Chapter 1 Contracts in Restraint of Trade
Chapter 2 Combinations in Restraint of Trade
Chapter 2.5 Combinations to Obstruct Sales of Livestock
Chapter 4 Unfair Trade Practices
Chapter 5 Enforcement
Chapter 6.5 Reassignments
Chapter 7 Sales of Telephone and Other Communications Equipment

Terms Used In California Codes > Business and Professions Code > Division 7 > Part 2 - PRESERVATION AND REGULATION OF COMPETITION

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Aggrieved party: means a party entitled to pursue a remedy. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • agreement: means the total legal obligation that results from the parties' agreement as determined by this code and as supplemented by any other applicable laws. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Apparent owner: means the person who appears from the records of the holder to be entitled to property held by the holder. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1501
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Banking organization: means any national or state bank, trust company, banking company, land bank, savings bank, safe-deposit company, private banker, or any similar organization. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1501
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bill of lading: means a document evidencing the receipt of goods for shipment issued by a person engaged in the business of transporting or forwarding goods. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • bioanalyst: means a person licensed under Section 1260 to engage in clinical laboratory practice and direction of a clinical laboratory. See California Business and Professions Code 1203
  • board: refers to the State Board of Chiropractic Examiners. See California Business and Professions Code 1050
  • Business association: means any private corporation, joint stock company, business trust, partnership, or any association for business purposes of two or more individuals, whether or not for profit, including, but not by way of limitation, a banking organization, financial organization, life insurance corporation, and utility. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1501
  • Buyer: means a person who buys or contracts to buy goods. See California Commercial Code 2103
  • Change in laboratory director: means any change in the laboratory director or directors to whom the current license or registration is issued. See California Business and Professions Code 1211
  • Change in ownership: means any change in the persons who are owners. See California Business and Professions Code 1211
  • City: includes "city and county" and "incorporated town" but does not include "unincorporated town" or "village. See California Government Code 20
  • City: includes city and county. See California Business and Professions Code 18
  • CLIA laboratory director: means the person identified as the laboratory director on the CLIA certificate issued to the laboratory by the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). See California Business and Professions Code 1209
  • clinical histocompatibility scientist: means any person, other than a person licensed to direct a clinical laboratory, or licensed as a clinical laboratory scientist or trainee, who is licensed under Sections 1261, 1261. See California Business and Professions Code 1210
  • clinical laboratory scientist: means any person, other than a licensed clinical laboratory bioanalyst or trainee, who is licensed under Sections 1261 and 1262 to engage in clinical laboratory practice under the overall operation and administration of a laboratory director, unless serving as a director of a waived laboratory as provided in Section 1209. See California Business and Professions Code 1204
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • contract: means the bargain of the parties in fact, as found in their language or inferred from other circumstances, including course of performance, course of dealing, or usage of trade as provided in Section 1303. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Contract for sale: includes both a present sale of goods and a contract to sell goods at a future time. See California Commercial Code 2106
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • County: includes city and county. See California Government Code 19
  • County: includes city and county. See California Business and Professions Code 17
  • Creditor: includes a general creditor, a secured creditor, a lien creditor, and any representative of creditors, including an assignee for the benefit of creditors, a trustee in bankruptcy, a receiver in equity, and an executor or administrator of an insolvent debtor's or assignor's estate. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • department: means the State Department of Public Health. See California Business and Professions Code 1202
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Document of title: includes a bill of lading, dock warrant, dock receipt, warehouse receipt, or order for the delivery of goods, and also any other document which in the regular course of business or financing is treated as adequately evidencing that the person in possession of it is entitled to receive, hold, and dispose of the document and the goods it covers. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • electrified security fence: means any fence, other than an electrified fence described in Section 17151 of the Food and Agricultural Code, that meets the following requirements:

    California Civil Code 835

  • Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
  • Employee benefit plan distribution: means any money, life insurance, endowment or annuity policy or proceeds thereof, securities or other intangible property, or any tangible property, distributable to a participant, former participant, or the beneficiary or estate or heirs of a participant or former participant or beneficiary, from a trust or custodial fund established under a plan to provide health and welfare, pension, vacation, severance, retirement benefit, death benefit, stock purchase, profit sharing, employee savings, supplemental unemployment insurance benefits or similar benefits, or which is established under a plan by a business association functioning as or in conjunction with a labor union which receives for distribution residuals on behalf of employees working under collective-bargaining agreements. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1501
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
  • Fault: means a default, breach, or wrongful act or omission. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Financial organization: means any federal or state savings and loan association, building and loan association, credit union, investment company, or any similar organization. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1501
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Foundation program: means those elements of library service which are basic to its function as a provider of information, education, and cultural enrichment to all segments of the community, including, but not limited to, collection development and maintenance, lending services, information services, facility maintenance, and administration. See California Education Code 18015
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Good faith: except as otherwise provided in Division 5 (commencing with Section 5101), means honesty in fact and the observance of reasonable commercial standards of fair dealing. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • health fair: means a program of health assessment procedures offered to the general public that may include screening, self-ordered, or diagnostic clinical laboratory tests or examinations performed by a clinical laboratory licensed or registered under subdivision (a) of Section 1265 that meets all the requirements of this chapter. See California Business and Professions Code 1214
  • histocompatibility laboratory director: means a physician and surgeon licensed to practice medicine pursuant to Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 2000) who is qualified pursuant to Section 1209, a bioanalyst licensed pursuant to Section 1260 who is qualified pursuant to Sections 1203 and 1209, or a person who has earned a doctoral degree in a biological science, who has completed, subsequent to graduation, four years of experience in immunology, two of which have been in histocompatibility testing. See California Business and Professions Code 1209.1
  • Holder: means :

    California Commercial Code 1201

  • Holder: means any person in possession of property subject to this chapter belonging to another, or who is trustee in case of a trust, or is indebted to another on an obligation subject to this chapter. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1501
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Indirect ownership interest: means an ownership interest in an entity that has an ownership interest in a clinical laboratory, and includes an ownership interest in any entity that has an indirect ownership interest in a clinical laboratory. See California Business and Professions Code 1211
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Insolvent: means :

    California Commercial Code 1201

  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • laboratory director: means any person who is any of the following:

    California Business and Professions Code 1209

  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legal tender: coins, dollar bills, or other currency issued by a government as official money. Source: U.S. Mint
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • licensing agency: means a panel of the Division of Medical Quality. See California Business and Professions Code 825
  • Licensing board: means any board, as defined in Section 22, the State Bar of California, and the Department of Real Estate. See California Business and Professions Code 30
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Life estate: A property interest limited in duration to the life of the individual holding the interest (life tenant).
  • Life insurance corporation: means any association or corporation transacting the business of insurance on the lives of persons or insurance appertaining thereto, including, but not by way of limitation, endowments, and annuities. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1501
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Local consumer affairs agency: means and includes any city or county body which primarily provides consumer protection services. See California Business and Professions Code 17201.5
  • Markup: The process by which congressional committees and subcommittees debate, amend, and rewrite proposed legislation.
  • mineral right: means an interest in minerals, regardless of character, whether fugacious or nonfugacious, organic or inorganic, that is created by grant or reservation, regardless of form, whether a fee or lesser interest, mineral, royalty, or leasehold, absolute or fractional, corporeal or incorporeal, and includes express or implied appurtenant surface rights. See California Civil Code 883.110
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Money: means a medium of exchange currently authorized or adopted by a domestic or foreign government. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • month: means a calendar month, unless otherwise expressed. See California Civil Code 14
  • Month: means a calendar month, unless otherwise expressed. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • oral and maxillofacial pathologist: means any person licensed by the department under Section 1264 to engage in, or supervise others engaged in, clinical laboratory practice limited to his or her area of specialization or to direct a clinical laboratory, or portion thereof, limited to his or her area of specialization. See California Business and Professions Code 1207
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Owner: means a depositor in case of a deposit, a beneficiary in case of a trust, or creditor, claimant, or payee in case of other choses in action, or any person having a legal or equitable interest in property subject to this chapter, or his or her legal representative. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1501
  • ownership interest: means the possession of equity in capital, stock, or profits. See California Business and Professions Code 1211
  • Ownership or management: means the ownership or management of a cooperative or condominium for floating homes. See California Civil Code 800.300
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: includes any person, firm, association, organization, partnership, limited liability company, business trust, corporation, or company. See California Government Code 17
  • person: includes firm, association, partnership, individual, limited liability company, and corporation. See California Business and Professions Code 1201
  • Person: means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, public corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Person: means any individual, business association, government or governmental subdivision or agency, two or more persons having a joint or common interest, or any other legal or commercial entity, whether that person is acting in his or her own right or in a representative or fiduciary capacity. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1501
  • person: includes an individual, partnership, firm, association, or corporation. See California Business and Professions Code 17360
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Personal property: includes money, goods, chattels, things in action, and evidences of debt. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • persons: includes corporations, firms, partnerships and associations existing under or authorized by the laws of this State or any other State, or any foreign country. See California Business and Professions Code 16702
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Property: includes both personal and real property. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Public library: means a library, or two or more libraries, operated as a single entity by one or more public jurisdictions and which serve the general public without distinction. See California Education Code 18015
  • Purchase: means taking by sale, lease, discount, negotiation, mortgage, pledge, lien, security interest, issue or reissue, gift, or any other voluntary transaction creating an interest in property. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Purchaser: means a person that takes by purchase. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Record: means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remedy: means any remedial right to which an aggrieved party is entitled with or without resort to a tribunal. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Resident: means a person who maintains a residence in a cooperative or condominium for floating homes. See California Civil Code 800.300
  • Residuals: means payments pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement of additional compensation for domestic and foreign uses of recorded materials. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1501
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Right: includes remedy. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • school: means any place, establishment, or institution organized and operated to offer training for one or more of the personnel classifications included in this chapter or the regulations pertaining thereto. See California Business and Professions Code 1213
  • school building: as used in this article includes a facility that a county office of education is authorized to use pursuant to Article 3 (commencing with Section 17280) of Chapter 3. See California Education Code 17582
  • Security interest: includes any interest of a consignor and a buyer of accounts, chattel paper, a payment intangible, or a promissory note in a transaction that is subject to Division 9 (commencing with Section 9101). See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Sell: includes offer for sale, expose for sale, possess for sale, exchange, barter, or trade. See California Food and Agricultural Code 44
  • Seller: means a person who sells or contracts to sell goods. See California Commercial Code 2103
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Government Code 18
  • State: means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • State: includes the District of Columbia and the territories when applied to the different parts of the United States, and the words "United States" may include the district and territories. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • state agency: includes every state office, officer, department, division, bureau, board, and commission. See California Government Code 11000
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which the term occurs unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Government Code 10
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Term: means a portion of an agreement that relates to a particular matter. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • third party: means a person that has engaged in a transaction or made an agreement subject to this code. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • trainee: means any person licensed under this chapter for the purpose of receiving comprehensive practical experience and instruction in clinical laboratory procedures in one of the sciences or in general clinical laboratory science under the direct and responsible supervision of a person authorized to direct a laboratory under the provisions of this chapter, clinical laboratory scientist, clinical chemist scientist, clinical microbiologist scientist, clinical toxicologist scientist, clinical immunohematologist scientist, clinical genetic molecular biologist scientist, clinical cytogeneticist scientist, clinical histocompatibility scientist, or other equivalent licensee in the science or specialty or subspecialty for which he or she is licensed in a clinical laboratory certified for this purpose by the department under this chapter. See California Business and Professions Code 1205
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • unlicensed laboratory personnel: means a laboratory aide, histocompatibility technician, cardiopulmonary technician, or other person performing the activities authorized by Section 1269. See California Business and Professions Code 1212
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • will: includes codicil. See California Civil Code 14
  • Will: includes codicil. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writing: includes printing, typewriting, or any other intentional reduction to tangible form. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Writing: includes printing and typewriting. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17