|Article 255||Offenses Affecting the Marital Relationship||255.00 – 255.30|
|Article 260||Offenses Relating to Children, Disabled Persons and Vulnerable Elderly Persons||260.00 – 260.35|
|Article 263||Sexual Performance by a Child||263.00 – 263.30|
Terms Used In New York Laws > Penal > Part 3 > Title O - Offenses Against Marriage, the Family, and the Welfare of Children and Incompetents
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
- Amount: shall include , but is not limited to, any dividend, profit or other distribution, whether in cash or securities, and any interest or other payment on or of principal, including the cash value of any security which has matured or has been called for full or partial redemption or is payable to security owners or former security owners
entitled to payments as the result of a merger, consolidation, acquisition or conversion of any type. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500
- Amount: shall mean that term as defined in subdivision seven of section five hundred of this chapter. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appraisal: A determination of property value.
- Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
- approved program: means a program for the education of physician assistants which has been formerly approved by the department. See N.Y. Education Law 6540
- approved program: means a program for the education of specialist assistants which has been approved by the department. See N.Y. Education Law 6547
- Authority: shall mean the New York job development authority created by subdivision one of section eighteen hundred two of this title. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- Bequest: Property gifted by will.
- Biological agent: means any micro-organism, virus, infectious substance, or biological product that may be engineered as a result of biotechnology, or any naturally occurring or bioengineered component of
any such micro-organism, virus, infectious substance, or biological product, capable of causing:
(a) death, disease, or other biological malfunction in a human, an animal, a plant, or another living organism;
(b) deterioration of food, water, equipment, supplies, or material of any kind; or
(c) deleterious alteration of the environment. See N.Y. Penal Law 490.05
- Biological weapon: means any biological agent, toxin, vector, or delivery system or combination thereof. See N.Y. Penal Law 490.05
- Board: shall mean the board of trustees of the New York state higher education services corporation. See N.Y. Education Law 651
- borrower: shall mean (i) a student who is a resident of New York state attending, or accepted for enrollment at, an eligible college, or (ii) the parent, legal guardian, or sponsor, as defined by the corporation in regulation, of a student attending, or accepted for enrollment at, an eligible college who is a resident of New York state, and who obtains an education loan from a lending institution to pay for or finance higher education expenses under this program. See N.Y. Education Law 690
- Broker: shall include any individual or corporation engaging in the purchase, sale or exchange of securities for or on behalf of any customer. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510
- Chairman: means the chairman of the dormitory authority. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1695
- Chemical weapon: means the following, together or separately:
(a) a toxic chemical or its precursors;
(b) a munition or device specifically designed to cause death or other harm through the toxic properties of a toxic chemical or its precursors, which would be released as a result of the employment of such munition or device;
(c) any equipment specifically designed for use directly in connection with the employment of munitions or devices; or
(d) any device that is designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human life. See N.Y. Penal Law 490.05
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- Comptroller: shall mean the comptroller of the state. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
- Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
- Corporation: shall mean the New York state higher education services corporation. See N.Y. Education Law 651
- Corporation: shall mean any corporation (other than a public corporation as defined in paragraph (b) of this subdivision), joint stock company, association of two or more individuals, committee, partnership, investment company (as defined by, and which is registered under, an act of Congress of the United States entitled the "Investment Company Act of 1940" as amended), unit investment trust or business trust, whether or not for profit. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500
- Corporation: shall include any joint stock company, corporation, association of two or more individuals, committee, public authority, or business trust. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510
- Customer: shall include any individual or corporation entering into a contract with a broker or dealer by which such broker or dealer agrees to effect the purchase, sale, or exchange, or to keep custody of any security for or on behalf of such individual or corporation. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- Dealer: shall include any individual or corporation engaging in any state as a regular business in the purchase, sale or exchange of securities for his or its own account, through a broker or otherwise. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- Devise: To gift property by will.
- Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
- Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
- Domestic corporation: shall mean any corporation organized under the laws of this state or under the laws of this state and one or more other states or foreign countries, but shall not mean a banking organization as defined in this chapter. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500
- Education loan: shall mean any loan that is made under this program to finance or refinance higher education expenses at an eligible college. See N.Y. Education Law 690
- Eligible business facility: shall mean any type of business facility to be used or occupied by any person in an enterprise deemed to offer a reasonable likelihood for promoting the creation or retention of job opportunities in the state, and includes, but is not limited to, industrial or manufacturing plants, facilities for research and development purposes, facilities for conducting wholesale, receiving and distributing operations, facilities for conducting office operations, warehousing operations, or any other operation dealing in the exchange of goods, wares, services or other types of property of any type or description. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Eligible co-signer: shall mean a parent, legal guardian or otherwise credit worthy individual over twenty-one years of age who satisfies applicable credit criteria approved by the corporation and is a resident of New York state. See N.Y. Education Law 690
- Eligible college: shall mean a post-secondary institution, located within New York state, eligible for funds under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of nineteen hundred sixty-five, as amended, or successor statute offering a two-year, four-year, graduate or professional degree granting or certificate program. See N.Y. Education Law 690
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
- Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
- Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
- Fiduciary: shall mean any individual or any domestic or foreign corporation holding a security for a resident or receiving, as agent of a corporation or as holder of a security, any amount due or to become due a resident as the holder or owner of a security but shall not mean any individual or corporation so acting by direction of a court in any case where such court has not directed a distribution of such amount or security. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
- You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
- The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
- The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
- Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
- Foreign corporation: shall mean any corporation organized under the laws of a state other than New York or under the laws of a foreign country and doing business in this state or authorized to do business in this state, but shall not mean a banking organization as defined in this chapter. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
- Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
- Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
- Higher education expenses: shall mean the cost of attendance at an eligible college and shall include tuition and fees, books, room and board, and other educationally related expenses, as determined by the corporation. See N.Y. Education Law 690
- Holder: shall mean , with respect to an education loan: (i) a lender; (ii) a public benefit corporation authorized to finance the purchase or making of education loans pursuant to the public authorities law; or (iii) any assignee of such lender or public benefit corporation. See N.Y. Education Law 690
- hospital: means an institution or facility possessing a valid operating certificate issued pursuant to Article 28 of the public health law and authorized to employ physician assistants in accordance with rules and regulations of the public health and health planning council. See N.Y. Education Law 6540
- hospital: means an institution or facility possessing a valid operating certificate issued pursuant to article twenty-eight of the public health law and authorized to employ specialist assistants in accordance with rules and regulations of the public health and health planning council. See N.Y. Education Law 6547
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- lender: shall mean any entity that itself or through an affiliate originates education loans, other than an entity authorized to finance the purchase or making of education loans through the issuance of bonds pursuant to the public authorities law. See N.Y. Education Law 690
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Loan: shall mean (i) a mortgage loan evidenced by a bond, note or other obligation of a local development corporation secured by a mortgage on a project, defined in subdivision fourteen (i) and (ii) of this section, made by a local development corporation, a project occupant or other person, firm or corporation; (ii) a loan evidenced by a bond, note or other obligation of a local development corporation, a project occupant, or other person, firm or corporation secured by a loan agreement, contract or such other instrument deemed necessary or
convenient on a project defined in subdivision fourteen (iii) of this section; (iii) a loan evidenced by a bond, note or other obligation of a local development corporation, a project occupant, or other person, firm or corporation secured by a security interest in machinery and equipment as provided in section eighteen hundred fourteen; and (iv) an employee ownership assistance loan made pursuant to paragraph (v) of subdivision fourteen of this section. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Local development corporation: shall mean a non-profit corporation incorporated or reincorporated under the laws of this state, regardless of its particular name, which shall meet the additional requirements of section eighteen hundred twenty-five of this title. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Manufacturing plant: shall include a plant used in connection with making, creating,
milling, manufacturing, finishing, fashioning, fabricating, or producing in any manner, goods, wares, merchandise, metals, fabrics, materials, products or substances of any kind or nature. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
- Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
- Municipality: shall mean any county, city, town or village in the state. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
- Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- Obscene sexual performance: means any performance which, for purposes of section 263. See N.Y. Penal Law 263.00
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- Performance: means any play, motion picture, photograph or dance. See N.Y. Penal Law 263.00
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- physician: means a practitioner of medicine licensed to practice medicine pursuant to article one hundred thirty-one of this chapter. See N.Y. Education Law 6540
- physician: means a practitioner of medicine licensed to practice medicine pursuant to article one hundred thirty-one of this chapter. See N.Y. Education Law 6547
- physician assistant: means a person who is licensed as a physician assistant pursuant to this article. See N.Y. Education Law 6540
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- Plant: shall mean real property, the buildings, improvements and structures thereon and the fixtures thereon other than machinery or equipment used by a project occupant in its operations. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- President: shall mean the president of the corporation. See N.Y. Education Law 651
- Program: shall mean the New York Higher Education Loan Program established by this article. See N.Y. Education Law 690
- Project: shall mean (i) the construction of a new industrial or manufacturing plant, a new research and development building or other new eligible business facility, (ii) the acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement of a former or existing industrial or manufacturing plant, of a former or existing building to be used for research and development, of a former or existing other eligible business facility, (iii) the construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement of pollution control facilities, (iv) the purchase of machinery and equipment, for which financial assistance from the authority is sought, or (v) assistance to employees under an employee ownership assistance loan agreement made pursuant to subtitle six of this title; provided, however, that any such plant, building, facility or machinery and equipment therefore shall not be primarily used in making retail sales of goods or services to customers who personally visit such facilities to obtain such goods or services, or used primarily as a hotel, apartment house or other place of business which furnishes dwelling space or accommodations to either residents or transients. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Project occupant: shall mean the business enterprise which proposes to use a project after construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
- Public corporation: shall mean any state and a public corporation as defined in § 66 of the general construction law, but shall not mean an agency or political subdivision of the United States or of a foreign nation. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500
- Public issuer: shall include the United States, the several states and territories thereof, political subdivisions and municipal corporations within such states and territories, foreign countries and political subdivisions and municipal corporations within such foreign countries. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Resident: shall mean :
(a) An individual domiciled in this state;
(b) A domestic corporation;
(c) A banking organization, as defined in section one hundred three of this chapter; and
(d) This state and any public corporation organized under its laws. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500
- Sado-masochistic abuse: means the conduct defined in subdivision five of section 235. See N.Y. Penal Law 263.00
- Security: shall mean :
(a) Any instrument issued by a corporation or public corporation or any entry on the books and records of such corporation or public corporation evidencing an obligation to make any payment of the principal amount of a debt or of any increment due or to become due thereon; or
(b) Any instrument issued by a corporation to evidence a proprietary interest therein or any intangible interest in a corporation as evidenced by the books and records of the corporation except:
(i) A policy of insurance issued by a mutual insurance corporation, or
(ii) A share issued by a savings and loan association, a building and loan association, or a credit union. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500
- Security: shall include :
(a) Any instrument issued by a corporation or public issuer to evidence an obligation to make any payment of the principal amount of a debt or of any increment due or to become due thereon, or
(b) Any instrument issued by a corporation to evidence a proprietary interest therein except:
(i) A policy of insurance issued by a mutual insurance corporation, or
(ii) A share issued by a savings and loan association, a building and loan association, or a credit union. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510
- Select chemical agent: shall mean a chemical weapon which has been identified in regulations promulgated pursuant to subdivision twenty of § 206 of the public health law. See N.Y. Penal Law 490.05
- Sexual conduct: means actual or simulated sexual intercourse, oral sexual conduct, anal sexual conduct, sexual bestiality, masturbation, sado-masochistic abuse, or lewd exhibition of the genitals. See N.Y. Penal Law 263.00
- Sexual performance: means any performance or part thereof which, for purposes of section 263. See N.Y. Penal Law 263.00
- Simulated: means the explicit depiction of any of the conduct set forth in subdivision three of this section which creates the appearance of such conduct and which exhibits any uncovered portion of the breasts, genitals or buttocks. See N.Y. Penal Law 263.00
- specialist assistant: means a person who is registered pursuant to this article as a specialist assistant for a particular medical specialty as defined by regulations promulgated by the commissioner of health pursuant to § 3711 of the public health law. See N.Y. Education Law 6547
- State: shall mean the state of New York. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
- Student: shall mean any individual who is enrolled at least half-time, as defined by the commissioner, in a two year, four year, graduate or professional degree granting or certificate program at an eligible college. See N.Y. Education Law 690
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
- Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
- Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
- Wages: shall include moneys payable, under contract or otherwise, for services rendered to a domestic or foreign corporation or fiduciary, including but not limited to payment of salaries, commissions, royalties, expenses, employee benefits, and insurance benefits payable by a corporation pursuant to a self-insurance plan, less lawful deductions. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500
- Wages: shall include moneys payable, under contract or otherwise, for services rendered to a broker or dealer, less lawful deductions. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510