter be created by or pursuant to an act of the Congress of the United States as an agency or instrumentality thereof; (iii) bonds, notes, pass through securities or other evidences of indebtedness of Government National Mortgage Association and participation certificates of Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation; (iv) full faith and credit obligations of any state, provided that at the time of purchase such obligations are rated at least "AA" by Standard & Poor's Corporation and at least "Aa" by Moody's Investors Service; (v) public housing bonds issued by public agencies or municipalities and fully secured as to the payment of both principal and interest by contracts with the United States of America, or temporary notes, preliminary notes or project notes issued by public agencies or municipalities, in each case fully secured as to the payment of both principal and interest by a requisition or payment agreement with the United States of America; (vi) time deposits evidenced by certificates of deposit issued by banks or savings and loan associations which are members of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, provided that, to the extent such time deposits are not covered by federal deposit insurance, such time deposits, including interest thereon, are fully secured by a pledge of obligations described in clauses (i), (ii), (iii), and (v) above, which at all times have a market value not less than the amount of such bank time deposits required to be so secured and which meet the greater of 100 percent collateralization or the "AA" collateral levels established by Standard & Poor's Corporation for structured financings; (vii) repurchase agreements for obligations of the type specified in clauses (i), (ii), (iii), and (v) above, provided such repurchase agreements are fully collateralized and secured by such obligations which have a market value at least equal to the purchase price of such repurchase agreements which are held by a depository satisfactory to the State Treasurer in such manner as may be required to provide a prefected security interest in such obligations, and which meet the greater of 100 percent collateralization or the "AA" collateral levels established by Standard & Poor's Corporation for structured financings; and (viii) uncollateralized investment agreements with, or certificates of deposit issued by, banks or bank holding companies, the senior long-term securities of which are rated at least "AA" by Standard & Poor's Corporation and at least "Aa" by Moody's Investors Service. See Alabama Code 2-5A-30
  • person: Every individual, firm, copartnership, association, or corporation. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • person: Unless limited to a natural person by the context in which it is used, a person, corporation, association, partnership or cooperative. See Alabama Code 2-3A-2
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • personal property: includes money, goods, chattels, things in action and evidence of debt, deeds and conveyances. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • Personal Property Instrument: means any instrument or document affecting the title to personal property only (as distinguished from real property) that may be now or hereafter required to be filed or titled for record in the probate office, in accordance with the applicable requirements of the laws of this state, including, without limitation, Sections 35-4-50 and 35-4-90. See Alabama Code 45-23-83.01
  • PHOTOGRAPHIC TRAFFIC SIGNAL ENFORCEMENT SYSTEM: A camera system which is designed and installed to work in conjunction with an electrically operated traffic control device using vehicle sensors synchronized to automatically record, either by conventional film or digital imaging, sequenced photographs or full motion video of the rear of a motor vehicle while proceeding through a signalized intersection. See Alabama Code 45-37A-331.02
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • POLICE OFFICER: Every officer authorized to direct or regulate traffic or to make arrests for violations of traffic regulations. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • preceding: means next before. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • PRINCIPAL OFFICE: The place at which the certificate of incorporation and amendments thereto, the bylaws, and the minutes of the proceedings of the board of an authority are kept. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • project: Any land and any buildings or other improvements thereon and all real and personal properties deemed necessary in connection therewith, whether or not now in existence, which shall be suitable for use by the United States. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • property: includes both real and personal property. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • PROTECTIVE BICYCLE HELMET: A piece of headgear which meets or exceeds the impact standard for protective bicycle helmets set by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) or the Snell Memorial Foundation, or which is otherwise approved by the Alabama Department of Public Safety. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • PUBLIC BICYCLE PATH: A right-of-way under the jurisdiction and control of the state, or a local political subdivision thereof, for use primarily by bicyclists and pedestrians. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • PUBLIC ROADWAY: A right-of-way under the jurisdiction and control of the state or a local political subdivision thereof for use primarily by motor vehicular traffic. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • PUBLIC SCHOOL FACILITY: Any education facility under the jurisdiction of a local board of education, whether termed an elementary school, middle school, junior high school, or high school. See Alabama Code 16-63-3
  • railroad: A carrier of individuals or property upon cars other than street cars, operated upon stationary rails. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • RAILROAD TRAIN: A steam engine, electric or other motor, with or without cars coupled thereto, operated upon rails. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • real property: includes lands, tenements and hereditaments. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • Real Property Instrument: means and includes any instrument or document affecting the title to real property that may now or hereafter be filed for record in the probate office pursuant to the applicable requirements of the laws of this state, including, without limitation, Section 12-13-43, and all statutes providing for the filing and recording of notices or statements of liens of any kind, notices of judgment, and plats or maps showing subdivisions of real estate. See Alabama Code 45-23-83.01
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • registration: The registration certificate or certificates and registration plates issued under the laws of this state pertaining to the registration of vehicles. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • RESIDENCE DISTRICT: The territory contiguous to and including a highway not comprising a business district when the property on the highway for a distance of 300 feet or more is, in the main, improved with residences or residences and buildings in use for business. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • RESTRAINING SEAT: A seat separate from the saddle seat of the operator of the bicycle or a bicycle trailer or similar product that is fastened securely to the frame of the bicycle and is adequately equipped to restrain the passenger in the seat and protect the passenger from the moving parts of the bicycle. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • REVENUE BONDS: Bonds issued by a city, county or authority which are limited or special, rather than general obligations of the issuer and which are not payable from the proceeds of an ad valorem tax. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • RIGHT-OF-WAY: The right of one vehicle or pedestrian to proceed in a lawful manner in preference to another vehicle or pedestrian approaching under such circumstances of direction, speed, and proximity as to give rise to danger of collision unless one grants precedence to the other. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • roadway: That portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the berm or shoulder. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • SAFETY ZONE: The area or space officially set apart within a roadway for the exclusive use of pedestrians and which is protected or is so marked or indicated by adequate signs as to be plainly visible at all times while set apart as a safety zone. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • SCHOOL BUS: Every motor vehicle that complies with the color and identification requirements set forth by law or rule and is used to transport children to or from school or in connection with school activities, but not including buses operated by common carriers in urban transportation of school children. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • securities: When used with reference to debt instruments to be issued by the corporation, shall mean and include notes, bonds and other forms of indebtedness. See Alabama Code 2-6-70
  • securities: Bonds, notes, warrants, certificates of indebtedness, or other evidences of indebtedness, including, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, notes issued in anticipation of the sale of any of the foregoing. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • Sentencing guidelines: A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • shoals: The geographic region of the State of Alabama comprising the Counties of Colbert and Lauderdale. See Alabama Code 45-39-92
  • sidewalk: That portion of a street between the curb lines, or the lateral lines of a roadway, and the adjacent property lines, intended for use by pedestrians. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • SOLID WASTE OFFICER: Any county official or county employee designated by the county commission to exercise the authority and perform the duties delegated by this article to such official. See Alabama Code 45-43-170.03
  • state: The State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 2-3A-2
  • state: A state, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a province of Canada. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • state: The State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 2-6-70
  • state: The State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • STATE ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS: Payments to a city, county or entities or authorities thereof, under this chapter. See Alabama Code 11-100-3
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • stop: When required, means complete cessation from movement. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • street: The entire width between boundary lines of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • subscription: include a mark when the person cannot write, if his name is written near the mark, and witnessed by a person who writes his own name as a witness, and include with respect to corporate securities facsimile signature placed upon any instrument or writing with intent to execute or authenticate such instrument or writing. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • traffic: Pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using any highway for purposes of travel. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL: Any device, whether manually, electrically, or mechanically operated, by which traffic is alternately directed to stop and permitted to proceed as defined in Section 32-1-1. See Alabama Code 45-37A-331.02
  • TRAFFIC SIGNAL VIOLATION: Any violation of Section 32-5A-31, Section 32-5A-32, or Section 32-5A-35, or of any combination thereof, wherein a vehicle proceeds into a signalized intersection at a time while the traffic control signal for that vehicle's lane of travel is emitting a steady red signal. See Alabama Code 45-37A-331.02
  • TRAFFIC-CONTROL SIGNAL: Any device, whether manually, electrically, or mechanically operated, by which traffic is alternately directed to stop and permitted to proceed. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • trailer: Every vehicle with or without motive power, other than a pole trailer, designed for carrying individuals or property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and so constructed that no part of its weight rests upon the towing vehicle. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • TRAINED TECHNICIAN: A sworn law enforcement officer employed by the city who alternatively:

    a. See Alabama Code 45-37A-331.02

  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • tricycle: A three-wheeled human-powered vehicle designed for use by a child under the age of six. See Alabama Code 32-5A-281
  • truck: Every motor vehicle designed, used, or maintained primarily for the transportation of property. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • TRUCK PLATOON: A group of individual commercial trucks traveling in a unified manner at electronically coordinated speeds at following distances that are closer than would be reasonable and prudent without the electronic coordination. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • UNITED STATES: The United States of America or any of its departments, agencies, or instrumentalities. See Alabama Code 11-101A-2
  • URBAN DISTRICT: The territory contiguous to and including any street which is built up with structures devoted to business, industry, or dwelling houses situated at intervals of less than 100 feet for a distance of a quarter of a mile or more. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
  • vehicle: Every device in, upon, or by which any individual or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, excepting devices moved by human power or used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks or electric personal assistive mobility devices; provided, that for the purposes of this title, a bicycle, an electric bicycle, or a ridden animal shall be deemed a vehicle, except those provisions of this title, which by their very nature can have no application. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
  • writing: includes typewriting and printing on paper. See Alabama Code 1-1-1