Chapter 1 The Time of Commencing Actions in General
Chapter 2 The Time of Commencing Actions for the Recovery of Real Property
Chapter 3 The Time of Commencing Actions Other Than for the Recovery of Real Property
Chapter 4 General Provisions as to the Time of Commencing Actions
Chapter 5 The Commencement of Actions Based Upon Professional Negligence
Chapter 6 Time of Commencement of Action After Person’s Death

Terms Used In California Codes > Code of Civil Procedure > Part 2 > Title 2

  • action: as used in this Title is to be construed, whenever it is necessary so to do, as including a special proceeding of a civil nature. See California Government Code 13304
  • Advertisement: means any written or printed communication, including a directory listing, except a free telephone directory listing that does not allow space for a license number. See California Government Code 50263
  • Advocacy: means those activities undertaken on behalf of persons who are receiving or have received mental health services to protect their rights or to secure or upgrade treatment or other services to which they are entitled. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 5500
  • Affirmative actions: means any activity for the purpose of eliminating discrimination in housing accommodations because of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, national origin, ancestry, familial status, or disability. See California Government Code 19880.1
  • Affix: means physically attached to or imprinting an electronic validation to a license document. See California Government Code 51916
  • Aggrieved person: includes any person who claims to have been injured by a discriminatory housing practice or believes that the person will be injured by a discriminatory housing practice that is about to occur. See California Government Code 19880.1
  • Alarm agent: means a person employed by an alarm company operator whose duties include selling on premises, altering, installing, maintaining, moving, repairing, replacing, servicing, responding, or monitoring an alarm system, or a person who manages or supervises a person employed by an alarm company to perform any of the duties described in this subdivision or any person in training for any of the duties described in this subdivision. See California Government Code 50715
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Amusement ride: includes the business of operating bungee jumping services or providing services to facilitate bungee jumping, but does not include slides, playground equipment, coin-operated devices or conveyances which operate directly on the ground or on the surface or pavement directly on the ground or the operation of amusement devices of a permanent nature. See California Government Code 12980
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Appeals board: means the Occupational Safety and Health Appeals Board, within the department. See California Public Utilities Code 99234.1
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • board: means the California Veterans Board. See California Government Code 13105
  • board: means the board of directors of the district unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 14198.1
  • Branch office: means any location, other than the principal place of business of the licensee, which is licensed as set forth in Article 11 (commencing with Section 7599. See California Government Code 50715
  • Branch office manager: means an individual designated by the qualified manager to manage the licensee's branch office and who has met the requirements as set forth in Article 11 (commencing with Section 7599. See California Government Code 50715
  • Bureau: means the Bureau of Security and Investigative Services. See California Government Code 50263
  • Bureau: means the Bureau of Security and Investigative Services. See California Government Code 50715
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
  • Chief: means the Chief of the Bureau of Security and Investigative Services. See California Government Code 50263
  • City: includes "city and county" and "incorporated town. See California Education Code 7007
  • client: means a person who is receiving or has received services from a mental health facility, service, or program and who has personally or through a guardian ad litem, entered into an agreement with a county patients' rights advocate for the provision of advocacy services. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 5500
  • Collateral: means any specific vehicle, trailer, boat, recreational vehicle, motor home, appliance, or other property that is subject to a security agreement. See California Government Code 50263
  • Commission: means the California Health Facilities Commission. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 14610
  • commission: means the California Transportation Commission. See California Education Code 7054.1
  • Commissioner: means any county agricultural commissioner. See California Education Code 19957.5
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Construction: includes :

    California Education Code 8091

  • contiguous counties: include those counties separated by any of the waters of this State. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 14198.2
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • controlled substances: means those substances referred to in Division 10 (commencing with Section 11000) of the Health and Safety Code. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 5341
  • Council: means the Fair Employment and Housing Council and "council member" means a member of the council. See California Government Code 19878
  • County: includes "city and county. See California Education Code 32284
  • County: includes city and county. See California Education Code 32381
  • County: includes "city and county. See California Education Code 7005
  • County: includes city and county. See California Education Code 19958
  • County: includes "city and county. See California Education Code 94150
  • custody: means the legal right to custody of the child unless that right is held jointly by two or more persons, in which case "custody" means the physical custody of the child by one of the persons sharing the right to custody. See California Education Code 94155
  • Dangerous drugs: means any controlled substances as defined in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 11053) of Division 10 of the Health and Safety Code. See California Government Code 50263
  • Deadly weapon: means and includes any instrument or weapon of the kind commonly known as a blackjack, slungshot, billy, sandclub, sandbag, metal knuckles, dirk, dagger, pistol, or revolver, or any other firearm, any knife having a blade longer than five inches, any razor with an unguarded blade, and any metal pipe or bar used or intended to be used as a club. See California Government Code 50263
  • Debtor: means any person obligated under a security agreement. See California Government Code 50263
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • department: means the Department of Veterans Affairs. See California Government Code 13104
  • department: refer to the Director and Department of Finance, respectively, unless the context otherwise requires. See California Government Code 13001
  • department: means the State Department of Health Services. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 14062
  • Department: means State Department of Health Services. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 14601
  • Department: means the Department of Consumer Affairs. See California Government Code 50263
  • Department: means the Department of Transportation of this state. See California Education Code 7053
  • Department: means the Department of Fair Employment and Housing. See California Government Code 19878
  • Department: means the Department of Consumer Affairs. See California Government Code 50715
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • director: means the Director of the State Department of Health Care Services. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 5601
  • director: means the State Director of Health Services. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 14061
  • Director: means the Director of Consumer Affairs. See California Government Code 50263
  • Director: means the director of the department. See California Education Code 7054
  • Director: means the Director of Fair Employment and Housing. See California Government Code 19878
  • Director: means the Director of Consumer Affairs. See California Government Code 50715
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Discrimination: includes refusal to sell, rent, or lease housing accommodations. See California Government Code 19880.1
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • District: means a habitat maintenance assessment district formed pursuant to this article. See California Government Code 50060
  • district: means a bridge and highway district unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 14197.5
  • Division: means the Division of Occupational Safety and Health. See California Public Utilities Code 99234.1
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Electronic format: includes , but is not limited to, a text message, email, or Internet posting. See California Government Code 50263
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Employer: includes any person regularly employing five or more persons, or any person acting as an agent of an employer, directly or indirectly, the state or any political or civil subdivision of the state, and cities, except as follows:

    California Government Code 19878.5

  • Employment agency: includes any person undertaking for compensation to procure employees or opportunities to work. See California Government Code 19878.5
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Excess payment to a revolving fund: means overpayment received by a state agency in connection with a revolving fund in the State Treasury maintained by such an agency for the purpose of assisting persons under the jurisdiction or care of the agency, or providing for the welfare of such persons. See California Government Code 13140
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Fee: includes any monetary exaction imposed or collected for or as a condition precedent to the issuing, making, taking or securing of any permit, filing, examination, or inspection. See California Government Code 13140
  • Firearms permit: means a permit issued by the bureau, pursuant to Article 6 (commencing with Section 7596), to a licensee, a qualified manager, or an alarm agent, to carry an exposed firearm while on duty. See California Government Code 50715
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • Health hazard: means any personal effects that if retained would produce an unsanitary or unhealthful condition, or which might damage other personal effects. See California Government Code 50263
  • highway: includes bridges, culverts, curbs, drains, and all works incidental to highway construction, improvement, and maintenance. See California Education Code 7056
  • Housing accommodation: means any building, structure, or portion thereof that is occupied as, or intended for occupancy as, a residence by one or more families and any vacant land that is offered for sale or lease for the construction thereon of any building, structure, or portion thereof intended to be so occupied. See California Government Code 19880.1
  • immediate family: means an individual's spouse and minor dependent children and any other person over which the individual has legal control. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 14478
  • Improvement: means one or any combination of the following:

    California Government Code 50060

  • Incidental expenses: include all of the following:

    California Government Code 50060

  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • infrastructure: means real property, including land and improvements to the land, structures and equipment integral to the operation of structures, easements, rights-of-way and other forms of interest in property, roadways, and water conveyances. See California Government Code 13101
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • injurious object: shall mean those objects specified in the following sections:

    California Education Code 49330

  • Insurer: includes the State Compensation Insurance Fund and any private company, corporation, mutual association, and reciprocal or interinsurance exchange, authorized under the laws of this state to insure employers against liability for compensation under this part and under Division 4 (commencing with Section 3201), and any employer to whom a certificate of consent to self-insure has been issued. See California Public Utilities Code 99234.1
  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Kelp: means kelp or other marine aquatic plants and the seeds thereof. See California Government Code 51933
  • Labor organization: includes any organization that exists and is constituted for the purpose, in whole or in part, of collective bargaining or of dealing with employers concerning grievances, terms or conditions of employment, or of other mutual aid or protection. See California Government Code 19878.5
  • Legal owner: means a person holding a security interest in any collateral where the collateral is subject to a security agreement, a lien against any collateral, an assignment or a repossession order, or an interest in any collateral that is subject to a lease agreement. See California Government Code 50263
  • Legislative body: as used in this division , means board of supervisors in the case of a county or city and county, and city council or board of trustees in the case of a city, unless the context otherwise requires. See California Government Code 50002
  • Legislative body: means the city council, board of supervisors, or any other governing body of a local agency. See California Government Code 50060
  • Licensee: means an individual, partnership, limited liability company, or corporation licensed under this chapter as a repossession agency. See California Government Code 50263
  • Licensee: means a business entity, whether an individual, partnership, limited liability company, or corporation licensed under this chapter. See California Government Code 50715
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Local agency: as used in this division means county, city, or city and county, unless the context otherwise requires. See California Government Code 50001
  • Local agency: means any city, county, or city and county, whether general law or chartered. See California Government Code 50060
  • Local agency: means any county, city, city and county, including a charter city or county, or any special district. See California Government Code 50075.5
  • maintenance: means the furnishing of services and materials for the ordinary and usual maintenance, operation, and servicing of any improvement, including, but not limited to, all of the following:

    California Government Code 50060

  • maintenance: includes any of the following:

    California Education Code 8070

  • Medi-Cal: means the California Medical Assistance Program. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 14063
  • Mental health service: means any service directed toward early intervention in, or alleviation or prevention of, mental disorder, including, but not limited to, diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, personal care, day care, respite care, special living arrangements, community skill training, sheltered employment, socialization, case management, transportation, information, referral, consultation, and community services. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 5601
  • Mile: means either a statute mile (5,280 feet) or a nautical mile (6,077 feet) depending on the application. See California Government Code 51936
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • Multiple licensee: means a repossession agency holding more than one repossession license under this chapter, with one fictitious trade style and ownership, conducting repossession business from additional licensed locations other than the location shown on the original license. See California Government Code 50263
  • Nonresident: means a person who is not a resident as defined in Section 70. See California Government Code 51938
  • Oath: includes affirmation. See California Education Code 19423
  • Oath: includes affirmation. See California Education Code 94152
  • Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board: as used in this part means the Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board of the Division of Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Industrial Relations, State of California. See California Government Code 12973
  • Open season: means that period of time during which the taking of birds, mammals, fish, reptiles, or amphibians is allowed as prescribed in this code and regulations adopted by the commission. See California Government Code 51939.2
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • owner: means a person who owns or controls or has the duty to control the operation of an amusement ride. See California Government Code 12980
  • owner: means a person who owns or controls or has the duty to control the operation of an amusement ride. See California Government Code 13070
  • Owner: includes the lessee, sublessee, assignee, managing agent, real estate broker or salesperson, or any person having any legal or equitable right of ownership or possession or the right to rent or lease housing accommodations, and includes the state and any of its political subdivisions and any agency thereof. See California Government Code 19880.1
  • partnership: shall include limited liability company, registered limited liability partnership, and foreign limited liability partnership, except where the context or the specific provisions of this division otherwise require. See California Education Code 5325
  • peace officer: means a sheriff, undersheriff, deputy sheriff, marshal, or deputy marshal of a county or city and county, or a marshal or police officer of a city or town, employed and compensated as such, whether the members are volunteer, partly paid, or fully paid, except those whose principal duties are clerical, such as stenographers, telephone operators, and other workers not engaged in law enforcement operations, or the protection or preservation of life or property, and not under suspension or otherwise lacking in good standing. See California Government Code 50920
  • Permanent amusement ride: includes the business of operating bungee jumping services or providing services to facilitate bungee jumping, but does not include slides, playground equipment, coin-operated devices or conveyances that operate directly on the ground or on a surface or pavement directly on the ground. See California Government Code 13070
  • Permit: includes application, license, certificate, or authorization. See California Government Code 13140
  • Permit: means a document issued by the division which indicates that an inspection of the ride has been performed pursuant to rules and regulations adopted by the division. See California Government Code 12980
  • Person: means any person, association, organization, partnership, business trust, limited liability company, or corporation. See California Education Code 32289
  • Person: includes any individual, partnership, limited liability company, or corporation. See California Government Code 50263
  • Person: includes any person, firm, partnership, general partner of a partnership, limited liability company, registered limited liability partnership, foreign limited liability partnership, association, corporation, company, syndicate, estate, trust, business trust, or organization of any kind. See California Education Code 5300
  • Person: means any person, firm, partnership, association, corporation, organization, limited liability company, or business trust. See California Education Code 7052
  • Person: includes one or more individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, limited liability companies, legal representatives, trustees, trustees in bankruptcy, and receivers or other fiduciaries. See California Government Code 19878
  • Person: means any individual, partnership, association, corporation, limited liability company, or any organized group of persons whether incorporated or not. See California Education Code 19963
  • Person: means any individual, firm, company, association, organization, partnership, limited liability company, or corporation. See California Government Code 50715
  • Personal effects: means any property that is not the property of the legal owner. See California Government Code 50263
  • Personal property: includes money, goods, chattels, things in action, and evidences of debt. See California Education Code 17389
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Private entity: means any private organization with appropriate experience and expertise to negotiate Medi-Cal hospital reimbursement rates on behalf of the state. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 14610
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • Process: signifies a writ or summons issued in the course of a judicial proceeding. See California Education Code 17389
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public defender: Represent defendants who can't afford an attorney in criminal matters.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Qualified manager: means an individual who is in active control, management, and direction of the licensee's business, and who is in possession of a current and valid qualified manager's certificate pursuant to this chapter. See California Government Code 50715
  • Qualified safety inspector: means either of the following:

    California Government Code 13070

  • Rate: means the rate of reimbursement per unit of service which is agreed to by the department and a hospital. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 14610
  • Registrant: means a person registered under this chapter. See California Government Code 50263
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • repossession order: means any written authorization by the legal owner, lienholder, lessor, lessee, or registered owner, or the agent of any of them, to skip trace, locate, or repossess any collateral, including, but not limited to, collateral registered under the Vehicle Code that is subject to a security agreement that contains a repossession clause. See California Government Code 50263
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Revocable trust: A trust agreement that can be canceled, rescinded, revoked, or repealed by the grantor (person who establishes the trust).
  • school meals: includes breakfasts, lunches, or the serving of foods or beverages, or both, during other nutrition periods, or any combination thereof. See California Education Code 49500
  • season: means "open season. See California Government Code 51939.2
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Labor and Workforce Development. See California Education Code 32300
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Food and Agriculture. See California Education Code 19961
  • Security agreement: means an obligation, pledge, mortgage, chattel mortgage, lease agreement, deposit, or lien, given by a debtor as security for payment or performance of his or her debt, by furnishing the creditor with a recourse to be used in case of failure in the principal obligation. See California Government Code 50263
  • Sell: includes offer for sale, expose for sale, possess for sale, exchange, barter, or trade. See California Education Code 19966
  • Serious injury or illness: means any injury or illness occurring in a place of employment or in connection with any employment which requires inpatient hospitalization for a period in excess of 24 hours for other than medical observation or in which an employee suffers a loss of any member of the body or suffers any serious degree of permanent disfigurement, but does not include any injury or illness or death caused by the commission of a Penal Code violation, except the violation of Section 385 of the Penal Code, or an accident on a public street or highway. See California Public Utilities Code 99234.1
  • Services: means any duty or labor to be rendered by one person for another. See California Government Code 50263
  • Sheriff: includes marshal. See California Education Code 17389
  • Sole ownership: The type of property ownership in which one individual holds legal title to the property and has full control of it.
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Education Code 19407
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Education Code 94148
  • Standards board: means the Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board, within the department. See California Public Utilities Code 99234.1
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Education Code 17325
  • State highway: means any highway which is acquired, laid out, constructed, improved or maintained as a State highway pursuant to constitutional or legislative authorization. See California Education Code 7058
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which that term occurs, unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Education Code 17319
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which that term occurs unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Education Code 19970
  • subscription: includes mark when the signer or subscriber can not write, such signer's or subscriber's name being written near the mark by a witness who writes his own name near the signer's or subscriber's name. See California Education Code 94154
  • substantial financial interest: means the ownership of common stock, preferred stock, warrants, options, loans, partnership interests, debt instruments, or other ownership interest, if consisting of, or convertible to, equity investments in an entity contracting with the department under the provisions of this chapter or an entity contracting with a current or proposed contractor doing business with the department under the provisions of this chapter, and such ownership interest in terms of fair market value is not less than the greater of the following:

    California Welfare and Institutions Code 14478

  • Tax: as used in this part , except in Chapters 4 (commencing with Section 32151) and 5 (commencing with Section 32201), means the excise tax imposed by this part on beer or wine or on distilled spirits. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 5670
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • to the extent resources are available: means to the extent that funds deposited in the mental health account of the local health and welfare fund are available to an entity qualified to use those funds. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 5601
  • tolls: include tolls, charges, rentals, rates, traffic charges, and other income and revenue actually received or receivable by, or for the account of, the district for the use and operation of equipment, rolling stocks, ferries, properties, and facilities for travel that are constructed, owned, operated, or maintained by the district. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 14199.1
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Violation: includes a failure to comply with any requirement of the code. See California Education Code 32400 v2
  • Violent act: means any act that results in bodily harm or injury to any party involved. See California Government Code 50263
  • Writ: means an order or precept in writing, issued in the name of the people, or of a court or judicial officer. See California Education Code 17389
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writing: includes printing and typewriting. See California Education Code 17389