Terms Used In New York Laws > Real Property Tax > Article 5 - Assessment Procedure
- Accumulated contributions: shall mean the sum of all the amounts deducted from the compensation of a contributor, and credited to his individual account in the annuity savings fund together with regular interest thereon. See N.Y. Education Law 501
- Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
- Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Annuity: shall mean the annual payments for life derived from contributions made by contributor as provided in this article. See N.Y. Education Law 501
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appraisal: A determination of property value.
- Approved assessing unit: shall mean an assessing unit certified by the commissioner, pursuant to section nineteen hundred two of this chapter, as having completed a revaluation which is in conformance with the commissioner's rules promulgated pursuant to section fifteen hundred seventy of this chapter. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 522
- Approved plan: as used in this article means a plan of library service by a public library system approved by the commissioner subsequent to May first, nineteen hundred fifty-eight. See N.Y. Education Law 272
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- assessed value: means the determination made by assessors of the valuation of real property, including the valuation of exempt real property. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 522
- Assessment roll: means the assessment roll as it exists from the time of its tentative completion to the time of the annexation of a warrant for the collection of taxes. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 550
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- Attorney-at-law: A person who is legally qualified and licensed to practice law, and to represent and act for clients in legal proceedings.
- Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- Bequest: Property gifted by will.
- board: means "board of directors". See N.Y. Banking Law 1001
- Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts.
- Chambers: A judge's office.
- City: means the city of New York. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 583
- Class designation: shall mean :
(a) in an assessing unit other than a special assessing unit, the determination, pursuant to section nineteen hundred three of this chapter, of whether real property is included in the homestead class; or
(b) in a special assessing unit, the determination, pursuant to section eighteen hundred two of this chapter, of whether real property is included in class one, two, three or four. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 522
- Clerical error: means :
(a) an incorrect entry of assessed valuation on an assessment roll or on a tax roll which, because of a mistake in transcription, does not conform to the entry for the same parcel which appears on the property record card, field book or other final work product of the assessor, or the final verified statement of the board of assessment review; or
(b) an entry which is a mathematical error present in the computation of a partial exemption; or
(c) an incorrect entry of assessed valuation on an assessment roll or on a tax roll for a parcel which, except for a failure on the part of the assessor to act on a partial exemption, would be eligible for such partial exemption; or
(d) an entry which is a mathematical error present in the computation or extension of the tax; or
(e) an entry on a tax roll which is incorrect by reason of a mistake in the determination or transcription of a special assessment or other charge based on units of service provided by a special district; or
(f) a duplicate entry on an assessment roll or on a tax roll of the description or assessed valuation, or both, of an entire single parcel; or
(g) an entry on an assessment or tax roll which is incorrect by reason of an arithmetical mistake by the assessor appearing on the property record card, field book or other final work product of the assessor; or
(h) an incorrect entry on a tax roll of a relevied school tax or relevied village tax which has been previously paid; or
(i) an entry on a tax roll which is incorrect by reason of a mistake in the transcription of a relevied school tax or relevied village tax; or
(j) an incorrect entry of assessed valuation on an assessment roll or a tax roll due to an assessor's failure to utilize the required assessment method pursuant to section five hundred eighty-one-a of this article in the valuation of qualifying real property. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 550
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
- Contributor: shall mean any member of the retirement system who has an account in the annuity savings fund as provided by this article. See N.Y. Education Law 501
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- Corporation: means and includes all banks, trust companies, safe deposit companies, investment companies, mutual trust investment companies, and, to the extent not provided otherwise under any regulation of the superintendent of financial services promulgated pursuant to the provisions of section fourteen-e of this chapter, stock-form savings banks and stock-form savings and loan associations. See N.Y. Banking Law 1001
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- Devise: To gift property by will.
- Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
- Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
- Donor: The person who makes a gift.
- Employer: shall mean the state of New York, the city, the village, school district board or trustee, or other agency of and within the state by which a teacher is paid. See N.Y. Education Law 501
- entire board: means the total number of directors which a corporation would have if there were no vacancies. See N.Y. Banking Law 7002
- Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- Error in essential fact: means :
(a) an incorrect entry on the taxable portion of the assessment roll, or the tax roll, or both, of the assessed valuation of an improvement to real property which was destroyed or removed prior to taxable status date for such assessment roll; or
(b) an incorrect entry on the taxable portion of the assessment roll, or the tax roll, or both, of the assessed valuation of an improvement to real property which was not in existence or which was present on a different parcel; or
(c) an incorrect entry of acreage on the taxable portion of the assessment roll, or the tax roll, or both, which acreage was considered by the assessor in the valuation of the parcel and which resulted in an incorrect assessed valuation, where such acreage is shown to be incorrect on a survey submitted by the applicant; or
(d) the omission of the value of an improvement present on real property prior to taxable status date; or
(e) an incorrect entry of a partial exemption on an assessment roll for a parcel which is not eligible for such partial exemption; provided that the exemption has not been renounced pursuant to section four hundred ninety-six of this chapter; or
(f) an entry pursuant to article nineteen of this chapter on an assessment or tax roll which is incorrect by reason of a
misclassification of property which is exclusively used for either residential or non-residential purposes. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 550
- Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
- Final average salary: shall mean the average annual compensation earnable as a teacher during the five years of service immediately preceding his date of retirement, or it shall mean the average annual compensation earnable as a teacher during any five consecutive years of state service, said five years to be selected by the applicant prior to date of retirement. See N.Y. Education Law 501
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Improvement: means real property as defined in paragraph (b) of subdivision twelve of section one hundred two of this chapter, and which has been separately described and valued on the property record card, field book or other final work product of the assessor. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 550
- Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
- Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
- Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
- Joint meeting: An occasion, often ceremonial, when the House and Senate each adopt a unanimous consent agreement
- Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- Local government: shall mean , unless otherwise expressly stated or unless the context otherwise requires, a county, city or town with the power to assess real property for the purpose of taxation. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 522
- local sponsor: shall mean any municipality, district or school district, as defined in the general municipal law, or any combination thereof. See N.Y. Education Law 272
- Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
- Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- Office: means in the case of a bank or trust company its principal office, in the case of a safe deposit company, investment company or mutual trust investment company, its principal place of business and in the case of a foreign corporation the place of business designated in its license or its authorization pursuant to article five-C of this chapter, as the case may be, for the oldest agency or branch in this state of such foreign corporation. See N.Y. Banking Law 1001
- Organization certificate: includes (a) the original organization certificate or any other instrument filed or issued under any statute to form a corporation or foreign corporation, as amended, supplemented or restated by certificates of amendment, merger or consolidation or other certificates or instruments filed or issued under any statute; or (b) a special act or charter creating a corporation or foreign corporation, as amended, supplemented or restated by special acts or by certificates of amendment, merger or consolidation or other certificates or instruments filed or issued under any statute. See N.Y. Banking Law 1001
- Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- Pension: shall mean the annual payments for life derived from payments made by an employer as provided in this article. See N.Y. Education Law 501
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
- Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
- Probate: Proving a will
- public library system: as used in this article means:
(1) A library established by one or more counties. See N.Y. Education Law 272
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- reference and research library resources system: as used in this article means a duly chartered educational institution resulting from the association of a group of institutions of higher education, libraries, non-profit educational institutions, hospitals, and other institutions organized to improve reference and research library resources service. See N.Y. Education Law 272
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Retirement allowance: shall mean the pension plus the annuity. See N.Y. Education Law 501
- Retirement board: shall mean the retirement board provided by section five hundred four of this article. See N.Y. Education Law 501
- Retirement system: shall mean the New York state teachers' retirement system provided for in section five hundred two of this article. See N.Y. Education Law 501
- Service: shall mean actual teaching or supervision by the teacher during regular school hours of the day, and shall mean governmental service in the state of New York in another capacity where the teacher was a member of the New York state employees retirement system, and where such service was credited to the teacher in the said New York state employees retirement system. See N.Y. Education Law 501
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
- Special assessing unit: shall mean an assessing unit with a population of one million or more. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 522
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- Tax levying body: means the governing board of a municipal corporation which annexes a warrant for the collection of taxes to a final assessment roll. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 550
- Tax roll: means a final assessment roll upon which taxes have been extended and to which a warrant has been annexed. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 550
- taxation: shall be construed to include special assessments. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 530
- Teacher: shall mean any regular teacher, special teacher, including any school librarian or physical training teacher, principal, vice-principal,
director, superintendent, city superintendent, assistant city superintendent, district superintendent and other member of the teaching or professional staff of any class, public school, vocational school, truant reformatory school or parental school, and of any or all classes of schools within the state of New York, including schools on the Indian reservation, conducted under the order and superintendence of and wholly or partly at the expense of the New York state education department or of a duly elected board of education, board of school directors or board of trustees of the state or of any city or school district thereof, provided that no person shall be deemed a teacher within the meaning of this article who is not so employed for full time outside vacation periods. See N.Y. Education Law 501
- Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- Unlawful entry: means :
(a) an entry on the taxable portion of the assessment roll or the tax roll, or both, of the assessed valuation of real property which, except for the provisions of section four hundred ninety of this chapter, is wholly exempt from taxation; or
(b) an entry on an assessment roll or a tax roll, or both, of the assessed valuation of real property which is entirely outside the boundaries of the assessing unit, the school district or the special district in which the real property is designated as being located, but not an entry on an assessment roll or a tax roll, or both, of the assessed valuation of real property assessed pursuant to subdivisions two through five of section five hundred of this article; or
(c) an entry of assessed valuation on an assessment roll or on a tax roll, or both, which has been made by a person or body without the authority to make such entry; or
(d) an entry of assessed valuation of state land subject to taxation on an assessment roll or on a tax roll, or both, which exceeds the assessment of such land approved by the commissioner; or
(e) an entry of assessed valuation of a special franchise on an assessment roll or on a tax roll, or both, which exceeds the final assessment thereof as determined by the commissioner pursuant to subdivision one of section six hundred six of this chapter, or the full value of that special franchise as determined by the commissioner pursuant to subdivision two of section six hundred six of this chapter adjusted by the final state equalization rate established by the commissioner for the assessment roll upon which that value appears. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 550
- Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
- Watershed agricultural easement: means a watershed conservation easement which allows the land subject to such easement to be utilized in agricultural production. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 583
- Watershed conservation easement: means an easement, covenant, restriction or other interest in real property purchased by or on behalf of the city of New York that is located in those areas of the counties of Delaware, Dutchess, Greene, Putnam, Schoharie, Sullivan, Ulster and Westchester located in the watershed of the New York city water supply, created under and subject to the provisions of Article 49 of the environmental conservation law which, for the purpose of maintaining the open space, natural condition, or character of the real property in a manner consistent with the protection of water quality generally and the New York city water supply specifically, limits or restricts development, management or use of such real property. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 583