Chapter 1 Homicide
Chapter 2 Mayhem
Chapter 3 Kidnapping
Chapter 3.5 Hostages
Chapter 4 Robbery
Chapter 5 Attempts to Kill
Chapter 6 Assaults With Intent to Commit Felony, Other Than Assaults With Intent to Murder
Chapter 8 False Imprisonment and Human Trafficking
Chapter 9 Assault and Battery

Terms Used In California Codes > Penal Code > Part 1 > Title 8

  • abuse or neglect in out-of-home care: includes physical injury or death inflicted upon a child by another person by other than accidental means, sexual abuse as defined in Section 11165. See California Penal Code 11165.5
  • Acute psychiatric hospital: means a health facility having a duly constituted governing body with overall administrative and professional responsibility and an organized medical staff that provides 24-hour inpatient care for persons with mental health disorders or other patients referred to in Division 5 (commencing with Section 5000) or Division 6 (commencing with Section 6000) of the Welfare and Institutions Code, including the following basic services: medical, nursing, rehabilitative, pharmacy, and dietary services. See California Health and Safety Code 1250
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • alcohol and drug counselor: is a person providing counseling, therapy, or other clinical services for a state licensed or certified drug, alcohol, or drug and alcohol treatment program. See California Penal Code 11165.7
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Animal control officer: means a person employed by a city, county, or city and county for the purpose of enforcing animal control laws or regulations. See California Penal Code 11165.7
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Basic health care services: includes ambulance and ambulance transport services provided through the "911" emergency response system. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • board: means the California Department of Tax and Fee Administration. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 20
  • bus: is a ny vehicle, including a trailer bus, designed, used, or maintained for carrying more than 15 persons including the driver. See California Vehicle Code 233
  • child: means a person under the age of 18 years. See California Penal Code 11165
  • child abuse or neglect: includes physical injury or death inflicted by other than accidental means upon a child by another person, sexual abuse as defined in Section 11165. See California Penal Code 11165.6
  • child visitation monitor: means a person who, for financial compensation, acts as a monitor of a visit between a child and another person when the monitoring of that visit has been ordered by a court of law. See California Penal Code 11165.7
  • City: includes every city and city and county within this State. See California Vehicle Code 255
  • City: includes incorporated city, city and county, municipal corporation, municipality, town, and incorporated town. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 14
  • clergy member: means a priest, minister, rabbi, religious practitioner, or similar functionary of a church, temple, or recognized denomination or organization. See California Penal Code 11165.7
  • commercial computer technician: means a person who works for a company that is in the business of repairing, installing, or otherwise servicing a computer or computer component, including, but not limited to, a computer part, device, memory storage or recording mechanism, auxiliary storage recording or memory capacity, or any other material relating to the operation and maintenance of a computer or computer network system, for a fee. See California Penal Code 11165.7
  • commercial film and photographic print or image processor: means a person who develops exposed photographic film into negatives, slides, or prints, or who makes prints from negatives or slides, or who prepares, publishes, produces, develops, duplicates, or prints any representation of information, data, or an image, including, but not limited to, any film, filmstrip, photograph, negative, slide, photocopy, videotape, video laser disc, computer hardware, computer software, computer floppy disk, data storage medium, CD-ROM, computer-generated equipment, or computer-generated image, for compensation. See California Penal Code 11165.7
  • Commercial sexual exploitation: refers to either of the following:

    California Penal Code 11165.1

  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Controller: means the State Controller. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 21
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • county: includes "city and county". See California Penal Code 7
  • County: includes city and county. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 15
  • Court reporter: A person who makes a word-for-word record of what is said in court and produces a transcript of the proceedings upon request.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Department of Motor Vehicles except, when used in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 2100) of Division 2 and in Divisions 11 (commencing with Section 21000), 12 (commencing with Section 24000), 13 (commencing with Section 29000), 14 (commencing with Section 31600), 14. See California Vehicle Code 290
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • driver: is a person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle. See California Vehicle Code 305
  • Enrollee: means a person who is enrolled in a plan and who is a recipient of services from the plan. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • Federal prosecutor: A lawyer appointed by the President in each judicial district to prosecute and defend cases for the federal government.
  • Federal public defender: An attorney employed by the federal courts on a full-time basis to provide legal defense to defendants who are unable to afford counsel. The judiciary administers the federal defender program pursuant to the Criminal Justice Act. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • general acute care hospital: includes a "rural general acute care hospital. See California Health and Safety Code 1250
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • health facility: means a facility, place, or building that is organized, maintained, and operated for the diagnosis, care, prevention, and treatment of human illness, physical or mental, including convalescence and rehabilitation and including care during and after pregnancy, or for any one or more of these purposes, for one or more persons, to which the persons are admitted for a 24-hour stay or longer, and includes the following types:

    California Health and Safety Code 1250

  • Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court.
  • Highway: is a way or place of whatever nature, publicly maintained and open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. See California Vehicle Code 360
  • Home: means an apartment, cottage, house, or other similar residential unit that serves 12 or fewer residents. See California Health and Safety Code 1323.5
  • Homemaker services: means food preparation, housekeeping, laundry, and maintenance services. See California Health and Safety Code 1323.5
  • Humane society officer: means a person appointed or employed by a public or private entity as a humane officer who is qualified pursuant to Section 14502 or 14503 of the Corporations Code. See California Penal Code 11165.7
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Intermediate care facility: means a health facility that provides inpatient care to ambulatory or nonambulatory patients who have recurring need for skilled nursing supervision and need supportive care, but who do not require availability of continuous skilled nursing care. See California Health and Safety Code 1250
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • knowingly: import s only a knowledge that the facts exist which bring the act or omission within the provisions of this code. See California Penal Code 7
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legislative session: That part of a chamber's daily session in which it considers legislative business (bills, resolutions, and actions related thereto).
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • License: means , and "licensed" refers to, a license as a plan pursuant to Section 1353. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • license: shall include a permit or a certificate issued by a state agency. See California Penal Code 23
  • licensed: refers to , a license as a plan pursuant to Section 1353. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • licensing agency: means the State Department of Social Services office responsible for the licensing and enforcement of the California Community Care Facilities Act (Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 1500) of Division 2 of the Health and Safety Code), the California Child Day Care Act (Chapter 3. See California Penal Code 11165.11
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Local authorities: means the legislative body of every county or municipality having authority to adopt local police regulations. See California Vehicle Code 385
  • Local educational agency: means a school district, a county office of education, a community college district, or a school district acting on behalf of one or more schools within the school district. See California Education Code 8208
  • long-term health care facility: means any skilled nursing facility, intermediate care facility, intermediate care facility/developmentally disabled, intermediate care facility/developmentally disabled habilitative, intermediate care facility/developmentally disabled-nursing, intermediate care facility/developmentally disabled-continuous nursing, or congregate living health facility licensed pursuant to this chapter. See California Health and Safety Code 1326
  • magistrate: signifies any one of the officers mentioned in Section 808. See California Penal Code 7
  • maliciously: import a wish to vex, annoy, or injure another person, or an intent to do a wrongful act, established either by proof or presumption of law. See California Penal Code 7
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • motor vehicle: includes a recreational vehicle as that term is defined in subdivision (a) of Section 18010 of the Health and Safety Code, but does not include a truck camper. See California Vehicle Code 415
  • neglect: means the negligent treatment or the maltreatment of a child by a person responsible for the child's welfare under circumstances indicating harm or threatened harm to the child's health or welfare. See California Penal Code 11165.2
  • newspaper: means a newspaper of general circulation. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 36.5
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • Nursing facility: means a health facility licensed pursuant to this chapter that is certified to participate as a provider of care either as a skilled nursing facility in the federal Medicare Program under Title XVIII of the federal Social Security Act (42 U. See California Health and Safety Code 1250
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • owner: is a person having all the incidents of ownership, including the legal title of a vehicle whether or not such person lends, rents, or creates a security interest in the vehicle. See California Vehicle Code 460
  • Parent: means a biological parent, stepparent, adoptive parent, foster parent, caretaker relative, or any other adult living with a child who has responsibility for the care and welfare of the child. See California Education Code 8208
  • partnership: shall include limited liability company, registered limited liability partnership, and foreign limited liability partnership, except where the context or the specific provisions of this division otherwise require. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 28.5
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • passenger vehicle: is a ny motor vehicle, other than a motortruck, truck tractor, or a bus, as defined in Section 233, and used or maintained for the transportation of persons. See California Vehicle Code 465
  • peace officer: signify any one of the officers mentioned in Chapter 4. See California Penal Code 7
  • Person: includes any person, firm, partnership, general partner of a partnership, limited liability company, registered limited liability partnership, foreign limited liability partnership, association, corporation, company, syndicate, estate, trust, business trust, or organization of any kind. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 19
  • Person: means any person, individual, firm, association, organization, partnership, business trust, foundation, labor organization, corporation, limited liability company, public agency, or political subdivision of the state. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • person: includes a corporation as well as a natural person. See California Penal Code 7
  • Person: includes a natural person, firm, copartnership, association, limited liability company, or corporation. See California Vehicle Code 470
  • Pilot facility: means a Small House Skilled Nursing Facility (SHSNF) participating in the Small House Skilled Nursing Facilities Pilot Program (SHSNF PP) established by this article. See California Health and Safety Code 1323.5
  • plan: refers to health care service plans and specialized health care service plans. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Plan contract: means a contract between a plan and its subscribers or enrollees or a person contracting on their behalf pursuant to which health care services, including basic health care services, are furnished. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • property: includes both real and personal property. See California Penal Code 7
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Provider: means any professional person, organization, health facility, or other person or institution licensed by the state to deliver or furnish health care services. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Reasonably suspects: means that it is objectively reasonable for a person to entertain a suspicion, based upon facts that could cause a reasonable person in a like position, drawing, when appropriate, on his or her training and experience, to suspect. See California Penal Code 11162.5
  • Record: means the state summary criminal history information as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 11105, or a copy thereof, maintained under a person's name by the Department of Justice. See California Penal Code 11140
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • seal: includes an impression of such seal upon the paper alone, or upon any substance attached to the paper capable of receiving a visible impression. See California Penal Code 7
  • Severe neglect: means the negligent failure of a person having the care or custody of a child to protect the child from severe malnutrition or medically diagnosed nonorganic failure to thrive. See California Penal Code 11165.2
  • sexual abuse: means sexual assault or sexual exploitation as defined by the following:

    California Penal Code 11165.1

  • sexual assault: includes , but is not limited to, all of the following:

    California Penal Code 11165.1

  • Sexual exploitation: refers to any of the following:

    California Penal Code 11165.1

  • Skilled nursing facility: includes a "small house skilled nursing facility (SHSNF)" as defined in Section 1323. See California Health and Safety Code 1250
  • specialized health care service plan: means either of the following:

    California Health and Safety Code 1345

  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Health and Safety Code 12.2
  • spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Penal Code 7
  • Startup costs: means those expenses an agency incurs in the process of opening a new or additional facility before the full enrollment of children. See California Education Code 8208
  • state: when applied to the different parts of the United States, includes the District of Columbia and the territories, and the words "United States" may include the district and territories. See California Penal Code 7
  • state agency: shall include any state board, commission, bureau, or division created pursuant to the provisions of the Business and Professions Code, the Education Code, or the Chiropractic Initiative Act to license and regulate individuals who engage in certain businesses and professions. See California Penal Code 23
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Street: is a way or place of whatever nature, publicly maintained and open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. See California Vehicle Code 590
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Subscriber: means the person who is responsible for payment to a plan or whose employment or other status, except for family dependency, is the basis for eligibility for membership in the plan. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Substantiated report: means a report that is determined by the investigator who conducted the investigation to constitute child abuse or neglect, as defined in Section 11165. See California Penal Code 11165.12
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Supportive care: includes the provision of socialization, activity aide services, and homemaker services. See California Health and Safety Code 1323.5
  • Tax: as used in this part , except in Chapters 4 (commencing with Section 32151) and 5 (commencing with Section 32201), means the excise tax imposed by this part on beer or wine or on distilled spirits. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 32004
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • unlawful corporal punishment or injury: means a situation where any person willfully inflicts upon any child any cruel or inhuman corporal punishment or injury resulting in a traumatic condition. See California Penal Code 11165.4
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • vehicle: is a device by which any person or property may be propelled, moved, or drawn upon a highway, excepting a device moved exclusively by human power or used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks. See California Vehicle Code 670
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Versatile worker: means a certified nursing assistant who provides personal care, socialization, activity aide services, meal preparation services, and laundry and housekeeping services. See California Health and Safety Code 1323.5
  • vessel: means a vessel as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 651 of the Harbors and Navigation Code. See California Penal Code 7
  • victim: means any person alleged or found, upon the record, to have sustained physical or financial injury to person or property as a direct result of the crime charged. See California Penal Code 11158
  • will: includes codicil. See California Penal Code 7
  • willful harming or injuring of a child or the endangering of the person or health of a child: means a situation in which any person willfully causes or permits any child to suffer, or inflicts thereon, unjustifiable physical pain or mental suffering, or having the care or custody of any child, willfully causes or permits the person or health of the child to be placed in a situation in which his or her person or health is endangered. See California Penal Code 11165.3
  • willfully: when applied to the intent with which an act is done or omitted, implies simply a purpose or willingness to commit the act, or make the omission referred to. See California Penal Code 7
  • writ: signifies an order or precept in writing, issued in the name of the people, or of a court or judicial officer, and the word "process" a writ or summons issued in the course of judicial proceedings. See California Penal Code 7