Terms Used In Idaho Code > Title 5 > Chapter 2
- Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
- A verdict of "not guilty."
- action: as used in this chapter is to be construed, whenever it is necessary so to do, as including a special proceeding of a civil nature. See Idaho Code 5-240
- Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
- Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
- Agricultural employer: is a s defined in section 44-1601, Idaho Code. See Idaho Code 20-402
- Agricultural products: is a s defined in section 22-2602, Idaho Code. See Idaho Code 20-402
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- Application: means a written form prescribed and made available by the Idaho peace officer standards and training council. See Idaho Code 19-5801
- Apportionable estate: means the value of the gross estate as finally determined for purposes of the estate tax to be apportioned reduced by:
Idaho Code 15-3-1302
Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty. Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority. Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account. Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court. Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed. Bail: means a monetary amount required by the court to release the defendant from custody and to ensure his appearance in court as ordered. See Idaho Code 19-2905 Bail agent: means a producer licensed by the state of Idaho in the line of surety insurance who is authorized by an insurer to execute or countersign undertakings of bail in connection with judicial criminal proceedings. See Idaho Code 19-2905 Bail bond: means a financial guarantee, posted by a bail agent and underwritten by a surety insurance company, that the defendant will appear as ordered. See Idaho Code 19-2905 Bailiff: a court officer who enforces the rules of behavior in courtrooms. Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings. Bench warrant: means a warrant issued by the court because the defendant failed to appear as ordered, failed to comply with a condition of release or the sureties are no longer sufficient. See Idaho Code 19-2905 Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC Board: means the state board of correction. See Idaho Code 20-402 Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts. Cash deposit: means payment in the form of United States currency, money order, certified check, cashier’s check or such other form of payment as provided by the rules of the supreme court. See Idaho Code 19-2905 Certificate of surrender: means a certificate in a form approved by the supreme court that is completed by a surety insurance company or its bail agent, or a person who has posted a property bond or cash deposit, and provided to the sheriff of the county where the action is pending for signature. See Idaho Code 19-2905 Chambers: A judge's office. Clerk of court: An officer appointed by the court to work with the chief judge in overseeing the court's administration, especially to assist in managing the flow of cases through the court and to maintain court records. Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action. Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant. Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law. Conditions of release: means any reasonable restrictions, conditions or prohibitions placed upon the defendant’s activities, movements, associations or residences by the court, excluding the court order requiring the defendant to appear in court. See Idaho Code 19-2905 Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time. Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed. Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant. Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name. Correctional facility: means a facility for the confinement of prisoners. See Idaho Code 19-4201A County detention officer: means an employee in a county jail who is responsible for the safety, care, protection and monitoring of county jail inmates. See Idaho Code 19-5801 Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries. Decedent: A deceased person. Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime. Defense attorney: Represent defendants in criminal matters. Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial. Devise: To gift property by will. Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial. Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source: Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings. Economic loss: includes , but is not limited to, the value of property taken, destroyed, broken, or otherwise harmed, lost wages, and direct out-of-pocket losses or expenses, such as medical expenses resulting from the criminal conduct, but does not include less tangible damage such as pain and suffering, wrongful death or emotional distress. See Idaho Code 19-5304 Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC Enterprise: means an operation, including services and labor, or a group of closely related operations. See Idaho Code 20-402 Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs. Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met. Estate tax: means a federal, state, or foreign tax, however denominated, imposed because of the death of an individual and interest and penalties associated with the tax. See Idaho Code 15-3-1302 Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other. Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office. Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business. Exoneration: means a court order directing the full or partial release and discharge from liability of the surety underwriting a bail bond or the person posting a cash deposit or a property bond. See Idaho Code 19-2905 Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state. Federal officer: means a special agent or law enforcement officer who is a resident of this state employed by a federal agency and who is empowered to effect an arrest with or without a warrant for violations of the United States Code and who is authorized to carry firearms in the performance of duty. See Idaho Code 19-5801 Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison. Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator. Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006. Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC Forfeiture: means an order of the court reciting that the defendant failed to appear as ordered and stating that bail is forfeited. See Idaho Code 19-2905 Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC Found guilty of any crime: shall mean a finding by a court that a defendant has committed a criminal act and shall include an entry of a plea of guilty, an order withholding judgment, suspending sentence, or entry of judgment of conviction for a misdemeanor or felony. See Idaho Code 19-5304 Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another. Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance. Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value. Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage, Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it. Gross estate: means , with respect to an estate tax, all interests in property subject to the tax. See Idaho Code 15-3-1302 Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs. Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted. Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court. Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate. In-state prisoner: means a person who has been convicted of a crime in the state of Idaho and is either incarcerated in a correctional facility for that crime or is in custody for trial and sentencing. See Idaho Code 19-4201A Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies. Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury. Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit. Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases. Juror: A person who is on the jury. Law enforcement officer: means any current federal officer, peace officer, parole officer, probation officer, correctional officer, county detention officer and any person who prosecutes criminal cases. See Idaho Code 19-5801 Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC Legislative session: That part of a chamber's daily session in which it considers legislative business (bills, resolutions, and actions related thereto). Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity. Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt. Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants. Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement. Mistrial: An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again from the selection of the jury. Month: means a calendar month, unless otherwise expressed. See Idaho Code 73-114 Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan. Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money. Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money. Oath: A promise to tell the truth. Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period. Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions. Out-of-state prisoner: means a person who has been convicted of and sentenced for a crime in a state other than the state of Idaho, or under the laws of the United States or other foreign jurisdiction, and who is being housed in any state, local or private correctional facility in the state of Idaho, or who is being transported in any manner within or through the state of Idaho. See Idaho Code 19-4201A Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program. Parole officer: means an employee of the Idaho department of correction who is charged with or whose duties include supervision of parolees. See Idaho Code 19-5801 Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses. Peace officer: means any employee of a police or law enforcement agency which is a part of or administered by the state or any political subdivision thereof and whose duties include and primarily consist of the prevention and detection of crime and the enforcement of penal, traffic or highway laws of this state or any political subdivision. See Idaho Code 19-5801 person: includes a corporation as well as a natural person;
Idaho Code 73-114
Person: means a natural person, legal corporation, limited liability corporation, partnership, sole proprietorship or any other business entity recognized by the state of Idaho. See Idaho Code 19-2905 Personal property: includes money, goods, chattels, things in action, evidences of debt and general intangibles as defined in the uniform commercial code — secured transactions. See Idaho Code 73-114 Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit. Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court. Plea agreement: An arrangement between the prosecutor, the defense attorney, and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for special considerations. Source: Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer. Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way. Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial. Presentence report: A report prepared by a court's probation officer, after a person has been convicted of an offense, summarizing for the court the background information needed to determine the appropriate sentence. Source: U.S. Courts Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents. Prisoner: includes an in-state or out-of-state prisoner, unless otherwise specifically provided or unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. See Idaho Code 19-4201A Private correctional facility: means a correctional facility owned or operated in the state of Idaho by a private prison contractor. See Idaho Code 19-4201A Private prison contractor: means any person, organization, partnership, joint venture, corporation or other business entity engaged in the site selection, design, design/building, acquisition, construction, construction/management, financing, maintenance, leasing, leasing/purchasing, management or operation of private correctional facilities or any combination of these services. See Idaho Code 19-4201A Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law. Probate: Proving a will Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed. Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision. Property: includes both real and personal property. See Idaho Code 73-114 Property bond: means a financial guarantee approved by the court, secured by property, real or personal, that the defendant will appear in court as ordered. See Idaho Code 19-2905 Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government. Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business. Readmittance to bail: means an order of the court allowing the defendant to post new bail following an order of revocation. See Idaho Code 19-2905 Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land. Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business. Registered mail: includes certified mail. See Idaho Code 73-114 Reinstatement of bail: means an order of the court allowing the defendant to be released on the same bail previously posted that has been ordered forfeited. See Idaho Code 19-2905 Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant. Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings. Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals). Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action. Revocation of bail: means an order by the court revoking the defendant’s release on bail. See Idaho Code 19-2905 seal: includes an impression of such seal upon the paper, alone, as well as upon wax or a wafer affixed thereto; or, alternatively, the seal may be the mark of a rubber stamp providing substantially the same information as the impression. See Idaho Code 73-111 Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party. Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims. State: when applied to the different parts of the United States, includes the District of Columbia and the territories; and the words "United States" may include the District of Columbia and territories. See Idaho Code 73-114 state or county institution: means a place owned or operated by or under the control of the state or county in which a person other than a prisoner is restrained and with respect to which restraint the person may file a petition for a writ of habeas corpus under the provisions of this chapter. See Idaho Code 19-4201A Statute: A law passed by a legislature. Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights. Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony. Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents. Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system. Surety insurance company: means an admitted insurer authorized in the line of surety pursuant to title 41, Idaho Code. See Idaho Code 19-2905 Surrender: means the voluntary surrender or delivery of the defendant into the custody of the sheriff of the county where the action is pending. See Idaho Code 19-2905 Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death. Testify: Answer questions in court. Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries. Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident. Trainee: means an inmate enrolled in an Idaho correctional industries training program. See Idaho Code 20-402 Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition. Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence. Trial jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons. True bill: Another word for indictment. Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision. Value: means , with respect to an interest in property, fair market value as finally determined for purposes of the estate tax that is to be apportioned, reduced by any outstanding debt secured by the interest without reduction:
Idaho Code 15-3-1302
Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried. Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge. Victim: shall mean :
Idaho Code 19-5304
Victim Impact Statement: A written or spoken statement by the victim or his or her representative about the physical, emotional, and financial impact of a crime on the victim. The statement is given to the court before sentencing. Writ: signifies an order or precept in writing, issued in the name of the people, or of a court or judicial officer, and the word "process" a writ or summons issued in the course of judicial proceedings. See Idaho Code 73-114