Article 31 School Districts
Article 32 Filing of Expenditure Statements by Candidates for Membership On Board of Education
Article 33 Common School Districts
Article 35 Union Free School Districts
Article 37 Central School Districts
Article 39 Central High School Districts
Article 40 Boards of Cooperative Educational Services
Article 40-A Shared Personnel
Article 41 District Meetings
Article 43 School District Officers–town and County Officials
Article 45 Supervisory Districts
Article 51 City School Districts of Cities With Less Than One Hundred Twenty-five Thousand Inhabitants
Article 52 City School Districts of Cities With One Hundred Twenty-five Thousand Inhabitants or More
Article 52-A New York City Community School District System
Article 53 School Elections in City School Districts of Cities With Less Than One Hundred Twenty-five Thousand Inhabitants
Article 55 Regulation by Boards of Education of Conduct On School District Property
Article 56 Charter Schools

Terms Used In New York Laws > Education > Title 2

  • adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • chancellor: shall mean the chancellor of the city district. See N.Y. Education Law 2590-A
  • city board: shall mean the board of education of the city district. See N.Y. Education Law 2590-A
  • city district: shall mean the city school district of the city of New York. See N.Y. Education Law 2590-A
  • community board: shall mean the board of education of a community district. See N.Y. Education Law 2590-A
  • community council: shall mean the community district education council of a community district established pursuant to section twenty-five hundred ninety-c of this article. See N.Y. Education Law 2590-A
  • community district: shall mean a community school district created or to be created within the city district under the provisions of this article. See N.Y. Education Law 2590-A
  • community superintendent: shall mean the superintendent of schools of a community district. See N.Y. Education Law 2590-A
  • complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • devise: To gift property by will.
  • discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • district superintendent: shall mean the chief administrative officer of a supervisory district as defined in article forty-five of this chapter. See N.Y. Education Law 1980
  • donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • educational facilities: shall mean land and the improvements thereon for use in connection with any educational activity to be undertaken or provided by the city board or any community council or any facility attendant thereto or any facility necessary, useful or desirable in connection with such activity. See N.Y. Education Law 2590-A
  • entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
  • fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • joint meeting: An occasion, often ceremonial, when the House and Senate each adopt a unanimous consent agreement
  • judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • lawyer: shall mean an attorney or counselor governed by article fifteen of the judiciary law, who receives remuneration or other compensation from a school district or board of cooperative educational services in exchange for legal services provided to such district or board. See N.Y. Education Law 2050
  • lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • parent: shall mean a person in parental relation to a child, as that phrase is defined in subdivision ten of section two of this chapter. See N.Y. Education Law 2590-A
  • partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • project: shall mean , with respect to an educational facilities capital plan, (a) the performance, at a specified educational facility, of one or more program elements, as defined in paragraph a, b, c or d of subdivision two of section twenty-five hundred ninety-p of this article; or (b) the performance of the program elements defined in paragraphs f and g of such subdivision or any system replacement identified in paragraph e of such subdivision. See N.Y. Education Law 2590-A
  • prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • registered voter: shall mean an elector of the city of New York under the election law. See N.Y. Education Law 2590-A
  • remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • school district: shall mean any common, union free, central, central high or city school district, or a board of cooperative educational services. See N.Y. Education Law 1980
  • settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • testify: Answer questions in court.
  • testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • voice vote: A vote in which the Presiding Officer states the question, then asks those in favor and against to say "Yea" or "Nay," respectively, and announces the result according to his or her judgment. The names or numbers of legisators voting on each side are not recorded.