Article 81 Education of Children Residing in Child Care Institutions
Article 83 Indian Schools
Article 85 Instruction of the Deaf and of the Blind
Article 87 New York State School for the Blind
Article 88 New York State School for the Deaf
Article 89 Children With Handicapping Conditions
Article 90 Gifted Education
Article 91 School Camps
Article 93 Career, Practical Arts, Continuing Adult Education and Vocational and Educational Guidance
Article 95 Farm Schools in Counties
Article 97 Home Schools in Certain Cities
Article 99 New York Nautical School
Article 101 Licensed Private Career Schools and Certified English as a Second Language Schools
Article 103 Workplace Literacy Programs
Article 105 Research Institute On Addictions

Terms Used In New York Laws > Education > Title 6

  • Abused child: means a child or youth who has been subjected to "physical abuse" "sexual abuse" and/or "psychological abuse" as defined in section four hundred eighty-eight of the New York state social services law while in the custody of ACS. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 21-901
  • Acid deposition: means the wet or dry deposition from the atmosphere of chemical compounds, usually in the form of rain or snow, having the potential to form an aqueous compound with a pH level lower than the level considered normal under natural conditions, or lower than 5. See
  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • ACS: means the administration for children's services, or any successor agency charged with operating the city's child welfare system. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 21-901
  • Act: means the Federal Clean Air Act, 42 U. See
  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Advance fee: means any fee claimed, demanded, charged, received or collected from a customer before the customer has leased or rented a private dwelling, abode or place of residence through the information provided by an apartment information vendor. See N.Y. Real Property Law 446-A
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Agent: means a person who is licensed as a real estate broker or a real estate salesperson pursuant to section four hundred forty-a of this chapter and is acting in a fiduciary capacity. See N.Y. Real Property Law 461
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annual percentage rate: The cost of credit at a yearly rate. It is calculated in a standard way, taking the average compound interest rate over the term of the loan so borrowers can compare loans. Lenders are required by law to disclose a card account's APR. Source: FDIC
  • Apartment information vendor: means any person who engages in the business of claiming, demanding, charging, receiving, collecting, or contracting for the collection of, a fee from a customer for furnishing information concerning the location and availability of real property, including apartment housing, which may be leased, rented, shared or sublet as a private dwelling, abode, or place of residence. See N.Y. Real Property Law 446-A
  • Applicant: shall mean , if a business entity submitting an application for registration, the entity and all the principals thereof; if an individual submitting an application for a photo identification card, such individual. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-251
  • Applicant: means that person making application to the department for a mining permit. See
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Associate real estate broker: means a licensed real estate broker who shall by choice elect to work under the name and supervision of another individual broker or another broker who is licensed under a partnership, trade name, limited liability company or corporation. See N.Y. Real Property Law 440
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-at-law: A person who is legally qualified and licensed to practice law, and to represent and act for clients in legal proceedings.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bank: means a bank, trust company, private banker, savings bank, savings and loan association, credit union, investment company organized under article twelve of this chapter and authorized to accept deposits, national bank, federal savings association, federal credit union, or out-of-state state bank, as such term is defined in subdivision two of section two hundred twenty-two of this chapter, having a principal, branch or trust office in this state. See N.Y. Banking Law 554
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Beverage: means carbonated soft drinks, water, beer, other malt beverages and a wine product as defined in subdivision thirty-six-a of section three of the alcoholic beverage control law. See
  • Beverage container: means the individual, separate, sealed glass, metal, aluminum, steel or plastic bottle, can or jar used for containing less than one gallon or 3. See
  • Binding contract of sale: means a real estate purchase contract or offer that would, upon signing by the seller and subject to satisfaction of any contingencies, require the buyer to accept a transfer of title. See N.Y. Real Property Law 461
  • board: means "board of directors". See
  • Bottler: means a person, firm or corporation who:

    a. See

  • Buffer zone: means all that area outside and surrounding the underground gas storage reservoir which the department approves as appropriate to protect the integrity of the reservoir, no part of which shall be more than thirty-five hundred linear feet from the boundary thereof. See
  • Building: means a multi-unit building or buildings, or a group of buildings whether or not attached to each other, comprising a part of the property. See N.Y. Real Property Law 339-E
  • Cavity: means an open or partially open space left after a salt has been solution mined. See
  • certification of correction: means the paper or electronic document filed with the department of buildings or the department of housing preservation and development by a property owner or managing agent to affirm that the violating conditions cited on a notice of violation have been corrected within the required timeframe. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 26-2501
  • certified ESL school: shall mean a language school conducted for-profit which provides instruction in English as a second language and which accepts no public funds and is certified pursuant to paragraph f of subdivision four of this section; and

    c. See

  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • chancellor: shall mean the chancellor of the city district. See
  • Charge to the jury: The judge's instructions to the jury concerning the law that applies to the facts of the case on trial.
  • Child: means "youth" as defined in this section. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 21-901
  • Child care institution: shall mean any facility serving thirteen or more children licensed by the department of social services pursuant to title one of article seven of the social services law operated by an authorized agency, or a residential treatment facility for children and youth, whether or not such residential treatment facility is operated by an authorized agency, except that Blythedale Children's Hospital shall be a child care institution. See
  • Child with a handicapping condition: shall mean a person between the ages of five and twenty-one who has been identified through appropriate evaluation and assessment as having a disability arising from cognitive, emotional or physical factors, or any combination thereof, which interferes with the child's ability to benefit from regular education. See
  • city: shall mean a city (a) which is co-terminous with a city school district or (b) in which a city school district is wholly or partly located. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 1300
  • city board: shall mean the board of education of the city district. See
  • city school district: shall mean a school district to which article fifty-one of the education law is applicable. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 1300
  • Client: means any person who engages or seeks to engage the services of a home inspector for the purpose of obtaining inspection of and written report about the condition of a residential building. See N.Y. Real Property Law 444-B
  • Coal: means bituminous coal, anthracite coal or lignite. See
  • Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
  • Commissioner: shall mean the commissioner of the New York city department of small business services. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-251
  • Commissioner: shall mean the commissioner of consumer and worker protection. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 20-102
  • Commissioner: means the commissioner of ACS. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 21-901
  • Commissioner of finance: means the commissioner of finance of the city;

    6. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 11-601

  • Common charges: means each unit's proportionate share of the common expenses in accordance with its common interest. See N.Y. Real Property Law 339-E
  • Common expenses: means and includes:

    (a) Expenses of operation of the property, and

    (b) All sums designated common expenses by or pursuant to the provisions of this article, the declaration or the by-laws. See N.Y. Real Property Law 339-E

  • Common interest: means the (i) proportionate, undivided interest in fee simple absolute, or (ii) proportionate undivided leasehold interest in the common elements appertaining to each unit, as expressed in the declaration. See N.Y. Real Property Law 339-E
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Common profits: means the excess of all receipts of the rents, profits and revenues from the common elements remaining after the deduction of the common expenses. See N.Y. Real Property Law 339-E
  • community board: shall mean the board of education of a community district. See
  • community council: shall mean the community district education council of a community district established pursuant to section twenty-five hundred ninety-c of this article. See
  • community district: shall mean a community school district created or to be created within the city district under the provisions of this article. See
  • community superintendent: shall mean the superintendent of schools of a community district. See
  • conservatee: means a person who has suffered substantial impairment of his ability to care for his property or has become unable to provide for himself or others dependent upon him for support for whom a conservator of his property has been appointed, pursuant to section 77. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 1701
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • conveyance: includes every written instrument, by which any estate or interest in real property is created, transferred, mortgaged or assigned, or by which the title to any real property may be affected, including an instrument in execution of a power, although the power be one of revocation only, and an instrument postponing or subordinating a mortgage lien; except a will, a lease for a term not exceeding three years, an executory contract for the sale or purchase of lands, and an instrument containing a power to convey real property as the agent or attorney for the owner of such property. See N.Y. Real Property Law 290
  • Corporation: means and includes all banks, trust companies, safe deposit companies, investment companies, mutual trust investment companies, and, to the extent not provided otherwise under any regulation of the superintendent of financial services promulgated pursuant to the provisions of section fourteen-e of this chapter, stock-form savings banks and stock-form savings and loan associations. See
  • County: shall mean the county executive, or if there is none, the chairman of the county legislative body of the county which is responsible for a child in a child care institution or a private school, except within the city of New York, in which case county shall mean the mayor of said city. See
  • Credit report: A detailed report of an individual's credit history prepared by a credit bureau and used by a lender in determining a loan applicant's creditworthiness. Source: OCC
  • Credit Score: A number, roughly between 300 and 800, that measures an individual's credit worthiness. The most well-known type of credit score is the FICO score. This score represents the answer from a mathematical formula that assigns numerical values to various pieces of information in your credit report. Source: OCC
  • Dealer: means every person, firm or corporation who engages in the sale of beverages in beverage containers to a consumer for off premises consumption in this state. See
  • Declaration: means the instrument by which the property is submitted to the provisions of this article, as hereinafter provided, and such instrument as from time to time amended, consistent with the provisions of this article and of the by-laws. See N.Y. Real Property Law 339-E
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Default: means an adjudication or other official determination of a court of competent jurisdiction or other public authority pursuant to which a conservator, receiver, or other legal custodian is appointed for an insured institution for the purpose of liquidation. See N.Y. Banking Law 420
  • Department: shall mean the New York city department of small business services. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-251
  • department: means the department of housing preservation and development. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 26-1701
  • Department: means the department of environmental conservation. See
  • Department: means the department of state. See N.Y. Real Property Law 444-B
  • Department: means the department of environmental conservation. See
  • Department: shall mean the department of consumer and worker protection. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 20-102
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Descendent: One who is directly descended from another such as a child, grandchild, or great grandchild.
  • Detention: means the temporary care and maintenance of youth held:

    1. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 21-901

  • Detention facility: means a facility, certified by the New York state office of children and family services, for the care of youth detained in accordance with the provisions of the family court act, regulations of the New York state office of children and family services, and the criminal procedure law. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 21-901
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Disposal: means the abandonment, discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, leaking or placing of any substance so that such substance or any related constituent thereof may enter the environment. See
  • Disposal: means the abandonment, discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, leaking or placing of any substance so that such substance or any related constituent thereof may enter the environment. See
  • dispose of: means to sell, convey, exchange, mortgage, release or lease. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 1701
  • Distributor: means any person, firm or corporation which engages in the sale or offer for sale of beverages in beverage containers to a dealer. See
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Dower: A widow
  • dwelling: shall mean any building or structure or portion thereof which is occupied in whole or in part as the home, residence or sleeping place of one or more human beings and is either rented, leased, let or hired out, to be occupied, or is occupied as the residence or home of three or more families living independently of each other; or is a garden-type maisonette dwelling project as defined in the multiple dwelling law or other similar dwellings which in their aggregate are arranged or designed to provide three or more apartments, have common facilities such as but not limited to a sewer line, water main, or heating plant and are operated as a unit under common ownership, notwithstanding that certificates of occupancy were issued for portions thereof as one or two family dwellings or that the dwellings are not a multiple dwelling as defined in the multiple dwelling law. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 782
  • dwelling unit: has the meaning ascribed to such term in the housing maintenance code. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 26-1201
  • educational facilities: shall mean land and the improvements thereon for use in connection with any educational activity to be undertaken or provided by the city board or any community council or any facility attendant thereto or any facility necessary, useful or desirable in connection with such activity. See
  • Electronic: means of or relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic or similar capabilities. See N.Y. Real Property Law 290
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Emission: means the release of acid deposition precursors into the atmosphere from any facility or stationary source. See
  • Employee: shall mean a person who works or who expects to work in a market on a full-time, part-time or seasonal basis for a wholesaler or market business, but shall not include persons hired to work on an occasional basis. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-251
  • entire board: means the total number of directors which a corporation would have if there were no vacancies. See
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Environment: means any water, water vapor, any land including land surface or subsurface, air, fish, wildlife, biota and all other natural resources. See
  • Environment: means any water, water vapor, any land including land surface or subsurface, air, fish, wildlife, biota and all other natural resources. See
  • Environmental threshold value: means a deposition rate, expressed in kilograms of sulfate per hectare per year, at which no significant damaging chemical or biological effects of acid deposition have been reported, and above which there is high probability that such effects would occur. See
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Excess shares: shall mean eligible aggregate employment shares that are apportioned pursuant to paragraph one of this subdivision to a relocation in excess of the limitation amount defined in subparagraphs (i) and (ii) of this paragraph for such relocation. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-621
  • Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
  • facility: means a steam electric generating facility with a generating capacity of fifty thousand kilowatts or more which burns fossil fuel. See
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal prosecutor: A lawyer appointed by the President in each judicial district to prosecute and defend cases for the federal government.
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Field: means the general area underlaid by one or more pools. See
  • Final control target: means a limitation, expressed in terms of fuel sulfur content or equivalent emissions reductions, that will reduce the New York state share of total measured or estimated wet sulfate deposition in sensitive receptor areas by the percentage derived according to the following formula:

    (Total measured or estimated New York's contribution to

    wet sulfate deposition) minus total measured or esti-

    (Environmental threshold value) mated wet sulfate deposition,

    X

    _______________________________ expressed as a percentage

    Total measured or estimated

    wet sulfate deposition

    9. See

  • Fiscal year: means the fiscal year for the city of New York. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 21-901
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fund: means the state savings and loan insurance fund created by section four hundred twenty-a of this article. See N.Y. Banking Law 420
  • Fund: means the oil and gas fund as established in section eighty-three-a of the state finance law. See
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gas: means all natural, manufactured, mixed, and byproduct gas, and all other hydrocarbons not defined as oil in this section. See
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • gifted pupils: shall mean those pupils who show evidence of high performance capability and exceptional potential in areas such as general intellectual ability, special academic aptitude and outstanding ability in visual and performing arts. See
  • Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Gross estate: The total fair market value of all property and property interests, real and personal, tangible and intangible, of which a decedent had beneficial ownership at the time of death before subtractions for deductions, debts, administrative expenses, and casualty losses suffered during estate administration.
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • Hazardous waste: means a waste or combination of wastes, which because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical or infectious characteristics may:

    a. See

  • Hazardous waste management: means the systematic control of the collection, source separation, storage, transportation, processing, treatment, recovery, and disposal of hazardous wastes. See
  • Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court.
  • Home inspection: means the process by which a home inspector observes and provides a written report of the systems and components of a residential building including but not limited to heating system, cooling system, plumbing system, electrical system, structural components, foundation, roof, masonry structure, exterior and interior components or any other related residential building component as recommended or required by the department through regulation to provide a client with objective information about the condition of the residential building. See N.Y. Real Property Law 444-B
  • Home inspector: means a person licensed as a home inspector pursuant to the provisions of this article. See N.Y. Real Property Law 444-B
  • Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
  • incompetent person: means a person incompetent to manage his affairs of whose property a committee has been appointed pursuant to section 78. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 1701
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Individual: means a natural person. See N.Y. Banking Law 599-B
  • Insured: means a person who enters into a premium finance agreement with a premium finance agency or makes and delivers a premium finance agreement to, or to the order of, an insurance agent or broker, whether or not he is insured under an insurance contract, premiums for which are advanced or to be advanced under the premium finance agreement. See N.Y. Banking Law 554
  • Insured account: means a savings account held by an insured member and which is insured under the provisions of this article. See N.Y. Banking Law 420
  • insured member: means a savings and loan association whose application for membership in the fund has been accepted and approved; and which has made all payments required by this article; and whose membership has not been terminated. See N.Y. Banking Law 420
  • Insured savings and loan association: means an association whose accounts are insured under this article. See N.Y. Banking Law 420
  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • interest in real estate: shall include the sale of a business wherein the value of the real estate transferred as part of the business is not merely incidental to the transaction, and shall not include the assignment of a lease, and further, the transaction itself is not otherwise subject to regulation under state or federal laws governing the sale of securities. See N.Y. Real Property Law 440
  • interest in real property: includes any term, estate or other interest in real property, vested or contingent, of an infant in being, an incompetent person, or a conservatee including an inchoate right of dower and a possibility of reverter, and also the contingent interest of an infant not in being. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 1701
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Interim control target: means a limitation, expressed in terms of fuel sulfur content, that achieves a level of sulfur deposition reduction that is approximately forty per centum of the final control target. See
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Joint meeting: An occasion, often ceremonial, when the House and Senate each adopt a unanimous consent agreement
  • Joint tenancy: A form of property ownership in which two or more parties hold an undivided interest in the same property that was conveyed under the same instrument at the same time. A joint tenant can sell his (her) interest but not dispose of it by will. Upon the death of a joint tenant, his (her) undivided interest is distributed among the surviving joint tenants.
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Knowledge: means only actual knowledge of a defect or condition on the part of the seller of residential real property. See N.Y. Real Property Law 461
  • land affected by mining: means the sum of that surface area of land or land under water which: (i) has been disturbed by mining since April first, nineteen hundred seventy-five and not been reclaimed, and (ii) is to be disturbed by mining during the term of the permit to mine. See
  • Landfill: means a disposal facility or part of a facility where solid waste, including hazardous waste, is placed in or on land, and which is not a land treatment facility, a surface impoundment, or an injection well. See
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Least emissions dispatch: means the utilization of the cleanest facility or other stationary source on a priority basis so that less clean facilities or stationary sources are operated at full capacity only when need arises. See
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Legal tender: coins, dollar bills, or other currency issued by a government as official money. Source: U.S. Mint
  • Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
  • Lending institution: means a bank or a lender licensed pursuant to article nine of this chapter. See N.Y. Banking Law 554
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • License: when used in this article means any license duly issued by the superintendent pursuant to the provisions of article nine, nine-A, eleven-B, twelve-B, twelve-C, twelve-D or thirteen-B of this chapter or any registration certificate issued by the superintendent pursuant to the provisions of article twelve-D of this chapter. See N.Y. Banking Law 635
  • License: shall mean an authorization by the department of consumer and worker protection to carry on various activities within its jurisdiction, which may take the form of a license, permit, registration, certification or such other form as is designated under law, regulation or rule. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 20-102
  • Licensee: when used in this article means any person issued a license. See N.Y. Banking Law 635
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Life estate: A property interest limited in duration to the life of the individual holding the interest (life tenant).
  • limitation amount: shall mean :

    (A) for one or more relocations in an eligible business' latest year of relocation as determined pursuant to subdivision (j) of this section, the amount, if any, by which the number of aggregate employment shares maintained by the eligible business in the eligible area in the taxable year in which it is claiming the credit authorized by this article exceeds the number of aggregate employment shares maintained by it in the eligible area in the taxable year immediately preceding such year of relocation; or

    (B) for one or more relocations in a specified year of relocation that is not the latest such year of relocation by an eligible business, the amount, if any, by which the number of aggregate employment shares maintained by the eligible business in the eligible area in the taxable year in which it is claiming the credit authorized by this chapter exceeds the sum of (I) the number of total attributed eligible aggregate employment shares that are attributed in the taxable year in which the credit is claimed to relocations that took place in years of relocation later than the specified year of relocation and (II) the number of aggregate employment shares maintained by it in the eligible area in the taxable year immediately preceding such specified year of relocation. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-621

  • Liquefied natural or petroleum gas facility: means any structure or facility which is used for the storage or confinement of liquefied natural or petroleum gas, or for the conversion of liquefied natural or petroleum gas into natural gas. See
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Loan processor or underwriter: means an individual who performs clerical or support duties as an employee at the direction of and subject to the supervision and instruction of a person licensed, or exempt from licensing, under this article, provided that such individual does not represent to the public, through advertising or other means of communicating or providing information, including the use of business cards, stationery, brochures, signs, rate lists, or other promotional items, that such individual can or will perform any of the activities of a mortgage loan originator. See N.Y. Banking Law 599-B
  • Local agency: means any local agency, board, authority, school district, commission or governing body, including any county, city, town, village or other political subdivision of the state. See
  • Low-level radioactive waste: means radioactive material that:

    a. See

  • Maintenance: shall mean the amount charged for room and board, residential care and medical expenses, including those expenses reimbursable pursuant to title nineteen of the federal social security act, defined in accordance with the regulations of the commissioner of social services for a child care institution pursuant to section three hundred ninety-eight-a of the social services law. See
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • Manifest: means the form used for identifying the quantity, composition, and the origin, routing, and destination of hazardous waste during its transportation from the point of generation to the point of disposal, treatment, or storage. See
  • manufactured home: means a structure, transportable in one or more sections, which in the traveling mode, is eight body feet or more in width or forty body feet or more in length, or, when erected on site, is three hundred twenty or more square feet, and which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, and electrical systems contained therein; except that such term shall include a "mobile home" as defined in subdivision five of this section, and shall include a structure which meets all the requirements of this subdivision except the size requirements and with respect to which the manufacturer voluntarily files a certification required by the secretary of housing and urban development. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 790
  • manufactured home park: means a contiguous parcel of privately owned land which is used for the accommodation of three or more manufactured homes occupied for year-round living. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 790
  • manufactured home resident: means one who rents space in a manufactured home park from a manufactured home park owner or operator for the purpose of locating his or her manufactured home or one who rents a manufactured home in a manufactured home park from a manufactured home park owner or operator. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 790
  • market: shall mean any building, structure or place owned by the city or located on property owned by the city or under lease to or in the possession of the city or any part of a street, avenue, parkway, plaza, square or other public place designated as a public market by resolution of the former board of estimate of the city or a local law enacted by the city council to be used or intended to be used for the wholesale buying, selling or keeping of food, flowers or ornamental plants and shall continue to be public property notwithstanding that such public wholesale market is operated pursuant to a lease or other agreement with a non-governmental entity; except that the term "public wholesale market" shall not, unless otherwise set forth in this chapter, include any building, structure or place within the fulton fish market distribution area or other seafood distribution area as defined in section 22-202 of this code. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-251
  • Market business: shall mean any business located or operating within a market that is engaged in providing goods or services to wholesalers or retail purchasers in such market that are related to the conduct of a wholesale business or the purchase of food or related agricultural products or horticultural products by retailers or others, or that receives such goods within a market for delivery, forwarding, transfer or further distribution outside such market. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-251
  • Mechanical restraint: means the use of a mechanical device to restrict the movement or normal function of a portion of a child's body, including but not limited to, handcuffs, leg cuffs, daisy chains or waist restraint. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 21-901
  • medical treatment: means any medical care, whether or not such care is provided by a licensed medical practitioner, including but not limited to any activity intended to further examination, diagnosis, counseling, physical or psychotherapy, preventive care, prescription or administration of medication, prescription or administration of prostheses, surgery, referral to a medical provider, any procedure to cure or abate any injury, illness, physical or mental condition or any treatment for substance abuse addiction. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 26-1201
  • Mine: means any excavation from which a mineral is to be produced for sale or exchange, or for commercial, industrial or municipal use; all haulageways and all equipment above, on or below the surface of the ground used in connection with such excavation, and all lands included in the life of the mine review by the department. See
  • Mined land-use plan: means a document, consisting of a mining plan and a reclamation plan, which describes proposals for conduct of the applicant's mining operation and reclamation of the land to be mined to achieve the purposes of this title. See
  • Mineral: means any naturally formed, usually inorganic, solid material located on or below the surface of the earth. See
  • Mining: means the extraction of overburden and minerals from the earth; the preparation and processing of minerals, including any activities or processes or parts thereof for the extraction or removal of minerals from their original location and the preparation, washing, cleaning, crushing, stockpiling or other processing of minerals at the mine location so as to make them suitable for commercial, industrial, or construction use; exclusive of manufacturing processes, at the mine location; the removal of such materials through sale or exchange, or for commercial, industrial or municipal use; and the disposition of overburden, tailings and waste at the mine location. See
  • Mining plan: means a description of the applicant's mining operation which shall include maps, plans, written materials and other documents as required by the department. See
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Mistrial: An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again from the selection of the jury.
  • mortgage banker: shall mean a person or entity who or which is licensed pursuant to section five hundred ninety-one of this chapter to engage in the business of making mortgage loans in this state;

    (g) "Registrant" or "mortgage broker" shall mean a person or entity registered pursuant to section five hundred ninety-one-a of this chapter to engage in the business of soliciting, processing, placing or negotiating mortgage loans for others, or offering to solicit, process, place or negotiate mortgage loans for others;

    (h) "Mortgage loan servicer" or "servicer" shall mean a person or entity registered pursuant to subdivision two of this section to engage in the business of servicing mortgage loans for property located in this state;

    (i) "Servicing mortgage loans" shall mean receiving any scheduled periodic payments from a borrower pursuant to the terms of any mortgage loan, including amounts for escrow accounts under section six-k of this chapter, title three-A of article nine of the real property tax law or section ten of 12 U. See N.Y. Banking Law 590

  • Mortgage loan: shall mean a loan to a natural person made primarily for personal, family or household use, secured by either a mortgage or deed of trust on residential real property, any certificate of stock or other evidence of ownership in, and proprietary lease from, a corporation or partnership formed for the purpose of cooperative ownership of residential real property or, if determined by the superintendent by regulation, shall include such a loan secured by a security interest on a manufactured home;

    (b) "Residential real property" shall mean real property located in this state improved by a one-to-four family dwelling used or occupied, or intended to be used or occupied, wholly or partly, as the home or residence of one or more persons, but shall not refer to unimproved real property upon which such dwellings are to be constructed;

    (c) "Making a mortgage loan" shall mean for compensation or gain, either directly or indirectly, advancing funds, offering to advance funds, or making a commitment to advance funds to an applicant for a mortgage loan or a mortgagor as a mortgage loan;

    (d) "Soliciting, processing, placing or negotiating a mortgage loan" shall mean for compensation or gain, either directly or indirectly, accepting or offering to accept an application for a mortgage loan, assisting or offering to assist in the processing of an application for a mortgage loan, soliciting or offering to solicit a mortgage loan on behalf of a third party or negotiating or offering to negotiate the terms or conditions of a mortgage loan with a lender on behalf of a third party;

    (e) "Exempt organization" shall mean any insurance company, banking organization, foreign banking corporation licensed by the superintendent or the comptroller of the currency to transact business in this state, national bank, federal savings bank, federal savings and loan association, federal credit union, or any bank, trust company, savings bank, savings and loan association, or credit union organized under the laws of any other state, or any instrumentality created by the United States or any state with the power to make mortgage loans. See N.Y. Banking Law 590

  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Mortgage Loan Originator: means an individual who for compensation or gain or in the expectation of compensation or gain:

    (i) takes a residential mortgage loan application; or

    (ii) offers or negotiates terms of a residential mortgage loan. See N.Y. Banking Law 599-B

  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • Natural gas: means natural or petroleum gas in a non-liquid or gaseous state, whether under pressure or otherwise, and whether or not the product of conversion from liquefied natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. See
  • Neglected child: means a child or youth who has been subjected to neglect as defined in section four hundred eighty-eight of the New York state social services law while in the custody of ACS. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 21-901
  • New York State Energy Code: means the New York State Energy Conservation Construction Code, constituting part 1240 of title 19 of the New York codes, rules and regulations (19 NYCRR Part 1240), and the publications incorporated by reference in such part, promulgated on February 12, 2020, by the State Fire Prevention and Building Code Council pursuant to Article 11 of the New York State Energy Law. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-1001.1.1
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • Non-conforming facility: means a liquefied natural or petroleum gas facility in actual use and operation on September first, nineteen hundred seventy-six which is exempted from the requirements of section 23-1707 but is subject to the requirements of section 23-1719. See
  • Nontraditional mortgage product: means , for purposes of this article, any mortgage product other than a thirty-year fixed rate mortgage. See N.Y. Banking Law 599-B
  • Office: means in the case of a bank or trust company its principal office, in the case of a safe deposit company, investment company or mutual trust investment company, its principal place of business and in the case of a foreign corporation the place of business designated in its license or its authorization pursuant to article five-C of this chapter, as the case may be, for the oldest agency or branch in this state of such foreign corporation. See
  • Office manager: means a licensed associate real estate broker who shall by choice elect to work as an office manager under the name and supervision of another individual broker or another broker who is licensed under a partnership, trade name, limited liability company or corporation. See N.Y. Real Property Law 440
  • Officer: shall mean any person holding an elected position or any other position involving participation in the management or control of a wholesale trade association or of a labor union or labor organization required to register pursuant to section 22-264 or section 22-265 of this chapter. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-251
  • Oil: means crude petroleum oil and all other hydrocarbons, regardless of gravity, that are produced at the wellhead in liquid form by ordinary production methods and that are not the result of condensation of gas. See
  • online education marketplace: shall mean a website or other internet-based online technology tool with which a licensed private career school or certified ESL school contracts for marketing or advertising services, or services in connection with the collection of tuition and/or fees, to the extent authorized in subdivision three of section five thousand four of this article. See
  • Operation of the property: means and includes the administration and operation of the property and the maintenance, repair and replacement of, and the making of any additions and improvements to, the common elements. See N.Y. Real Property Law 339-E
  • Organization: shall mean a business entity, including but not limited to a corporation, trust, estate, partnership, cooperative, association, firm, club or society. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 20-102
  • Organization certificate: includes (a) the original organization certificate or any other instrument filed or issued under any statute to form a corporation or foreign corporation, as amended, supplemented or restated by certificates of amendment, merger or consolidation or other certificates or instruments filed or issued under any statute; or (b) a special act or charter creating a corporation or foreign corporation, as amended, supplemented or restated by special acts or by certificates of amendment, merger or consolidation or other certificates or instruments filed or issued under any statute. See
  • Originating entity: means a person or entity licensed or registered pursuant to article twelve-D of this chapter or such other employer of mortgage loan originators as the superintendent may approve. See N.Y. Banking Law 599-B
  • Overburden: means all of the earth, vegetation and other materials which lie above or alongside a mineral deposit. See
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Owner: means the person who has the right to drill into and produce from a pool or a salt deposit and to appropriate the oil, gas or salt he produces either for himself or others, or for himself and others. See
  • owner: shall mean and include the owner or owners of the freehold of the premises or lesser estate therein, mortgagee or vendee in possession, assignee of rents, receiver, executor, trustee, lessee, agent, or any other person, firm or corporation, directly or indirectly in control of a dwelling, but shall not include a receiver appointed pursuant to section three hundred nine of the multiple dwelling law. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 781
  • ownership or control interest: means : with respect to a school that is organized as or owned by a corporation, a position as an officer or director of such corporation; or, with respect to a school that is organized as or owned by a partnership, a position as a partner; or any other interest totaling ten percent or more, whether direct or indirect, in the total equity or assets of such school. See
  • Paper document: means a document in a form that is not electronic. See N.Y. Real Property Law 290
  • parent: shall mean a person in parental relation to a child, as that phrase is defined in subdivision ten of section two of this chapter. See
  • Particular eligible premises: means the portion of such particular premises that meets the requirements for eligible premises specified in subdivision (e) of this section. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-621
  • Particular premises: means all premises occupied by an eligible business within a single building. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-621
  • Permit: means an environmental safety permit issued by the department pursuant to this title. See
  • Permittee: means any person who holds a valid mining permit from the department for the boundaries of the land identified in the mined land-use plan. See
  • Person: means any individual, public or private corporation, political subdivision, government agency, department or bureau of the state, municipality, industry, partnership, association, firm, trust, estate or any other legal entity whatsoever. See
  • Person: means any individual, public or private corporation, political subdivision, government agency, department or bureau of the state or federal government, municipality, industry, co-partnership, association, firm, trust, estate or any other legal entity. See
  • Person: means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership or association, two or more persons having a joint or common interest, or any other legal or commercial entity. See N.Y. Banking Law 554
  • Person: means an individual, trust, firm, joint stock company, corporation (including a government corporation), partnership, association, state, federal government and any agency thereof, municipality, commission, political subdivision of a state, or any interstate body. See
  • Person: means an individual or any corporation, company, limited liability company, partnership, association or other entity. See N.Y. Banking Law 599-B
  • Person: when used in this article means an individual, partnership, corporation, unincorporated association, joint stock association, trust or other group, however organized. See N.Y. Banking Law 635
  • Person: means any individual, public or private corporation, political subdivision, agency, board, department or bureau of the state, municipality, partnership, association, firm, trust, estate or any other legal entity whatsoever which is recognized by law as the subject of rights and duties. See
  • Person: means a natural person, corporation, partnership, association, trustee or other legal entity. See N.Y. Real Property Law 339-E
  • Person: means an individual, firm, company, partnership, limited liability company, or corporation. See N.Y. Real Property Law 444-B
  • Person: means any natural person, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, firm, or association. See N.Y. Real Property Law 446-A
  • Person: means and includes any natural person, corporation, association, partnership, receiver, trustee, executor, administrator, guardian, fiduciary, or other representative of any kind, and includes any department, agency or instrumentality of the state or any of its governmental subdivisions. See
  • Person: shall mean a natural person or an organization. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 20-102
  • Person engaged in mining: means a person who is subject to this title but who is mining without a mining permit issued by the department. See
  • Petty offense: A federal misdemeanor punishable by six months or less in prison. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Physical restraint: means the use of bodily force to limit a child's freedom of movement during a physical confrontation or to prevent a confrontation. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 21-901
  • Place of business: means the location at which a dealer sells or offers for sale beverages in beverage containers to consumers. See
  • Placement: means the temporary care and maintenance of adjudicated youth held away from their homes pursuant to article three of the family court act. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 21-901
  • Placement facility: means a facility, certified by the New York state office of children and family services, for the care of youth placed in accordance with the provisions of the family court act and the regulations of the New York state office of children and family services. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 21-901
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Plea agreement: An arrangement between the prosecutor, the defense attorney, and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for special considerations. Source:
  • political subdivision: as used in this Article , shall mean and include, in addition to its usual meaning, water districts, water supply districts, and any other public authorities, public corporations, commissions or bodies having power to own, acquire, or contract for a public water supply. See
  • Pool: means an underground reservoir containing a common accumulation of oil or gas or both; each zone of a structure which is completely separated from any other zone in the same structure is a pool. See
  • possibility of reverter: means the possibility that upon breach of a condition or termination of an estate by limitation the right of re-entry will vest in, or real property will revert to, an infant, incompetent person or conservatee or his heirs solely or in common with others. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 1701
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • Premium finance agency: means :

    (a) a person engaged, in whole or in part, in the business of entering into premium finance agreements with insureds, including a bank if so engaged; or

    (b) a person engaged, in whole or in part, in the business of acquiring premium finance agreements from insurance agents or brokers or other premium finance agencies, including a bank if so engaged and an insurance agent or broker who is licensed as a premium finance agency and who holds premium finance agreements made and delivered by insureds to him or his order. See N.Y. Banking Law 554

  • Premium finance agreement: means a promissory note or other written agreement by which an insured promises or agrees to pay to, or to the order of, either a premium finance agency or an insurance agent or broker the amount advanced or to be advanced under the agreement to an authorized insurer or to an insurance agent or broker in payment of premiums on an insurance contract, together with a service charge as authorized and limited by law. See N.Y. Banking Law 554
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Principal: shall mean , of a sole proprietorship, the proprietor; of a corporation, every officer, director and stockholder holding ten percent or more of the outstanding shares of the corporation; of a partnership, all the partners; if another type of business entity, the chief operating officer or chief executive officer, irrespective of organizational title, and all persons or entities having an ownership interest of ten percent or more; and with respect to all business

    entities, all other persons participating directly or indirectly in the control of such business entity. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-251

  • Private law: A private bill enacted into law. Private laws have restricted applicability, often addressing immigration and naturalization issues affecting individuals.
  • Pro se: A Latin term meaning "on one's own behalf"; in courts, it refers to persons who present their own cases without lawyers.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Producer: means the owner of a well or wells capable of producing oil, gas, or salt; or any salt or hydrocarbon mixture. See
  • Product: means any commodity made from oil or gas and includes refined crude oil, crude tops, topped crude, processed crude, processed crude petroleum, residue from crude petroleum, cracking stock, uncracked fuel oil, fuel oil, treated crude oil, residuum, gas oil, casinghead gasoline, natural-gas gasoline, kerosene, benzine, wash oil, waste oil, blended gasoline, lubricating oil, blends or mixtures of oil with one or more liquid products or by-products derived from oil or gas, and blends or mixtures of two or more liquid products or by-products derived from oil or gas, whether herein enumerated or not. See
  • project: shall mean , with respect to an educational facilities capital plan, (a) the performance, at a specified educational facility, of one or more program elements, as defined in paragraph a, b, c or d of subdivision two of section twenty-five hundred ninety-p of this article; or (b) the performance of the program elements defined in paragraphs f and g of such subdivision or any system replacement identified in paragraph e of such subdivision. See
  • Property: means and includes the land, the building and all other improvements thereon, (i) owned in fee simple absolute, or (ii) in the case of a condominium devoted exclusively to non-residential purposes, held under a lease or sublease, or separate unit leases or subleases, the unexpired term or terms of which on the date of recording of the declaration shall not be less than thirty years, or (iii) in the case of a qualified leasehold condominium, held under a lease or sublease, or separate unit leases or subleases, the unexpired term or terms of which on the date of recording of the declaration shall not be less than fifty years, and all easements, rights and appurtenances belonging thereto, and all other property, personal or mixed, intended for use in connection therewith, which have been or are intended to be submitted to the provisions of this article. See N.Y. Real Property Law 339-E
  • Public agency: shall mean the family court, the division for youth or the local social services district. See
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • purchaser: includes every person to whom any estate or interest in real property is conveyed for a valuable consideration, and every assignee of a mortgage, lease or other conditional estate. See N.Y. Real Property Law 290
  • Qualified leasehold condominium: means any leasehold interest in real property intended to be used for either residential purposes, commercial purposes, industrial purposes or any combination of such purposes, together with any fee simple absolute or leasehold interest in the buildings and all other improvements which have been or at any time hereafter may be erected upon such real property, which has been or is intended to be submitted to the provisions of this article, provided that, on the date of the recording of the declaration: (i) the battery park city authority or the Roosevelt Island operating corporation is the holder of the tenant's interest in such leasehold interest or (ii) the Queens West development corporation is the holder of the landlord's interest in such leasehold interest or (iii) the Brooklyn bridge park development corporation is the holder of the landlord's interest in such leasehold interest, or (iv) the New York city educational construction fund is the holder of the landlord's interest in such leasehold interest for property located in the borough of Manhattan, in the city of New York, bounded on the east by Second Ave, on the west by Third Avenue, to the north by East Fifty-seventh Street, and to the south by East Fifty-sixth Street. See N.Y. Real Property Law 339-E
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • real estate broker: means any person, firm, limited liability company or corporation, who, for another and for a fee, commission or other valuable consideration, lists for sale, sells, at auction or otherwise, exchanges, buys or rents, or offers or attempts to negotiate a sale, at auction or otherwise, exchange, purchase or rental of an estate or interest in real estate, or collects or offers or attempts to collect rent for the use of real estate, or negotiates or offers or attempts to negotiate, a loan secured or to be secured by a mortgage, other than a residential mortgage loan, as defined in section five hundred ninety of the banking law, or other incumbrance upon or transfer of real estate, or is engaged in the business of a tenant relocator, or who, notwithstanding any other provision of law, performs any of the above stated functions with respect to the resale of condominium property originally sold pursuant to the provisions of the general business law governing real estate syndication offerings. See N.Y. Real Property Law 440
  • Real estate purchase contract: means any of the following:

    (a) a contract which provides for the purchase and sale or exchange of residential real property;

    (b) a lease with an option to purchase residential real property;

    (c) a lease-with-obligation-to-purchase agreement for residential real property; or

    (d) an installment land sale contract for residential real property. See N.Y. Real Property Law 461

  • Real estate salesman: means a person associated with a licensed real estate broker to list for sale, sell or offer for sale, at auction or otherwise, to buy or offer to buy or to negotiate the purchase or sale or exchange of real estate, or to negotiate a loan on real estate other than a mortgage loan as defined in section five hundred ninety of the banking law, or to lease or rent or offer to lease, rent or place for rent any real estate, or collects or offers or attempts to collect rent for the use of real estate for or in behalf of such real estate broker, or who, notwithstanding any other provision of law, performs any of the above stated functions with respect to the resale of a

    condominium property originally sold pursuant to the provisions of the general business law governing real estate syndication offerings. See N.Y. Real Property Law 440

  • real property: as used in this article , includes lands, tenements and hereditaments and chattels real, except a lease for a term not exceeding three years. See N.Y. Real Property Law 290
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • Reclamation: means the conditioning of the affected land to make it suitable for any uses or purposes consistent with the provisions of this title. See
  • Reclamation plan: means a description of operations to be performed by the applicant to reclaim the land to be mined over the life of the mine. See
  • recorded: means the entry, at length, upon the pages of the proper record books in a plain and legible hand writing, or in print or in symbols of drawing or by photographic process or partly in writing, partly in printing, partly in symbols of drawing or partly by photographic process or by any combination of writing, printing, drawing or photography or either or any two of them, or by an electronic process by which a record or instrument affecting real property, after delivery is incorporated into the public record. See N.Y. Real Property Law 290
  • recording officer: means the county clerk of the county, except in a county having a register, where it means the register of the county. See N.Y. Real Property Law 290
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Redeemer: means every person who demands the refund value provided for herein in exchange for the empty beverage container, but shall not include a dealer as defined in subdivision four of this section. See
  • Redemption center: means any person offering to pay the refund value of an empty beverage container to a redeemer, or any person who contracts with one or more dealers or distributors to collect, sort and obtain the refund value and handling fee of empty beverage containers for, or on behalf of, such dealer or distributor under the provisions of section 27-1013 of this title. See
  • registered voter: shall mean an elector of the city of New York under the election law. See
  • Regulated waste: means any one of the following types of waste: raw sewage, septage, sludge from a sewage or water supply treatment plant, industrial-commercial waste, low-level radioactive waste as defined in subdivision nine of this section, waste tires or waste oil. See
  • REIT: means a real estate investment trust as defined in section eight hundred fifty-six of the internal revenue code. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 11-601
  • relative: means , with respect to a person, (i) a spouse, domestic partner, parent, grandparent, child, stepchild or stepparent of such person or (ii) any individual who is the direct descendant of the grandparents of such person or of the spouse or domestic partner of such person. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 26-1201
  • Remainderman: One entitled to the remainder of an estate after a particular reserved right or interest, such as a life tenancy, has expired.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Reserves: means the aggregate total of capital, advance premiums, assessments and retained earnings of the fund. See N.Y. Banking Law 420
  • Reservoir: means any underground reservoir, natural or artificial cavern or geologic dome, sand or stratigraphic trap, whether or not previously occupied by or containing oil or gas. See
  • Residential building: means a structure consisting of one to four dwelling units and their garages and carport but shall not include any such structure newly constructed or not previously occupied as a dwelling unit. See N.Y. Real Property Law 444-B
  • Residential mortgage loan: shall mean a loan to a natural person made primarily for personal, family or household use, secured by either a mortgage, deed of trust or other equivalent consensual security interest on a dwelling (as defined in section 1203(v) of the Truth in Lending Act) or residential real property or any certificate of stock or other evidence of ownership in, and proprietary lease from, a corporation or partnership formed for the purpose of cooperative ownership of residential real property and shall include any refinance or modification of any such existing loan. See N.Y. Banking Law 599-B
  • Residential real property: shall mean real property located in this state improved by a one-to-four family residence or residential unit in a building used or occupied, or intended to be used or occupied, wholly or partly, as the home or residence of one or more persons, but shall not refer to unimproved real property upon which such residence is to be constructed. See N.Y. Banking Law 599-B
  • Residential real property: means real property improved by a one to four family dwelling used or occupied, or intended to be used or occupied, wholly or partly, as the home or residence of one or more persons, but shall not refer to (a) unimproved real property upon which such dwellings are to be constructed, or (b) condominium units or cooperative apartments, or (c) property in a homeowners' association that is not owned in fee simple by the seller. See N.Y. Real Property Law 461
  • Resource recovery: means the separation, extraction and recovery of useable materials, energy or heat from solid waste through source separation, recycling centers or other programs, projects or facilities. See
  • Resource recovery: means any method, technique, or process utilized to separate, process, modify, convert, treat or otherwise prepare hazardous waste so that the component materials or substances thereof may be beneficially used or reused as raw materials, exclusive of useable energy. See
  • Reverse vending machine: means an automated device that uses a laser scanner, microprocessor, or other technology to accurately recognize the universal product code (UPC) on containers to determine if the container is redeemable and accumulates information regarding containers redeemed, including the number of such containers redeemed, thereby enabling the reverse vending machine to accept containers from redeemers and to issue a scrip or receipt for their refund value. See
  • Revitalization area: means any district in the city of New York that is zoned C4, C5, C6, M1, M2 or M3 in accordance with the zoning resolution of such city in any area of such city except the area lying south of the center line of 96th Street in the borough of Manhattan. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-621
  • RIC: means a regulated investment company as defined in section eight hundred fifty-one of the internal revenue code. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 11-601
  • Salt: means sodium chloride, evaporite or other water soluble minerals, either in solution or as a solid or crystalline material in a pure state or as a mixture. See
  • school district: shall mean any common, union free, central, central high or city school district, or a board of cooperative educational services. See
  • School district of origin: shall mean the public school district of which a child was or is a resident at the time of such child's placement in the care and custody of a public agency. See
  • School district of residence: shall mean the public school district in which the child was or is living at the time a public agency is considering placement of the child in a child care institution, or at the time a child is placed with the division for youth. See
  • Secretary: means the secretary of the department of state. See N.Y. Real Property Law 444-B
  • Septage: means the contents of a septic tank, cesspool or other individual sewage treatment facility which receives domestic sewage wastes. See
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • ships: means any ocean going vessel used to carry passengers or freight in interstate or foreign commerce. See
  • Sole ownership: The type of property ownership in which one individual holds legal title to the property and has full control of it.
  • Solid waste: means all putrescible and non-putrescible materials or substances discarded or rejected as being spent, useless, worthless or in excess to the owners at the time of such discard or rejection, except including but not limited to garbage, refuse, industrial and commercial waste, sludges from air or water control facilities, rubbish, ashes, contained gaseous material, incinerator residue, demolition and construction debris, discarded automobiles and offal but not including sewage and other highly diluted water carried materials or substances and those in gaseous form. See
  • Solid waste management: means the purposeful and systematic transportation, storage, processing, recovery and disposal of solid waste. See
  • Solid waste management facility: means any facility employed beyond the initial solid waste collection process including, but not limited to, transfer stations, baling facilities, rail haul or barge haul facilities, processing systems, including resource recovery facilities or other facilities for reducing solid waste volume, sanitary landfills, facilities for the disposal of construction and demolition debris, plants and facilities for compacting, composting or pyrolization of solid wastes, incinerators and other solid waste disposal, reduction or conversion facilities. See
  • Solution mining: means the dissolving of an underground salt by water to produce a brine for transport to another underground or surface location for sale, processing or storage. See
  • Special act school district: shall mean those school districts enumerated in chapter five hundred sixty-six of the laws of nineteen hundred sixty-seven as amended. See
  • spiritual officers: as used in this article , include the pastor or pastors, the ruling elders, and the deacons, of any church to which this article is applicable. See N.Y. Religious Corporations Law 70
  • Spoil: means any waste material removed from its natural place in the process of mining and all waste material directly connected with the cleaning and preparation of any minerals. See
  • Statewide spacing: means spacing units for gas or oil wells that are within ten percent of the following sizes, as applicable, unless another percentage is specifically stated:

    (i) For Medina gas pools at any depth, 40 acres with the wellbore within the target formation no less than 460 feet from any unit boundary, plus, if applicable, the number of additional acres necessary and sufficient to ensure that any horizontal wellbore within the target formation is not less than 460 feet from any unit boundary;

    (ii) For Onondaga reef or Oriskany gas pools at any depth, 160 acres with the wellbore within the target formation no less than 660 feet from any unit boundary, plus, if applicable, the number of additional acres necessary and sufficient to ensure that any horizontal wellbore within the target formation is not less than 660 feet from any unit boundary;

    (iii) For fault-bounded Trenton and/or Black River hydrothermal dolomite gas pools where the majority of the pool is between 4,000 and 8,000 feet deep, 320 acres with the proposed productive section of the wellbore within the target formation no less than one-half mile from any other well in another unit in the same pool and no less than 1,000 feet from any unit boundary that is not defined by a field-bounding fault but in no event less than 660 feet from any unit boundary;

    (iv) For fault-bounded Trenton and/or Black River hydrothermal dolomite gas pools where the majority of the pool is below 8,000 feet, within five percent of 640 acres with the proposed productive section of the wellbore within the target formation no less than one mile from any other well in another unit in the same pool and no less than 1,500 feet from any unit boundary that is not defined by a field-bounding fault but in no event less than 660 feet from any unit boundary;

    (v) For shale gas pools at any depth, for a vertical well outside any existing spacing unit for the same formation, 40 acres with the wellbore within the target formation no less than 460 feet from any unit boundary;

    (vi) For shale gas pools at any depth, for a horizontal well outside any existing spacing unit for the same formation and with a written commitment from the well operator to drill infill wells pursuant to subdivision 4 of section 23-0503 of this title, with all horizontal infill wells in the unit to be drilled from a common well pad within three years of the date the first well in the unit commences drilling, notwithstanding the ten percent tolerance specified in this subparagraph, up to 640 acres with the initial horizontal wellbore or wellbores within the target formation approximately centered in the spacing unit and no wellbore in the target formation less than 330 feet from any unit boundary;

    (vii) For shale gas pools at any depth, for a horizontal well outside any existing spacing unit for the same formation and in the absence of a written commitment from the well operator to drill infill wells pursuant to subdivision 4 of section 23-0503 of this title, 40 acres with the wellbore within the target formation no less than 330 feet from any unit boundary plus the number of additional acres necessary and sufficient to

    ensure that the wellbore within the target formation is not less than 330 feet from any unit boundary;

    (viii) For all other gas pools where the majority of the pool is above the depth of 4,000 feet, 80 acres with the wellbore within the target formation no less than 460 feet from any unit boundary, plus, if applicable, the number of additional acres necessary and sufficient to ensure that any horizontal wellbore within the target formation is not less than 460 feet from any unit boundary;

    (ix) For all other gas pools where the majority of the pool is 4,000 to 6,000 feet deep, 160 acres with the wellbore within the target formation no less than 660 feet from any unit boundary, plus, if applicable, the number of additional acres necessary and sufficient to ensure that any horizontal wellbore within the target formation is not less than 660 feet from any unit boundary;

    (x) For all other gas pools where the majority of the pool is 6,000 to 8,000 feet deep, 320 acres with the wellbore within the target formation no less than 1,000 feet from any unit boundary, plus, if applicable, the number of additional acres necessary and sufficient to ensure that any horizontal wellbore within the target formation is not less than 1,000 feet from any unit boundary;

    (xi) For all other gas pools where the majority of the pool is below 8,000 feet, within five percent of 640 acres with the wellbore within the target formation no less than 1,500 feet from any unit boundary, plus, if applicable, the number of additional acres necessary and sufficient to ensure that any horizontal wellbore within the target formation is not less than 1,500 feet from any unit boundary;

    (xii) For oil pools in the Bass Island, Trenton, Black River, Onondaga reef or other oil-bearing reefs at any depth, 40 acres with the wellbore within the target formation no less than 460 feet from any unit boundary, plus, if applicable, the number of additional acres necessary and sufficient to ensure that any horizontal wellbore within the target formation is not less than 460 feet from any unit boundary; and

    (xiii) For all other oil pools at any depth, the wellbore within the target formation shall be no less than 165 feet from any lease boundary. See

  • Stationary source: means any source other than major steam electric generating facilities that emits acid deposition precursors in excess of one hundred tons per year. See
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Storage: means the holding of waste for a temporary period, at the end of which the waste is processed, recovered, disposed of, or stored elsewhere. See
  • Storage: means the containment of hazardous waste, either on a temporary basis or for a period of years, in such a manner as not to constitute disposal of such hazardous waste. See
  • Student: shall mean any pupil under the age of twenty-one as of September first of the academic period being reported, who does not have a high school diploma and who is enrolled in a district school or pre-kindergarten program in a district school within the city school district. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 21-965
  • subdivider: shall include every person, partnership, corporation, company or association who or which engages directly or through an agent in the business of selling, leasing or offering for sale or lease subdivided lands and subdivisions to the public in this state. See N.Y. Real Property Law 337
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • Superintendent: means the superintendent of financial services. See N.Y. Banking Law 554
  • Tailings: means material of inferior quality or value resulting from the removal, preparation or processing of minerals. See
  • Taxpayer: means any corporation, association or other entity or individual subject to tax under this chapter;

    2. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 11-601

  • Tenancy in common: A type of property ownership in which two or more individuals have an undivided interest in property. At the death of one tenant in common, his (her) fractional percentage of ownership in the property passes to the decedent
  • Testate: To die leaving a will.
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • this state: means the state of New York;

    3. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 11-601

  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Total attributed eligible aggregate employment shares: means , for any relocation, the sum of the number of eligible aggregate employment shares apportioned to such relocation pursuant to paragraph one of this subdivision, less any excess shares determined with respect to such relocation pursuant to paragraph two of this subdivision, plus any excess shares attributed to such relocation pursuant to paragraph three of this subdivision. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-621
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Transfer of title: means delivery of a properly executed instrument conveying title to residential real property and shall include delivery of a real estate purchase contract that is a lease or installment land sale contract. See N.Y. Real Property Law 461
  • Transport: means the movement of hazardous waste from the point of generation to any intermediate points and finally to the point of ultimate storage or disposal. See
  • Treasury shares: means shares which have been issued, have been subsequently acquired, and are retained uncancelled by the corporation. See
  • Treatment: means any method, technique, or process, including neutralization, designed to change the physical, chemical or biological character or composition of any hazardous waste so as to neutralize such waste or as to render such waste nonhazardous, safer for transport, amenable for recovery, amenable for storage, or reduced in volume. See
  • Trial jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Truth in Lending Act: The Truth in Lending Act is a federal law that requires lenders to provide standardized information so that borrowers can compare loan terms. In general, lenders must provide information on Source: OCC
  • tuition: as used in this article and in the provisions of chapter ten hundred sixty of the laws of nineteen hundred seventy-four shall mean the per pupil cost of all instructional services, supplies, equipment and the operation of instructional facilities as determined by the commissioner. See
  • Tuition: shall mean the per pupil cost of all instructional services, supplies and equipment, and the operation of instructional facilities as determined by the commissioner. See
  • Unique identifier: means a number or other identifier assigned by protocols established by the NMLSR. See N.Y. Banking Law 599-B
  • Unit: means a part of the property intended for any type of use or uses, and with an exit to a public street or highway or to a common element or elements leading to a public street or highway, and may include such appurtenances as garage and other parking space, storage room, balcony, terrace and patio, but in no event may utility facilities such as those for water or sewerage treatment or power generation appear as single units. See N.Y. Real Property Law 339-E
  • Unit designation: means the number, letter or combination thereof or other official designations conforming to the tax lot number, if any, designating the unit in the declaration and on the floor plans. See N.Y. Real Property Law 339-E
  • Unit owner: means the person or persons owning a unit in fee simple absolute or, in the case either (i) of a condominium devoted exclusively to non-residential purposes, or (ii) a qualified leasehold condominium, owning a unit held under a lease or sublease. See N.Y. Real Property Law 339-E
  • UPC code: means a standard for encoding a set of lines and spaces that can be scanned and interpreted into numbers to identify a product. See
  • Use or consumption: means the exercise of any right or power incident to the ownership of a beverage, other than the sale or the keeping or retention of a beverage for the purpose of sale. See
  • Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
  • Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • Visitor: shall mean a person who is neither engaged in nor an employee of a wholesale business or market business in the market who wishes to enter or enters a public wholesale market. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-251
  • Waste: means any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant or air pollution control facility, and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operations and from community activities, but does not include solid or dissolved material in domestic sewage, or solid or dissolved materials in irrigation return flows or industrial discharges which are point sources subject to permits under article 17 of this chapter, or source, special nuclear or by-product material as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (68 Stat. See
  • Waste: means any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility, and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operations and from community activities, but does not include solid or dissolved material in domestic sewage, or solid or dissolved materials in irrigation return flows or industrial discharges which are point sources subject to permits under section four hundred two of the federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (86 Stat. See
  • Waste: means

    a. See

  • Waste oil: means used engine lubricating oil and any other oil, including but not limited to, fuel oil, motor oil, gear oil, cutting oil, transmission fluid, hydraulic fluid, dielectric fluid, oil storage tank residue, animal oil, and vegetable oil, which has been contaminated by physical or chemical impurities, through use or accident, and has not subsequently been rerefined. See
  • Waste tires: shall mean waste tires transported for a fee for the purpose of reuse, recycling or disposal, except those tires collected and transported incidental to the collection and transportation of solid waste. See
  • Water: means any beverage identified through the use of letters, words or symbols on its product label as a type of water, including any flavored water or nutritionally enhanced water, provided, however, that "water" does not include any beverage identified as a type of water to which a sugar has been added. See
  • Well operator: means the applicant for a permit to drill, deepen, plug back or convert a well subject to this title and titles 7 and 9 of this article, or the actual operator of the well if the well is not operated by the original applicant. See
  • well permit: means a permit to drill, deepen, plug back or convert a well for production of oil or gas. See
  • wholesale business: shall mean any business engaged in selling food or related agricultural products or horticultural products at wholesale prices for resale by a wholesaler or retailer or for use by an institution or other similar establishment, whether or not such business also sells directly to the public, except that such terms as used in this chapter shall not include a "wholesaler" or "wholesale seafood business" as defined in section 22-202 of this

    code; provided, however, that a wholesale business to which customers do not regularly come to pick up purchases and that does not deal from such location primarily in perishable products shall not be subject, unless otherwise provided by rule of the commissioner, to the provisions of sections 22-252, 22-254 and 22-255 of this chapter. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-251

  • Wholesale trade association: shall mean an entity, the majority of whose members are wholesale businesses and/or market businesses, having as a primary purpose the promotion, management or self-regulation of a market or such wholesale businesses or market businesses within such market or the facilities utilized by such businesses, including, but not limited to a corporation, cooperative, unincorporated association, partnership, trust or limited liability partnership or company, whether or not such entity is organized for profit, not-for-profit, business or non-business purposes. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 22-251
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Youth: means a person who resides in a juvenile detention or placement facility in the custody of ACS. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 21-901
  • Zone: means one of no fewer than 13 divisions of ACS child protective services headed by a deputy director who exercises oversight over the work of child protective managers, supervisors and child protective specialists in a specific geographic area, or the Office of Confidential Investigations. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 21-901