Article 1 Homicide 18.2-30 – 18.2-37
Article 2 Crimes by Mobs 18.2-38 – 18.2-46
Article 2 1. Crimes by Gangs 18.2-46.1 – 18.2-46.3:3
Article 2 2. Terrorism Offenses 18.2-46.4 – 18.2-46.10
Article 3 Kidnapping and Related Offenses 18.2-47 – 18.2-50.3
Article 4 Assaults and Bodily Woundings 18.2-51 – 18.2-57.4
Article 5 Robbery 18.2-58 – 18.2-58.1
Article 6 Extortion and Other Threats 18.2-59 – 18.2-60.5
Article 7 Criminal Sexual Assault 18.2-61 – 18.2-67.10
Article 9 Abortion 18.2-71 – 18.2-76.2

Terms Used In Virginia Code > Title 18.2 > Chapter 4

  • Act of terrorism: means an act of violence as defined in clause (i) of subdivision A of § 19. See Virginia Code 18.2-46.4
  • adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Adult: means a person 18 years of age or more. See Virginia Code 1-203
  • answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Base offense: means an act of violence as defined in clause (i) of subdivision A of § 19. See Virginia Code 18.2-46.4
  • City: means an independent incorporated community which became a city as provided by law before noon on July 1, 1971, or which has within defined boundaries a population of 5,000 or more and which has become a city as provided by law. See Virginia Code 1-208
  • civil forfeiture: The loss of ownership of property used to conduct illegal activity.
  • common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaining witness: means the person alleged to have been subjected to rape, forcible sodomy, inanimate or animate object sexual penetration, marital sexual assault, aggravated sexual battery, or sexual battery. See Virginia Code 18.2-67.10
  • conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Criminal street gang: means any ongoing organization, association, or group of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, (i) which has as one of its primary objectives or activities the commission of one or more criminal activities; (ii) which has an identifiable name or identifying sign or symbol; and (iii) whose members individually or collectively have engaged in the commission of, attempt to commit, conspiracy to commit, or solicitation of two or more predicate criminal acts, at least one of which is an act of violence, provided such acts were not part of a common act or transaction. See Virginia Code 18.2-46.1
  • damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • in writing: include any representation of words, letters, symbols, numbers, or figures, whether (i) printed or inscribed on a tangible medium or (ii) stored in an electronic or other medium and retrievable in a perceivable form and whether an electronic signature authorized by Chapter 42. See Virginia Code 1-257
  • Includes: means includes, but not limited to. See Virginia Code 1-218
  • indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Intimate parts: means the genitalia, anus, groin, breast, or buttocks of any person. See Virginia Code 18.2-67.10
  • jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Locality: means a county, city, or town as the context may require. See Virginia Code 1-221
  • Mental incapacity: means that condition of the complaining witness existing at the time of an offense under this article which prevents the complaining witness from understanding the nature or consequences of the sexual act involved in such offense and about which the accused knew or should have known. See Virginia Code 18.2-67.10
  • misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • Person: includes any individual, corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, government, political subdivision, or any other legal or commercial entity and any successor, representative, agent, agency, or instrumentality thereof. See Virginia Code 1-230
  • Personal representative: includes the executor of a will or the assets of the estate, pay debts, and distribute residue to those entitled to it. See Virginia Code 1-234
  • Physical helplessness: means unconsciousness or any other condition existing at the time of an offense under this article which otherwise rendered the complaining witness physically unable to communicate an unwillingness to act and about which the accused knew or should have known. See Virginia Code 18.2-67.10
  • plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Predicate criminal act: means (i) an act of violence; (ii) any violation of § 18. See Virginia Code 18.2-46.1
  • preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • prior sexual conduct: means any sexual conduct on the part of the complaining witness which took place before the conclusion of the trial, excluding the conduct involved in the offense alleged under this article. See Virginia Code 18.2-67.10
  • probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Sexual abuse: means an act committed with the intent to sexually molest, arouse, or gratify any person, where:

    a. See Virginia Code 18.2-67.10

  • State: when applied to a part of the United States, includes any of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands. See Virginia Code 1-245
  • statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Supreme Court: means the Supreme Court of Virginia. See Virginia Code 1-249
  • sworn: means "affirm" or "affirmed. See Virginia Code 1-250
  • testify: Answer questions in court.
  • testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Town: means any existing town or an incorporated community within one or more counties which became a town before noon, July 1, 1971, as provided by law or which has within defined boundaries a population of 1,000 or more and which has become a town as provided by law. See Virginia Code 1-254
  • trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • United States: includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands and the United States Virgin Islands. See Virginia Code 1-255
  • venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Weapon of terrorism: means any device or material that is designed, intended or used to cause death, bodily injury or serious bodily harm, through the release, dissemination, or impact of (i) poisonous chemicals; (ii) an infectious biological substance; or (iii) release of radiation or radioactivity. See Virginia Code 18.2-46.4