Chapter 1 General Provisions and Definitions
Chapter 2 Organization and Bylaws
Chapter 3 Directors and Management
Chapter 4 Shares and Share Certificates
Chapter 5 Dividends and Reacquisitions of Shares
Chapter 6 Shareholders’ Meetings and Consents
Chapter 7 Voting of Shares
Chapter 8 Shareholder Derivative Actions
Chapter 9 Amendment of Articles
Chapter 10 Sales of Assets
Chapter 11 Merger
Chapter 11.5 Conversions
Chapter 12 Reorganizations
Chapter 13 Dissenters’ Rights
Chapter 14 Bankruptcy Reorganizations and Arrangements
Chapter 15 Records and Reports
Chapter 16 Rights of Inspection
Chapter 17 Service of Process
Chapter 18 Involuntary Dissolution
Chapter 19 Voluntary Dissolution
Chapter 20 General Provisions Relating to Dissolution
Chapter 21 Foreign Corporations
Chapter 22 Crimes and Penalties
Chapter 22.5 Victims of Corporate Fraud Compensation Fund
Chapter 23 Transition Provisions

Terms Used In California Codes > Corporations Code > Title 1 > Division 1 - GENERAL CORPORATION LAW

  • Access: means a personal inspection and review of a record or an accurate copy of a record, or an oral description or communication of a record or an accurate copy of a record, and a request to release a copy of any record. See California Education Code 76210
  • Access costs: means living expenses and expenses for transportation, supplies, technology, and books. See California Education Code 69432.7
  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Administrative director: means the Administrative Director of the Division of Workers' Compensation. See California Labor Code 110
  • Administrative fund: means the funds used to administer this article. See California Education Code 69980
  • Administrator: means the senior executive appointed to operate a home. See California Military and Veterans Code 1010
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Agency: means the Labor and Workforce Development Agency. See California Labor Code 18.5
  • agency shop: means an arrangement that requires an employee, as a condition of continued employment, either to join the recognized employee organization, or to pay the organization a service fee in an amount not to exceed the standard initiation fee, periodic dues, and general assessments of that organization for the duration of the agreement or for a period of three years from the effective date of the agreement, whichever comes first. See California Government Code 71814
  • Agent: means a person who was an officer or director of a corporation, as defined in subdivision (e), at the time the fraudulent acts occurred, was named in a final criminal restitution order in connection with the fraudulent acts, and was acting in the person's capacity as the corporation's officer or director when committing the fraudulent acts. See California Corporations Code 2281
  • agreement: means a joint powers agreement entered into pursuant to Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 6500) of Division 7 of Title 1 of the Government Code, an agreement to transfer the functions of a public entity or an employee thereof to another public entity pursuant to Part 2 (commencing with Section 51300) of Division 1 of Title 5 of the Government Code, and any other agreement under which a public entity undertakes to perform any function, service or act with or for any other public entity or employee thereof with its consent, whether such agreement is expressed by resolution, contract, ordinance or in any other manner provided by law. See California Government Code 895
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amusement ride: includes the business of operating bungee jumping services or providing services to facilitate bungee jumping, but does not include slides, playground equipment, coin-operated devices or conveyances which operate directly on the ground or on the surface or pavement directly on the ground or the operation of amusement devices of a permanent nature. See California Labor Code 7901
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appeals board: means the Workers' Compensation Appeals Board. See California Labor Code 6101
  • Appeals board: means the Workers' Compensation Appeals Board. See California Labor Code 110
  • Appeals board: means the Occupational Safety and Health Appeals Board, within the department. See California Labor Code 6302
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appliance repair industry: means those activities defined in paragraph (4) of subdivision (f). See California Business and Professions Code 9801
  • Application: means a request for payment from the fund submitted to the Secretary of State pursuant to this chapter. See California Corporations Code 2281
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • assessed value: means 25 percent of full value to, and including, the 1980-81 fiscal year, and 100 percent of full value for the 1981-82 fiscal year and fiscal years thereafter. See California Government Code 25
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • assignment order: means an order made under Section 3761. See California Family Code 3760
  • At large: means the election of members of the board of directors all of whom are elected by the voters of the entire district. See California Government Code 61002
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-at-law: A person who is legally qualified and licensed to practice law, and to represent and act for clients in legal proceedings.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • Award year: means one academic year, or the equivalent, of attendance at a qualifying institution. See California Education Code 69432.7
  • Award year: means one academic year, or the equivalent, of attendance at a qualifying institution. See California Education Code 70032
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • ballot: means any of the following:

    California Elections Code 301

  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Benefits: means the payment of higher education expenses on behalf of a beneficiary by the Scholarshare trust during the beneficiary's attendance at an institution of higher education. See California Education Code 69980
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: means the Scholarshare Investment Board established pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 69984. See California Education Code 69980
  • Board: means the Scholarshare Investment Board established pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 69984. See California Education Code 69999.8
  • Board: means the Scholarshare Investment Board established pursuant to Section 69984. See California Education Code 70010.1
  • board: means the Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board. See California Labor Code 140
  • board: means the California Veterans Board. See California Military and Veterans Code 61
  • Board of directors: means the board of directors of a district that establishes policies for the operation of the district. See California Government Code 61002
  • Bonds: means bonds, notes, or other evidence of indebtedness issued by a local agency pursuant to Part 2 (commencing with Section 55100) of this division, including bonds issued to refund previously issued bonds or other indebtedness. See California Health and Safety Code 55001
  • Bureau: means the Bureau of Household Goods and Services. See California Business and Professions Code 9801
  • By divisions: means the election of members of the board of directors who are residents of the division from which they are elected only by voters of the division. See California Government Code 61002
  • California resident: means a person who would not be required to pay nonresident tuition under Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 68000) of Part 41. See California Education Code 70010.1
  • candidate: includes any officeholder who is subject to a recall election. See California Elections Code 305
  • Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts.
  • Casualty broker-agent: means a person licensed pursuant to Section 1625. See California Insurance Code 33.5
  • Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
  • center: means the California Habeas Corpus Resource Center, and "board" means the board of directors of the center. See California Government Code 68660
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • City: includes "city and county" and "incorporated town" but does not include "unincorporated town" or "village. See California Government Code 20
  • City: includes "city and county. See California Insurance Code 15
  • City measure: includes any proposed city charter, any proposed amendment to a city charter, any proposition for the issuance of bonds by the city, any advisory question, or any other question or proposition submitted to the voters of a city. See California Elections Code 306
  • Claimant: means an aggrieved person who resides in the state at the time of the fraud and who submits an application pursuant to this chapter. See California Corporations Code 2281
  • Clerk: means the county elections official, registrar of voters, city clerk, or other officer or board charged with the duty of conducting any election. See California Elections Code 307
  • Clerk of court: An officer appointed by the court to work with the chief judge in overseeing the court's administration, especially to assist in managing the flow of cases through the court and to maintain court records.
  • Commission: means the Student Aid Commission. See California Education Code 69432.7
  • commission: means the Student Aid Commission created by this article. See California Education Code 69515
  • commission: means the Student Aid Commission. See California Education Code 70027
  • Commission: means the Student Aid Commission. See California Education Code 70032
  • commission: means the Student Aid Commission. See California Education Code 69618
  • commission: means the Student Aid Commission. See California Education Code 70100
  • Commissioner: means the Insurance Commissioner of this State. See California Insurance Code 20
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Conferees: Legislators appointed to serve on conference committees. They are also called "managers." Conferees are usually appointed from the committee or committees that reported the legislation; they are expected to try and uphold their chamber's position on measures when they negotiate with conferees from the other chamber.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Conversion coverage: means health insurance benefits providing hospital, surgical, major medical, or comprehensive medical coverage issued to an individual under a converted policy. See California Insurance Code 12671
  • Converted policy: means a policy or contract providing conversion coverage issued by an insurance company or by a hospital service corporation, or individual hospital, surgical, major medical, or comprehensive medical coverage otherwise provided by a policyholder to its employees or members. See California Insurance Code 12671
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: means a domestic corporation as defined by Section 162 or 2509 or a foreign corporation that is qualified to transact business in California pursuant to Section 2105. See California Corporations Code 2281
  • County: includes city and county. See California Government Code 19
  • County: includes city and county. See California Health and Safety Code 14
  • County: includes "city and county. See California Insurance Code 14
  • County: includes city and county. See California Military and Veterans Code 13
  • County: includes "city and county. See California Corporations Code 14
  • County office: means the office filled by any county officer. See California Elections Code 313
  • Court reporter: A person who makes a word-for-word record of what is said in court and produces a transcript of the proceedings upon request.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Defense attorney: Represent defendants in criminal matters.
  • department: means the Department of Veterans Affairs. See California Military and Veterans Code 690
  • department: means State Department of Health Services. See California Health and Safety Code 20
  • department: whenever used in this code , unless the context otherwise requires, means the State Department of Education. See California Education Code 89
  • Department: means Department of Industrial Relations. See California Labor Code 19
  • Department: means the Department of Industrial Relations. See California Labor Code 6302
  • department: means the Department of Veterans Affairs. See California Military and Veterans Code 60
  • Department: means the Department of Veterans Affairs. See California Military and Veterans Code 1010
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • designated instruction and services: means "related services" as that term is defined in Section 1401(26) of Title 20 of the United States Code and Section 300. See California Education Code 56363
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Director: means the Director of Consumer Affairs. See California Business and Professions Code 9801
  • Director: means "State Director of Health Services. See California Health and Safety Code 21
  • Director: means Director of Industrial Relations. See California Labor Code 20
  • Directory information: means one or more of the following items: a student's name, address, telephone number, date and place of birth, major field of study, participation in officially recognized activities and sports, weight and height of members of athletic teams, dates of attendance, degrees and awards received, the most recent previous public or private school attended by the student, and any other information authorized in writing by the student. See California Education Code 76210
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • dissenting shareholder: means the recordholder of dissenting shares and includes a transferee of record. See California Corporations Code 1300
  • dissenting shares: means shares to which all of the following apply:

    California Corporations Code 1300

  • District: means a community services district created pursuant to this division or any of its statutory predecessors. See California Government Code 61002
  • District governing board: includes the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges, unless the context requires otherwise. See California Education Code 72670.5
  • Division: means the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement. See California Labor Code 2650
  • Division: means the Division of Workers' Compensation. See California Labor Code 110
  • Division: means the Division of Occupational Safety and Health. See California Labor Code 6302
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • effective date: means January 1, 1977. See California Corporations Code 2300
  • Election: means any election including a primary that is provided for under this code. See California Elections Code 318
  • Elections official: means any of the following:

    California Elections Code 320

  • Elector: means a person who is a United States citizen 18 years of age or older and, except as specified in subdivision (b), is a resident of an election precinct in this state on or before the day of an election. See California Elections Code 321
  • Electronic repair industry: means those activities defined in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subdivision (f). See California Business and Professions Code 9801
  • Electronic transmission by the corporation: means a communication (a) delivered by (1) facsimile telecommunication or electronic mail when directed to the facsimile number or electronic mail address, respectively, for that recipient on record with the corporation, (2) posting on an electronic message board or network which the corporation has designated for those communications, together with a separate notice to the recipient of the posting, which transmission shall be validly delivered upon the later of the posting or delivery of the separate notice thereof, or (3) other means of electronic communication, (b) to a recipient who has provided an unrevoked consent to the use of those means of transmission for communications under or pursuant to this code, and (c) that creates a record that is capable of retention, retrieval, and review, and that may thereafter be rendered into clearly legible tangible form. See California Corporations Code 20
  • Electronic transmission to the corporation: means a communication (a) delivered by (1) facsimile telecommunication or electronic mail when directed to the facsimile number or electronic mail address, respectively, which the corporation has provided from time to time to shareholders or members and directors for sending communications to the corporation, (2) posting on an electronic message board or network which the corporation has designated for those communications, and which transmission shall be validly delivered upon the posting, or (3) other means of electronic communication, (b) as to which the corporation has placed in effect reasonable measures to verify that the sender is the shareholder or member (in person or by proxy) or director purporting to send the transmission, and (c) that creates a record that is capable of retention, retrieval, and review, and that may thereafter be rendered into clearly legible tangible form. See California Corporations Code 21
  • Employee benefit plan: includes public and private retirement, pension, annuity, savings, profit sharing, stock bonus, stock option, thrift, vacation pay, and similar plans of deferred or fringe benefit compensation, whether of the defined contribution or defined benefit type whether or not such plan is qualified under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (P. See California Family Code 80
  • Employer: means any person who, directly or indirectly or through an employee, agent, independent contractor, or any other person, employs an industrial homeworker. See California Labor Code 2650
  • Employer: includes the United States government and any public entity as defined in Section 811. See California Family Code 3760
  • employer: means :

    California Labor Code 3300

  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • executed: when used with respect to the documents filed pursuant to this code or pursuant to regulations adopted under this code, and presented to the Secretary of State, include a document bearing a signature under subdivision (a). See California Corporations Code 17.1
  • Executive director: means the administrator of the Scholarshare trust appointed by the board to administer and manage the Scholarshare trust. See California Education Code 69980
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Expected family contribution: means a student's expected family contribution calculated, pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 69506, according to the federal methodology (as established by Title IV of the federal Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (20 U. See California Education Code 70032
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Final judgment: means a judgment, arbitration award, or criminal restitution order for which appeals have been exhausted or for which the period for appeal has expired, enforcement of which is not barred by the order of any court or by any statutory provision, which has not been nullified or rendered void by any court order or statutory provision, and for which the claimant has not otherwise been fully reimbursed. See California Corporations Code 2281
  • Financial need: means a student's financial need calculated pursuant to the federal financial need methodology (as established by Title IV of the federal Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (20 U. See California Education Code 70032
  • Financing: means a loan made by the local agency pursuant to this division to the owner of an eligible building for eligible costs and which is secured by a deed of trust or mortgage upon the real property improved thereby. See California Health and Safety Code 55001
  • Flag: as used in this division , means the State Flag of California and the Flag of the United States, as defined in this section. See California Military and Veterans Code 611
  • Flag of the United States: includes any flag, standard, colors, or ensign authorized by the laws of the United States or any picture or representation of either, or of any part or parts of either, made of any substance or represented on any substance, of any size evidently purporting to be either of said flag, standard, colors, or ensign of the United States of America, or a picture or a representation of either, upon which shall be shown the colors, the stars and the stripes, in any number of either thereof, or of any part or parts of either, by which the average person seeing the same without deliberation may believe the same to represent the flag, standards, colors, or ensign of the United States of America. See California Military and Veterans Code 611
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Foster family home: includes a small family home as defined in paragraph (6) of subdivision (a) of Section 1502 of the Health and Safety Code, a certified family home of a foster family agency as defined in Section 1506 of the Health and Safety Code, and a resource family as defined in Section 1517 of the Health and Safety Code and Section 16519. See California Education Code 56155.5
  • From divisions: means the election of members of the board of directors who are residents of the division from which they are elected by the voters of the entire district. See California Government Code 61002
  • Fund: means State Compensation Insurance Fund. See California Labor Code 6101
  • Fund: means the Victims of Corporate Fraud Compensation Fund created by Section 2280. See California Corporations Code 2281
  • Fund: means the California Memorial Scholarship Fund established pursuant to Section 5066 of the Vehicle Code. See California Education Code 70010.1
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • General election: means either of the following:

    California Elections Code 324

  • General manager: means the highest level management appointee who is directly responsible to the board of directors for the implementation of the policies established by the board of directors. See California Government Code 61002
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • good cause: includes , but is not limited to, the following offenses, occurring while enrolled as a student:

    California Education Code 76033

  • Governing body: means the board of supervisors in the case of a county, or the city council or board of trustees or other governing board in the case of a city, district, or other local governmental agency. See California Military and Veterans Code 1260
  • Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
  • Graduate program: means a program of study leading to a graduate or professional degree, including, but not limited to, a teaching credential, the prerequisite for which is a baccalaureate degree or undergraduate degree. See California Education Code 70032
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Green Party: means the Green Party of California. See California Elections Code 6850
  • Group policy: means a group health insurance policy providing medical, hospital, surgical, major medical, or comprehensive medical coverage issued by an insurer, a group contract issued by a hospital service corporation, or medical, hospital, surgical, major medical, or comprehensive medical coverage otherwise provided by a policyholder to its employees or members, except for self-insurance programs provided by employers that are not exempt from the federal Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), as specified in subdivision (i). See California Insurance Code 12671
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • Health insurance coverage: as used in this article includes all of the following:

    California Family Code 3750

  • health insurance coverage assignment: includes vision care and dental care coverage whether the vision care or dental care coverage is part of existing health insurance coverage or is issued as a separate policy or plan. See California Family Code 3760
  • high school grade point average: includes senior year coursework. See California Education Code 69432.7
  • Home: means any room, house, apartment, or other premises, whichever is most extensive, used in whole or in part as a place of dwelling. See California Labor Code 2650
  • Home: means any facility operated by the department for the provision of long-term care, assisted living, adult day health, independent living, or other health care services to eligible veterans. See California Military and Veterans Code 1010
  • In forma pauperis: In the manner of a pauper. Permission given to a person to sue without payment of court fees on claim of indigence or poverty.
  • Income and expense declaration: means the form for an income and expense declaration in family law matters adopted by the Judicial Council. See California Family Code 95
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Industrial homework: means any manufacture in a home of materials or articles for an employer when such articles or materials are not for the personal use of the employer or a member of his or her family. See California Labor Code 2650
  • Industrial homeworker: means any person who does industrial homework. See California Labor Code 2650
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • injury: as used in this division , includes cancer, including leukemia, that develops or manifests itself during a period in which any member described in subdivision (a) is in the service of the department or unit, if the member demonstrates that he or she was exposed, while in the service of the department or unit, to a known carcinogen as defined by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, or as defined by the director. See California Labor Code 3212.1
  • Inspector: means the supervisor of the precinct board of which he or she is a member. See California Elections Code 325
  • institution: means a campus of the University of California, the California State University, or the California Community Colleges. See California Education Code 69950
  • Instructional program: means a program of study that results in the award of a baccalaureate degree or undergraduate certificate, or undergraduate coursework in a program of study leading directly to a first professional degree for which no baccalaureate degree or undergraduate degree is awarded. See California Education Code 70032
  • Insurance: refers to health insurance, major medical, or comprehensive coverage paid by premium or contribution under a group policy, a hospital service contract, or as otherwise provided by a policyholder to its employees or members other than by self-insuring except in the case of a plan that is exempt from ERISA, but does include an employer plan that is exempt from ERISA as specified in subdivision (i). See California Insurance Code 12671
  • Insurer: means the entity issuing a group policy, an individual or converted policy, a hospital service contract or an employer or employee organization otherwise providing medical, hospital, surgical, major medical, or comprehensive medical coverage to its employees or members. See California Insurance Code 12671
  • Insurer: includes the State Compensation Insurance Fund and any private company, corporation, mutual association, and reciprocal or interinsurance exchange, authorized under the laws of this state to insure employers against liability for compensation under this part and under Division 4 (commencing with Section 3201), and any employer to whom a certificate of consent to self-insure has been issued. See California Labor Code 6302
  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Investment management: means the functions performed by a manager contracted to perform functions delegated by the board. See California Education Code 69980
  • Investment manager: means a manager contracted to perform functions delegated by the board. See California Education Code 69980
  • Irrevocable trust: A trust arrangement that cannot be revoked, rescinded, or repealed by the grantor.
  • Joint tenancy: A form of property ownership in which two or more parties hold an undivided interest in the same property that was conveyed under the same instrument at the same time. A joint tenant can sell his (her) interest but not dispose of it by will. Upon the death of a joint tenant, his (her) undivided interest is distributed among the surviving joint tenants.
  • Judgment debtor: means a corporation or agent against which a judgment, arbitration award, or criminal restitution order has been entered for conduct constituting intentional fraud. See California Corporations Code 2281
  • Judicial office: means the office filled by any judicial officer. See California Elections Code 326
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Labor Commissioner: means Chief of the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement. See California Labor Code 21
  • Latent power: means those services and facilities authorized by Part 3 (commencing with Section 61100) that the local agency formation commission has determined, pursuant to subdivision (i) of Section 56425, that a district did not provide prior to January 1, 2006. See California Government Code 61002
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
  • Legislative session: That part of a chamber's daily session in which it considers legislative business (bills, resolutions, and actions related thereto).
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • License: means a basic permit to operate a pediatric day health and respite care facility. See California Health and Safety Code 1760.2
  • Licensed adjuster: means a person licensed by the bureau for adjusting lamps in licensed lamp adjusting stations or for adjusting brakes in licensed brake adjusting stations. See California Business and Professions Code 9888.1
  • Licensed station: means a station licensed by the bureau pursuant to this chapter. See California Business and Professions Code 9888.1
  • licensee: means an insurer, agent, broker, or any other person who is required to be licensed by the department. See California Insurance Code 38.6
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Local agency: means a city, county, or city and county. See California Health and Safety Code 55001
  • local educational agency: means a school district as defined in Section 41302. See California Education Code 47640
  • Maximum household income and asset levels: means the applicable household income and household asset levels for participants, including new applicants and renewing recipients, in the Cal Grant Program, as defined and adopted in regulations by the commission for the 2001-02 academic year, which shall be set pursuant to the following income and asset ceiling amounts:

    California Education Code 69432.7

  • Measure: means any constitutional amendment or other proposition submitted to a popular vote at any election. See California Elections Code 329
  • Medical director: means the physician appointed by the administrative director pursuant to Section 122. See California Labor Code 110
  • Medically fragile: means having an acute or chronic health problem that requires therapeutic intervention and skilled nursing care during all or part of the day. See California Health and Safety Code 1760.2
  • Medicare: means Title XVIII of the United States Social Security Act as added by the Social Security Amendments of 1965 or as later amended or superseded. See California Insurance Code 12671
  • Member: means a veteran or nonveteran spouse or domestic partner who has been admitted to residency at a veterans' home. See California Military and Veterans Code 1010
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • mobile unit: means a special purpose commercial coach as defined in Section 18012. See California Health and Safety Code 1765.105
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Municipal election: means elections in general law cities and where applicable in chartered cities. See California Elections Code 330
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • National medical support notice: means the notice required by Section 666(a)(19) of Title 42 of the United States Code with respect to an order made pursuant to Section 3773. See California Family Code 3760
  • new law: means this division of the Corporations Code as amended by act of the California Legislature, 1975-76 Regular Session, effective January 1, 1977, and as in effect on that date. See California Corporations Code 2300
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • Nominate: means the selection, at a state-conducted primary election, of candidates who are entitled by law to participate in the general election for that office, but does not mean any other lawful mechanism that a political party may adopt for the purposes of choosing the candidate who is preferred by the party for a nonpartisan or voter-nominated office. See California Elections Code 332.5
  • Nomination documents: means declaration of candidacy and nomination papers. See California Elections Code 333
  • Nonpartisan office: means an office, except for a voter-nominated office, for which no party may nominate a candidate. See California Elections Code 334
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board: as used in this part means the Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board of the Division of Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Industrial Relations, State of California. See California Labor Code 7801
  • Open-end credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or revolving credit.) Source: OCC
  • Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
  • order: include a decree, as appropriate under the circumstances. See California Family Code 100
  • owner: means a person who owns or controls or has the duty to control the operation of an amusement ride. See California Labor Code 7901
  • owner: means a person who owns or controls or has the duty to control the operation of an amusement ride. See California Labor Code 7921
  • Parent facility: means a health facility licensed pursuant to Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 1250) of Division 2, or a clinic licensed pursuant to Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 1200) of Division 2. See California Health and Safety Code 1765.105
  • Participant: means an individual, trust, estate, partnership, association, company or corporation, a custodian under the California Uniform Transfers to Minors Act (Part 9 (commencing with Section 3900) of Division 4 of the Probate Code) or similar provisions adopted by another state, a state or local government agency, or a legal representative of a participant who has entered into a participation agreement pursuant to this article. See California Education Code 69980
  • Participant: means a surviving dependent of a California resident killed as a result of injuries sustained during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, who has executed, or on whose behalf has been executed, an agreement pursuant to Section 70011. See California Education Code 70010.1
  • Participating institution: means any campus of the California State University or the University of California that elects to participate in the DREAM Program pursuant to the requirements specified for a qualifying institution as set forth in this article. See California Education Code 70032
  • Participation agreement: means an agreement between a participant and the Scholarshare trust, pursuant to this article. See California Education Code 69980
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Party: means a political party or organization that has qualified for participation in any primary or presidential general election. See California Elections Code 338
  • Pediatric day health and respite care facility: means a facility that provides an organized program of therapeutic social and day health activities and services and limited 24-hour inpatient respite care to medically fragile children 21 years of age or younger, including terminally ill and technology-dependent patients, except as provided in paragraph (2) and Section 1763. See California Health and Safety Code 1760.2
  • Permanent amusement ride: includes the business of operating bungee jumping services or providing services to facilitate bungee jumping, but does not include slides, playground equipment, coin-operated devices or conveyances that operate directly on the ground or on a surface or pavement directly on the ground. See California Labor Code 7921
  • Permit: means a document issued by the division which indicates that an inspection of the ride has been performed pursuant to rules and regulations adopted by the division. See California Labor Code 7901
  • Person: includes a firm, partnership, association, limited liability company, or corporation. See California Business and Professions Code 9801
  • Person: includes any person, firm, association, organization, partnership, limited liability company, business trust, corporation, or company. See California Government Code 17
  • Person: means any individual, partnership and each partner thereof, corporation, limited liability company, or association. See California Labor Code 2650
  • person: includes any individual, firm, partnership, general corporation, professional corporation, or limited liability partnership, as authorized by the Corporations Code. See California Business and Professions Code 5535
  • Person: means any person, firm, association, organization, partnership, business trust, corporation, limited liability company, or company. See California Health and Safety Code 19
  • Person: means any person, association, organization, partnership, business trust, limited liability company, or corporation. See California Insurance Code 19
  • Person: means any person, association, organization, partnership, business trust, limited liability company, or corporation. See California Labor Code 18
  • Person: includes a natural person, firm, association, organization, partnership, business trust, corporation, limited liability company, or public entity. See California Family Code 105
  • Petitioner: includes plaintiff, where appropriate. See California Family Code 126
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Plea agreement: An arrangement between the prosecutor, the defense attorney, and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for special considerations. Source:
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Policyholder: means the holder of a group policy issued by an insurer, a holder of a group contract issued by a hospital service corporation or an employer, employee association, or other entity otherwise providing medical, hospital, surgical, major medical, or comprehensive medical coverage on a group basis to its employees or members. See California Insurance Code 12671
  • Political subdivision: means any city, county, district, or other local governmental agency. See California Military and Veterans Code 1260
  • Polling place: means a location where a voter casts a ballot and includes the following terms, as applicable: poll, polling location, and vote center. See California Elections Code 338.5
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Precinct: means a geographical area within a county that is made up of voters and is formed pursuant to Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 12200) of Division 12. See California Elections Code 338.6
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • Premarital agreement: means an agreement between prospective spouses made in contemplation of marriage and to be effective upon marriage. See California Family Code 1610
  • Premium: means contribution or other consideration paid or payable for coverage under a group policy or converted policy. See California Insurance Code 12671
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Primary election: includes all primary nominating elections provided for by this code. See California Elections Code 341
  • Principal county: means the county having all or the greatest portion of the entire assessed valuation, as shown on the last equalized assessment roll of the county or counties, of all taxable property in the district. See California Government Code 61002
  • prior law: means the applicable law as in effect prior to January 1, 1977. See California Corporations Code 2300
  • prisoner: includes an inmate of a prison, jail, or penal or correctional facility. See California Government Code 844
  • private school children with disabilities: means children with disabilities enrolled by a parent in private schools or facilities that meet the definition of "elementary school" in Section 300. See California Education Code 56170
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • Proceeding: includes an action. See California Family Code 110
  • Process: includes a writ or summons issued in the course of judicial proceedings of either a civil or criminal nature. See California Government Code 22
  • program: means the California Dreamer Service Incentive Grant Program established by this section. See California Education Code 69438
  • Program: means the Learning-Aligned Employment Program created pursuant to this article. See California Education Code 69950
  • Program: means the California Memorial Scholarship Program established pursuant to Section 70010. See California Education Code 70010.1
  • Program fund: means the program fund established by this article, which shall be held as a separate fund within the Scholarshare trust. See California Education Code 69980
  • Property: means an interest, present or future, legal or equitable, vested or contingent, in real or personal property, including income and earnings. See California Family Code 1610
  • Property: includes real and personal property and any interest therein. See California Family Code 113
  • Property broker-agent: means a person licensed pursuant to Section 1625. See California Insurance Code 33.5
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Proxy voting: The practice of allowing a legislator to cast a vote in committee for an absent legislator.
  • Public defender: Represent defendants who can't afford an attorney in criminal matters.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Qualified higher education expenses: means the expenses of attendance at an institution of higher education as provided in paragraph (3) of subsection (e) of Section 529 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as it is amended from time to time, if, as determined by the board, the amendment is consistent with the purposes of this article, and as determined and certified by the institution of higher education in the same manner as prescribed in Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U. See California Education Code 69980
  • Qualified medical evaluator: means physicians appointed by the administrative director pursuant to Section 139. See California Labor Code 110
  • Qualified safety inspector: means either of the following:

    California Labor Code 7921

  • Qualifying institution: means an institution that complies with paragraphs (2) and (3) and is any of the following:

    California Education Code 69432.7

  • Quasi-community property: means all real or personal property, wherever situated, acquired before or after the operative date of this code in any of the following ways:

    California Family Code 125

  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Regular election: is a n election, the specific time for the holding of which is prescribed by law. See California Elections Code 348
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Resident: means residing in this State, "nonresident" means not residing in this State. See California Insurance Code 30
  • Respite care: means day and 24-hour relief for the parent or guardian and care for the patient. See California Health and Safety Code 1760.2
  • Respondent: includes defendant, where appropriate. See California Family Code 127
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Revocable trust: A trust agreement that can be canceled, rescinded, revoked, or repealed by the grantor (person who establishes the trust).
  • Right of rescission: Right to cancel, within three business days, a contract that uses the home of a person as collateral, except in the case of a first mortgage loan. There is no fee to the borrower, who receives a full refund of all fees paid. The right of rescission is guaranteed by the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). Source: OCC
  • Right of survivorship: The ownership rights that result in the acquisition of title to property by reason of having survived other co-owners.
  • Satisfactory academic progress: means those criteria required by applicable federal standards published in Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations. See California Education Code 69432.7
  • Satisfactory academic progress: means those criteria required by applicable federal standards published in Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations. See California Education Code 70032
  • Scholarshare trust: means the trust created pursuant to this article. See California Education Code 69980
  • Scholarship: means a participant's account as established by the board with moneys deposited in the fund. See California Education Code 70010.1
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Labor and Workforce Development. See California Labor Code 19.5
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Veterans Affairs. See California Military and Veterans Code 1010
  • Secretary: means the secretary of the board of directors. See California Government Code 61002
  • Self-insured governmental plan: means a self-insured plan established or maintained for its employees by a public entity, as defined in Section 811. See California Insurance Code 12671
  • Serious injury or illness: means any injury or illness occurring in a place of employment or in connection with any employment that requires inpatient hospitalization, for other than medical observation or diagnostic testing, or in which an employee suffers an amputation, the loss of an eye, or any serious degree of permanent disfigurement, but does not include any injury or illness or death caused by an accident on a public street or highway, unless the accident occurred in a construction zone. See California Labor Code 6302
  • Service contractor: means a service contract administrator or a service contract seller. See California Business and Professions Code 9855
  • Service dealer: means a person who, for compensation, engages in, or holds himself or herself out to the public as offering services in the business of:

    California Business and Professions Code 9801

  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Sheriff: includes "marshal. See California Labor Code 25
  • Signature: includes either of the following:

    California Elections Code 354.5

  • Signature: includes mark when the signer cannot write, such signer's name being written near the mark by a witness who writes his own name near the signer's name. See California Corporations Code 17
  • Special election: is a n election, the specific time for the holding of which is not prescribed by law. See California Elections Code 356
  • Spousal support: means support of the spouse of the obligor. See California Family Code 142
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Government Code 12.2
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Insurance Code 12.2
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Labor Code 12.2
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Military and Veterans Code 19
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Corporations Code 12.2
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Family Code 143
  • Standards board: means the Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board, within the department. See California Labor Code 6302
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Government Code 18
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Health and Safety Code 23
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Insurance Code 28
  • State: means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, or a commonwealth, territory, or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. See California Family Code 145
  • State agency: means any agency, department, division, commission, board, bureau, officer, or other authority of the State of California. See California Labor Code 6101
  • State department: means the State Department of Public Health. See California Health and Safety Code 1760.2
  • Station: means a lamp adjusting station or a brake adjusting station. See California Business and Professions Code 9888.1
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Student record: means any item of information directly related to an identifiable student, other than directory information, which is maintained by a community college or required to be maintained by any employee in the performance of his or her duties, whether recorded by handwriting, print, tapes, film, microfilm or other means. See California Education Code 76210
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which the term occurs unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Government Code 10
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which the term appears unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Corporations Code 10
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • subscription: includes mark when the signer or subscriber can not write, such signer's or subscriber's name being written near the mark by a witness who writes his own name near the signer's or subscriber's name. See California Labor Code 17
  • substitute: means a person who performs, on a temporary basis, the duties of the individual who made the notes and does not refer to a person who permanently succeeds the maker of the notes in his or her position. See California Education Code 76210
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Support: refers to a support obligation owing on behalf of a child, spouse, or family, or an amount owing pursuant to Section 17402. See California Family Code 150
  • support order: means a child, family, or spousal support order. See California Family Code 3650
  • Support order: means a judgment or order of support in favor of an obligee, whether temporary or final, or subject to modification, termination, or remission, regardless of the kind of action or proceeding in which it is entered. See California Family Code 155
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Tenancy in common: A type of property ownership in which two or more individuals have an undivided interest in property. At the death of one tenant in common, his (her) fractional percentage of ownership in the property passes to the decedent
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • To employ: means to engage, suffer or permit any person to do industrial homework, or to tolerate, suffer, or permit articles or materials under one's custody or control to be manufactured in a home by industrial homework. See California Labor Code 2650
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Veteran: means a person who is eligible for benefits under this chapter. See California Military and Veterans Code 1010
  • veterans service organization: means any association or organization which is composed solely of persons who served honorably in time of war or in time of peace in a campaign or expedition for service in which a medal has been authorized by the government of the United States, as members of the Armed Forces of the United States, or who as citizens of the United States served honorably in time of war as members of the armed forces of any nation whose government was allied with the United States during that war, and which is organized for patriotic, fraternal, and benevolent objects. See California Military and Veterans Code 1260
  • Violation: includes a failure to comply with any requirement of the code. See California Labor Code 22
  • Voter: means any elector who is registered under this code. See California Elections Code 359
  • Voter: means a voter as defined by Section 359 of the Elections Code. See California Government Code 61002
  • Voter-nominated office: means a congressional or state elective office for which a candidate may choose to have his or her party preference or lack of party preference indicated upon the ballot. See California Elections Code 359.5
  • war: shall mean : (a) whenever Congress has declared war and peace has not been formally restored. See California Military and Veterans Code 18
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Zone: means a zone formed pursuant to Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 61140) of Part 3. See California Government Code 61002