Title G Anticipatory Offenses
Title H Offenses Against the Person Involving Physical Injury, Sexual Conduct, Restraint and Intimidation
Title I Offenses Involving Damage to and Intrusion Upon Property
Title J Offenses Involving Theft
Title K Offenses Involving Fraud
Title L Offenses Against Public Administration
Title M Offenses Against Public Health and Morals
Title N Offenses Against Public Order, Public Sensibilities and the Right to Privacy
Title O Offenses Against Marriage, the Family, and the Welfare of Children and Incompetents
Title P Offenses Against Public Safety

Terms Used In New York Laws > Penal > Part 3

  • Accused: shall mean a person accused of a violation who has not yet entered an institution's judicial or conduct process. See
  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • adoptor: shall mean a person adopting and "adoptive child" or "adoptee" shall mean a person adopted. See
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Agency contract: means an agreement in which a student-athlete authorizes a person to negotiate or solicit on behalf of the student-athlete a professional sports-services contract or an endorsement contract. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-A
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amateur: means any participant in a combative sport authorized pursuant to this article who is not receiving or competing for, and who has never received or competed for, any purse, money, prize, pecuniary gain, or other thing of value exceeding seventy-five dollars or the allowable amount established by the authorized amateur sanctioning entity overseeing the competition. See N.Y. General Business Law 1000
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Amount: shall include , but is not limited to, any dividend, profit or other distribution, whether in cash or securities, and any interest or other payment on or of principal, including the cash value of any security which has matured or has been called for full or partial redemption or is payable to security owners or former security owners

    entitled to payments as the result of a merger, consolidation, acquisition or conversion of any type. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500

  • Amount: shall mean that term as defined in subdivision seven of section five hundred of this chapter. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Approved plan: as used in this article means a plan of library service by a public library system approved by the commissioner subsequent to May first, nineteen hundred fifty-eight. See N.Y. Education Law 272
  • approved program: means a program for the education of physician assistants which has been formerly approved by the department. See
  • approved program: means a program for the education of specialist assistants which has been approved by the department. See
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Assisted project: shall mean any project in respect of which the authority has granted a loan or guaranteed a loan. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Athlete agent: means an individual who enters into an agency contract with a student-athlete or, directly or indirectly, recruits or solicits a student-athlete to enter into an agency contract. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-A
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • Authority: shall mean the New York job development authority created by subdivision one of section eighteen hundred two of this title. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Authorized agency: shall mean an authorized agency as defined in the social services law and, for the purpose of this article, shall include such corporations incorporated or organized under the laws of this state as may be specifically authorized by their certificates of incorporation to receive children for purposes of adoption. See
  • Authorized sanctioning entity: means an entity allowed to oversee and conduct combative sports pursuant to regulations promulgated by the commission. See N.Y. General Business Law 1000
  • Autographed: means bearing the actual signature of a sports personality, signed by such individual's own hand. See
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • balance sheet liability contribution: when used in relation to the New York city employees' retirement system, shall mean a payment of contribution which is required by the provisions of item (iv) of subparagraph (a) of paragraph one of subdivision b of section 13-127 of the administrative code of the city of New York to be made to such retirement system with respect to any fiscal year of the city preceding July first, nineteen hundred ninety. See
  • banking law: refer to laws of the state;

    4. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 11-601

  • Banking organization: when used in this title shall mean (a) any organization defined by subdivision eleven of section two of the banking law, (b) any agency or branch of a foreign banking corporation licensed by the department of financial services under article five of the banking law, (c) any national bank, federal savings and loan association and federal credit union, (d) any authorized insurer defined by paragraph ten of subsection (a) of section one hundred seven of the insurance law and (e) any public or private pension or investment fund required to file a report with any state or federal regulatory or supervisory body. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • board: means the board of higher education of the city of New York. See
  • board: means "board of directors". See
  • Board: shall mean the board of trustees of the New York state higher education services corporation. See N.Y. Education Law 651
  • Board: shall mean the New York secure choice savings program board established under this article. See N.Y. General Business Law 1300
  • board of trustees: means the board of trustees of the city university of New York. See
  • Broker: shall include any individual or corporation engaging in the purchase, sale or exchange of securities for or on behalf of any customer. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510
  • Bystander: shall mean a person who observes a crime, impending crime, conflict, potentially violent or violent behavior, or conduct that is in violation of rules or policies of an institution. See
  • Capital offense: A crime punishable by death.
  • Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts.
  • Certificate: means a certificate of registration issued under this article. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-AAA
  • certified ESL school: shall mean a language school conducted for-profit which provides instruction in English as a second language and which accepts no public funds and is certified pursuant to paragraph f of subdivision four of this section; and

    c. See

  • Chairman: means the chairman of the dormitory authority. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1695
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • chancellor: shall mean the chancellor of the city district. See
  • Child care institution: shall mean any facility serving thirteen or more children licensed by the department of social services pursuant to title one of article seven of the social services law operated by an authorized agency, or a residential treatment facility for children and youth, whether or not such residential treatment facility is operated by an authorized agency, except that Blythedale Children's Hospital shall be a child care institution. See
  • Child with a handicapping condition: shall mean a person between the ages of five and twenty-one who has been identified through appropriate evaluation and assessment as having a disability arising from cognitive, emotional or physical factors, or any combination thereof, which interferes with the child's ability to benefit from regular education. See
  • city: shall mean the city of New York. See
  • city board: shall mean the board of education of the city district. See
  • city university: shall mean the city university of New York, including each senior college and each community college. See
  • city university: means the city university of New York under the jurisdiction of the board of higher education of the city of New York. See
  • Civil forfeiture: The loss of ownership of property used to conduct illegal activity.
  • Code of conduct: shall mean the written policies adopted by an institution governing student behavior, rights, and responsibilities while such student is matriculated in the institution. See
  • Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
  • Collectible: means an autographed sports item including, but not limited to, a photograph, book, ticket, plaque, sports program, trading card, item of sports equipment or clothing, or other sports memorabilia sold or offered for sale in or from this state by a dealer to a consumer for twenty-five dollars or more. See
  • Combative sport: means any unarmed bout, contest, competition, match, or exhibition undertaken to entertain an audience, wherein the participants primarily grapple or wrestle, or deliver blows of any kind to, or use force in any way to manipulate, the body of another participant, and wherein the outcome and score depend entirely on such activities. See N.Y. General Business Law 1000
  • Commission: means the state athletic commission as provided for in section one thousand three of this article, or an agent or employee of the state athletic commission acting on its behalf. See N.Y. General Business Law 1000
  • Commissioner: shall mean the commissioner of taxation and finance. See N.Y. General Business Law 1300
  • Commissioner of finance: means the commissioner of finance of the city;

    6. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 11-601

  • committee: means the state committee for perfusion created by section sixty-six hundred thirty-four of this article. See
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • community board: shall mean the board of education of a community district. See
  • community college: shall mean an institution of higher education in the city of New York, which is governed and administered as such, by the board of trustees on July first, nineteen hundred seventy-nine, whose primary purpose is providing certificate and associate degree post secondary programs in general and technical educational subjects, and is receiving financial assistance from the state as a community college. See
  • community council: shall mean the community district education council of a community district established pursuant to section twenty-five hundred ninety-c of this article. See
  • community district: shall mean a community school district created or to be created within the city district under the provisions of this article. See
  • Community garden: shall mean public or private lands upon which citizens of the state have the opportunity to garden on lands which they do not individually own. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
  • Community Reinvestment Act: The Act is intended to encourage depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of the communities in which they operate, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. It was enacted by the Congress in 1977. Source: OCC
  • community superintendent: shall mean the superintendent of schools of a community district. See
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • comptroller: shall mean the comptroller of the city of New York. See
  • Comptroller: shall mean the comptroller of the state. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Comptroller: shall mean the comptroller of the state. See N.Y. General Business Law 1300
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Construction: includes construction of new buildings, acquisition of existing buildings, and expansion, remodeling, alteration, and renovation of existing buildings, and initial equipment of such new, newly acquired, expanded, remodeled, altered or renovated buildings;

    b. See

  • Consumer: means any natural person who purchases an autographed sports collectible from a dealer for personal, family or household purposes. See
  • Contact: means a communication, direct or indirect, between an athlete agent and a student-athlete, to recruit or solicit the student-athlete to enter into an agency contract. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-A
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • contributions for twenty-year amortization of nineteen hundred ninety senior college consolidated UAL and senior college remainder of BSL: shall mean all of the installments of contribution and contributions referred to in subdivisions 8-i to 8-n, inclusive, of this section which are required to be paid by the city and the state during the applicable twenty-year amortization period pursuant to section sixty-two hundred thirty-one of this article and the applicable provisions of subdivision bb of section 13-638. See
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: shall mean any corporation (other than a public corporation as defined in paragraph (b) of this subdivision), joint stock company, association of two or more individuals, committee, partnership, investment company (as defined by, and which is registered under, an act of Congress of the United States entitled the "Investment Company Act of 1940" as amended), unit investment trust or business trust, whether or not for profit. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500
  • Corporation: shall include any joint stock company, corporation, association of two or more individuals, committee, public authority, or business trust. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510
  • Corporation: means and includes all banks, trust companies, safe deposit companies, investment companies, mutual trust investment companies, and, to the extent not provided otherwise under any regulation of the superintendent of financial services promulgated pursuant to the provisions of section fourteen-e of this chapter, stock-form savings banks and stock-form savings and loan associations. See
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • County: shall mean the county executive, or if there is none, the chairman of the county legislative body of the county which is responsible for a child in a child care institution or a private school, except within the city of New York, in which case county shall mean the mayor of said city. See
  • curd: as used in this article applies to the substance otherwise known as "pot cheese" or "cottage cheese. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 48
  • Customer: shall include any individual or corporation entering into a contract with a broker or dealer by which such broker or dealer agrees to effect the purchase, sale, or exchange, or to keep custody of any security for or on behalf of such individual or corporation. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Dealer: shall include any individual or corporation engaging in any state as a regular business in the purchase, sale or exchange of securities for his or its own account, through a broker or otherwise. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510
  • dealer: includes an auctioneer who sells such collectibles at public auction, and includes persons who are consignors or principals of auctioneers. See
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the New York state department of state. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-AAA
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Description: means any representation in writing, including but not limited to a representation contained in an advertisement, invoice, catalog, flyer, sign, brochure, or other commercial or promotional material. See
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Document: means any record kept, held, filed, produced or reproduced by, with or for a person or business entity, in any physical form whatsoever including, but not limited to, reports, statements, examinations, memoranda, opinions, folders, files, books, manuals, pamphlets, forms, papers, designs, drawings, maps, photos, letters, microfilms, or computer tapes or discs. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-AAA
  • Document destruction contractor: means a person, firm or corporation that owns or operates a business, the principal purpose of which is to destroy records containing personal identifying information for a fee, and for whom the total cash price of all of his, her or its document destruction contracts exceeds five hundred dollars during any period of twelve consecutive months. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-AAA
  • Document destruction: means the burning, pulverizing, or shredding of a record, or any action taken to render the personal identifying information contained on a record unreadable and incapable of reconstruction. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-AAA
  • Domestic corporation: shall mean any corporation organized under the laws of this state or under the laws of this state and one or more other states or foreign countries, but shall not mean a banking organization as defined in this chapter. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500
  • Domestic corporation: means a corporation organized under the laws of the state; and

    8. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 11-601

  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • educational facilities: shall mean land and the improvements thereon for use in connection with any educational activity to be undertaken or provided by the city board or any community council or any facility attendant thereto or any facility necessary, useful or desirable in connection with such activity. See
  • electing employee: shall mean any eligible employee who exercises his election pursuant to this article to come under the optional retirement program. See
  • Eligible business facility: shall mean any type of business facility to be used or occupied by any person in an enterprise deemed to offer a reasonable likelihood for promoting the creation or retention of job opportunities in the state, and includes, but is not limited to, industrial or manufacturing plants, facilities for research and development purposes, facilities for conducting wholesale, receiving and distributing operations, facilities for conducting office operations, warehousing operations, or any other operation dealing in the exchange of goods, wares, services or other types of property of any type or description. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • eligible employees: means members of the instructional staffs of the colleges administered by the board of higher education in the city of New York pursuant to the provisions of article one hundred twenty-five of the education law, who are employed in the following titles: president, dean, director, professor, associate professor, assistant professor, instructor, tutor, fellow, lecturer, librarian, associate librarian, assistant librarian, library assistant, registrar, assistant registrar, registrar's assistant, principal, first assistant, supervisor, assistant teacher, critic teacher, teacher, college science assistant, college science technician, college engineering technician, and any other members of the instructional staffs of such colleges as defined in section sixty-two hundred six, subdivision 1b of the education law, and such other titles as the board in its discretion may add thereto, by reason of their close relationship to the educational purposes required to carry on the functions of the city university. See
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Employee: shall mean any individual who is eighteen years of age or older, who is employed by an employer, and who earned wages working for an employer in New York state during a calendar year. See N.Y. General Business Law 1300
  • Employer: shall mean a person or entity engaged in a business, industry, profession, trade, or other enterprise in New York state, whether for profit or not for profit, that has not offered a qualified retirement plan, including, but not limited to, a plan qualified under sections 401(a), 401(k), 403(a), 403(b), 408(k), 408(p) or 457(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 in the preceding two years. See N.Y. General Business Law 1300
  • Endorsement contract: means an agreement under which a student-athlete is employed or receives consideration to use on behalf of the other party any value that the student-athlete may have because of publicity, reputation, following or fame obtained because of athletic ability or performance. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-A
  • Enrollee: shall mean any employee who is enrolled in the program. See N.Y. General Business Law 1300
  • entire board: means the total number of directors which a corporation would have if there were no vacancies. See
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal agency: shall mean the United States of America, and any officer, department, board, commissioner, bureau, division, corporation, agency or instrumentality thereof. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Federal student aid programs: shall mean the programs of the United States government making financial aid available to pay for the cost of attending post-secondary institutions and established under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of nineteen hundred sixty-five, as amended, or any successor statute. See N.Y. Education Law 651
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: shall mean any individual or any domestic or foreign corporation holding a security for a resident or receiving, as agent of a corporation or as holder of a security, any amount due or to become due a resident as the holder or owner of a security but shall not mean any individual or corporation so acting by direction of a court in any case where such court has not directed a distribution of such amount or security. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
    • You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
    • The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
    • The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Foreign corporation: shall mean any corporation organized under the laws of a state other than New York or under the laws of a foreign country and doing business in this state or authorized to do business in this state, but shall not mean a banking organization as defined in this chapter. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500
  • Foreign corporation: means a corporation which is licensed by the superintendent under the provisions of article two of this chapter to do business in this state or is applying for such license and a corporation authorized to conduct business in this state pursuant to article five-C of this chapter or is applying for such authorization. See
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Garden: shall mean a piece or parcel of land appropriate for the cultivation of herbs, fruits, flowers, nuts, honey, poultry for egg production, maple syrup, ornamental or vegetable plants, nursery products, or vegetables. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • gifted pupils: shall mean those pupils who show evidence of high performance capability and exceptional potential in areas such as general intellectual ability, special academic aptitude and outstanding ability in visual and performing arts. See
  • Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Handicapped person: means any person who in the judgment of the department is under a physical or mental disability which constitutes a substantial handicap to employment but which is of such a nature that vocational rehabilitation services may reasonably be expected to render him fit to engage in gainful employment, and also any person under a physical or mental disability which constitutes a substantial handicap to employment and for whom vocational rehabilitation services are necessary to ascertain his rehabilitation potential. See
  • health professionals: means persons duly licensed or otherwise authorized to practice a health profession pursuant to applicable law, including, but not limited to, physicians, registered professional nurses, nurse practitioners, physicians assistants, optometrists, dentists, dental hygienists, dietitians and nutritionists, and audiologists. See
  • hospital: means an institution or facility possessing a valid operating certificate issued pursuant to article twenty-eight of the public health law and authorized to employ physician assistants in accordance with rules and regulations of the public health and health planning council. See
  • hospital: means an institution or facility possessing a valid operating certificate issued pursuant to article twenty-eight of the public health law and authorized to employ specialist assistants in accordance with rules and regulations of the public health and health planning council. See
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Individuals with severe disabilities: means persons for whom competitive employment has either not traditionally occurred or has been interrupted or intermittent as a result of having a permanent and substantially disabling physical, sensory, or mental condition. See
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Institution: shall mean any college or university chartered by the regents or incorporated by special act of the legislature that maintains a campus in New York. See
  • insurer: shall mean a life insurance corporation, or other corporation subject to supervision by the department of financial services of the state of New York. See
  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • Intercollegiate sport: means a sport played at the collegiate level for which eligibility requirements for participation by a student-athlete are established by a national association which promotes or regulates such sport and is recognized by the educational institution that said student-athlete attends. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-A
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Internal Revenue Code: shall mean the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any successor law, in effect for the calendar year. See N.Y. General Business Law 1300
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • IRA: shall mean a Roth IRA (individual retirement account). See N.Y. General Business Law 1300
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Joint meeting: An occasion, often ceremonial, when the House and Senate each adopt a unanimous consent agreement
  • Joint session: When both chambers of a legislature adopt a concurrent resolution to meet together.
  • Judge: shall mean a judge of the family court of any county in the state. See
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Jurisprudence: The study of law and the structure of the legal system.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Lawful custody: shall mean a custody (a) specifically authorized by statute or (b) pursuant to judgment, decree or order of a court or (c) otherwise authorized by law. See
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Legal tender: coins, dollar bills, or other currency issued by a government as official money. Source: U.S. Mint
  • Lend: shall include one or more of the following services: the origination, disbursement, servicing, and/or collection of any student or parent education loan made by or on behalf of a lending institution a government entity, or an institution of higher education for the purpose of paying for higher education expenses as well as serving as a secondary market for these loans. See N.Y. Education Law 651
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Loan: shall mean (i) a mortgage loan evidenced by a bond, note or other obligation of a local development corporation secured by a mortgage on a project, defined in subdivision fourteen (i) and (ii) of this section, made by a local development corporation, a project occupant or other person, firm or corporation; (ii) a loan evidenced by a bond, note or other obligation of a local development corporation, a project occupant, or other person, firm or corporation secured by a loan agreement, contract or such other instrument deemed necessary or

    convenient on a project defined in subdivision fourteen (iii) of this section; (iii) a loan evidenced by a bond, note or other obligation of a local development corporation, a project occupant, or other person, firm or corporation secured by a security interest in machinery and equipment as provided in section eighteen hundred fourteen; and (iv) an employee ownership assistance loan made pursuant to paragraph (v) of subdivision fourteen of this section. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801

  • Loan guarantee: shall mean the guaranteeing by the authority of a loan made by a banking organization on a project as defined in subdivision fourteen of this section. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Local development corporation: shall mean a non-profit corporation incorporated or reincorporated under the laws of this state, regardless of its particular name, which shall meet the additional requirements of section eighteen hundred twenty-five of this title. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Maintenance: shall mean the amount charged for room and board, residential care and medical expenses, including those expenses reimbursable pursuant to title nineteen of the federal social security act, defined in accordance with the regulations of the commissioner of social services for a child care institution pursuant to section three hundred ninety-eight-a of the social services law. See
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • Manufacturing plant: shall include a plant used in connection with making, creating,

    working,

    preparing,

    processing,

    milling, manufacturing, finishing, fashioning, fabricating, or producing in any manner, goods, wares, merchandise, metals, fabrics, materials, products or substances of any kind or nature. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801

  • mayor: shall mean the mayor of the city of New York. See
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mixed martial arts: means a combative sport wherein the rules of engagement do not limit the participants to a single, systematic, fighting discipline. See N.Y. General Business Law 1000
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Municipality: shall mean any county, town, village, city, school district, board of cooperative educational services, other special district, or any office or agency thereof. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
  • Municipality: shall mean any county, city, town or village in the state. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • nineteen hundred eighty unfunded accrued liability adjustment: when used in relation to the New York city employees' retirement system, shall mean the total amount which is determined pursuant to the provisions of items (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v) of subparagraph (c) of paragraph (3) of subdivision b of section 13-127 of the administrative code of the city of New York to be the amount to be paid as a charge or applied as a credit, as the case may be, pursuant to the provisions of subparagraph (b) of paragraph (1) of such subdivision b, with respect to employer contributions to such retirement system for any fiscal year of the city preceding July first, nineteen hundred ninety. See
  • nineteen hundred eighty-two unfunded accrued liability adjustment: when used in relation to the New York city employees' retirement system, shall mean the total amount which is determined pursuant to the provisions of item (vi) of subparagraph (c) of paragraph three of subdivision b of section 13-127 of the administrative code of the city of New York to be the amount to be applied as a credit pursuant to the provisions of subparagraph (b) of paragraph (1) of such subdivision b, with respect to employer contributions to such retirement system for any fiscal year of the city preceding July first, nineteen hundred ninety. See
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • NYCTRS installment of nineteen hundred ninety BSL contribution attributable to the senior colleges: shall mean any

    installment defined in paragraph forty-eight of subdivision a of section 13-638. See

  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Office: shall mean the office of community gardens. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
  • Office: means in the case of a bank or trust company its principal office, in the case of a safe deposit company, investment company or mutual trust investment company, its principal place of business and in the case of a foreign corporation the place of business designated in its license or its authorization pursuant to article five-C of this chapter, as the case may be, for the oldest agency or branch in this state of such foreign corporation. See
  • online education marketplace: shall mean a website or other internet-based online technology tool with which a licensed private career school or certified ESL school contracts for marketing or advertising services, or services in connection with the collection of tuition and/or fees, to the extent authorized in subdivision three of section five thousand four of this article. See
  • optional retirement program: means the retirement program established pursuant to this article. See
  • Organization certificate: includes (a) the original organization certificate or any other instrument filed or issued under any statute to form a corporation or foreign corporation, as amended, supplemented or restated by certificates of amendment, merger or consolidation or other certificates or instruments filed or issued under any statute; or (b) a special act or charter creating a corporation or foreign corporation, as amended, supplemented or restated by special acts or by certificates of amendment, merger or consolidation or other certificates or instruments filed or issued under any statute. See
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • ownership or control interest: means : with respect to a school that is organized as or owned by a corporation, a position as an officer or director of such corporation; or, with respect to a school that is organized as or owned by a partnership, a position as a partner; or any other interest totaling ten percent or more, whether direct or indirect, in the total equity or assets of such school. See
  • parent: shall mean a person in parental relation to a child, as that phrase is defined in subdivision ten of section two of this chapter. See
  • Participating employer: shall mean an employer that elects to facilitate access to the program's payroll deduction IRA as provided for by this article for its employees who are enrollees in the program. See N.Y. General Business Law 1300
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • perfusion: means the provision of extracorporeal or intracorporeal patient care services to support or replace the circulatory or respiratory function of a patient, including the administration of pharmacological and therapeutic agents, and blood products, and the management, treatment and monitoring of the physiological status of a patient during the operation of extracorporeal circulation equipment or intracorporeal equipment that replaces or support circulatory or respiratory functions. See
  • perfusionist: means a person who is licensed to practice perfusion pursuant to this article. See
  • Person: means any natural person, partnership, corporation, company, trust, association or other entity, however organized. See
  • Person: means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, instrumentality, public corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-A
  • Personal identification number: means any number or code which may be used alone or in conjunction with any other information to assume the identity of another person or access financial resources or credit of another person. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-AAA
  • Personal identifying information: means personal information consisting of any information in combination with any one or more of the following data elements, when either the personal information or the data element is not encrypted, or encrypted with an encryption key that is included in the same record as the encrypted personal information or data element:

    (a) social security number;

    (b) driver's registration number or non-driver identification card number; or

    (c) mother's maiden name, financial services account number or code, savings account number or code, checking account number or code, debit card number or code, automated teller machine number or code, electronic serial number or personal identification number. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-AAA

  • Personal information: means any information concerning a natural person which, because of name, number, personal mark, or other identifier, can be used to identify such natural person. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-AAA
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Petitioner: means a person who seeks enforcement of an order for return of a child under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction or enforcement of a child custody determination. See
  • physician: means a practitioner of medicine licensed to practice medicine pursuant to article one hundred thirty-one of this chapter. See
  • physician: means a practitioner of medicine licensed to practice medicine pursuant to article one hundred thirty-one of this chapter. See
  • physician assistant: means a person who is licensed as a physician assistant pursuant to this article. See
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plant: shall mean real property, the buildings, improvements and structures thereon and the fixtures thereon other than machinery or equipment used by a project occupant in its operations. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • police retired employee: shall mean any person who was retired for service on or after June fifth, nineteen hundred sixty and prior to May first, nineteen hundred sixty-three and receives, as a result of such retirement, a retirement allowance or pension from a retirement or pension system or plan of the city for members of the uniformed force of the police department. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 13-662
  • Pollution control facilities: shall mean real or personal property having to do with, or the end purpose of which, is the control, abatement or prevention of land, sewer, water, air, thermal, radiational, noise or general environmental pollution resulting from the operation of an industrial, manufacturing or research plant. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • President: shall mean the president of the corporation. See N.Y. Education Law 651
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Private law: A private bill enacted into law. Private laws have restricted applicability, often addressing immigration and naturalization issues affecting individuals.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • Program: shall mean the New York state secure choice savings program. See N.Y. General Business Law 1300
  • Project: shall mean (i) the construction of a new industrial or manufacturing plant, a new research and development building or other new eligible business facility, (ii) the acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement of a former or existing industrial or manufacturing plant, of a former or existing building to be used for research and development, of a former or existing other eligible business facility, (iii) the construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement of pollution control facilities, (iv) the purchase of machinery and equipment, for which financial assistance from the authority is sought, or (v) assistance to employees under an employee ownership assistance loan agreement made pursuant to subtitle six of this title; provided, however, that any such plant, building, facility or machinery and equipment therefore shall not be primarily used in making retail sales of goods or services to customers who personally visit such facilities to obtain such goods or services, or used primarily as a hotel, apartment house or other place of business which furnishes dwelling space or accommodations to either residents or transients. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • project: shall mean , with respect to an educational facilities capital plan, (a) the performance, at a specified educational facility, of one or more program elements, as defined in paragraph a, b, c or d of subdivision two of section twenty-five hundred ninety-p of this article; or (b) the performance of the program elements defined in paragraphs f and g of such subdivision or any system replacement identified in paragraph e of such subdivision. See
  • Project cost: shall mean the aggregate costs incurred to finance the construction, acquisition, rehabilitation, or improvement of a project, and which are determined by the authority to be or to have been reasonably necessary therefor, including, without intending thereby to limit the generality of such costs: the cost of acquiring real property therefor; the cost of constructing or reconstructing buildings and improvements thereon, including, to the extent such costs are not borne by the municipality or other taxing district within which the project is located, the cost of constructing means of access to and from such project; the cost of constructing extensions to the project site of existing utility systems if such costs are customarily borne by the consumer; insurance premiums, financing charges, interest costs, commitment fees and the like incurred prior to or during the period of construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement; any fees or charges imposed by the authority in respect of an application for a mortgage loan; the cost of preparing project specifications, maps, plans, surveys, estimates, applications and other documents, including costs related to determination of the feasibility of the project in the planning stages; and all such other costs, charges, fees, and expenses, including labor costs, overhead costs, the costs of materials and supplies, and engineering, accounting and legal expenses, as may be reasonably incident to the construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement of the project; provided, however, that the term "project

    cost" except when used in subtitle III of this title shall not include the cost of any machinery or equipment (other than fixtures) or personal property to be used by the project occupant in its operations or any expenses related to the installation, replacement or rehabilitation thereof. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801

  • Project occupant: shall mean the business enterprise which proposes to use a project after construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Property: includes , but is not limited to, money, rights to claim refunds or rebates, postal savings deposits, bonds, notes, certificates, policies of insurance, other instruments of value, choses in action, obligations whether written or unwritten, and any thing of value of any nature whatsoever. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 1214
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public agency: shall mean the family court, the division for youth or the local social services district. See
  • Public corporation: shall mean any state and a public corporation as defined in section sixty-six of the general construction law, but shall not mean an agency or political subdivision of the United States or of a foreign nation. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500
  • Public issuer: shall include the United States, the several states and territories thereof, political subdivisions and municipal corporations within such states and territories, foreign countries and political subdivisions and municipal corporations within such foreign countries. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • public library system: as used in this article means:

    (1) A library established by one or more counties. See N.Y. Education Law 272

  • Publisher: means any publishing house, publishing firm, or publishing company that publishes textbooks and supplemental materials. See
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Record: means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-A
  • Record: means any information kept, held, filed, produced or reproduced by, with or for a person or business entity, in any physical form whatsoever including, but not limited to, reports, statements, examinations, memoranda, opinions, folders, files, books, manuals, pamphlets, forms, papers, designs, drawings, maps, photos, letters, microfilms, or computer tapes or discs. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-AAA
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • reference and research library resources system: as used in this article means a duly chartered educational institution resulting from the association of a group of institutions of higher education, libraries, non-profit educational institutions, hospitals, and other institutions organized to improve reference and research library resources service. See N.Y. Education Law 272
  • registered voter: shall mean an elector of the city of New York under the election law. See
  • Registration: means registration as an athlete agent pursuant to this article. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-A
  • REIT: means a real estate investment trust as defined in section eight hundred fifty-six of the internal revenue code. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 11-601
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Resident: shall mean :

    (a) An individual domiciled in this state;

    (b) A domestic corporation;

    (c) A banking organization, as defined in section one hundred three of this chapter; and

    (d) This state and any public corporation organized under its laws. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500

  • Respondent: shall mean a person accused of a violation who has entered an institution's judicial or conduct process. See
  • Respondent: means a person against whom a proceeding has been commenced for enforcement of an order for return of a child under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction or enforcement of a child custody determination. See
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • revised unfunded accrued liability contribution: when used in relation to the New York city employees' retirement system, shall mean a payment of contribution which is required by the provisions of item (iii) of subparagraph (a) of paragraph one of subdivision b of section 13-127 of the administrative code of the city of New York to be made to such retirement system with respect to any fiscal year of the city preceding July first, nineteen hundred ninety. See
  • RIC: means a regulated investment company as defined in section eight hundred fifty-one of the internal revenue code. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 11-601
  • salary: means all amounts paid by or for the city of New York as compensation for services rendered by an eligible employee. See
  • salary: shall mean the amount of compensation that is to be paid to a teacher for services rendered during the full ten months period that the public schools of the district are required by law to be in session during any school year. See
  • school district: shall mean any common, union free, central, central high or city school district, or a board of cooperative educational services. See
  • School district of origin: shall mean the public school district of which a child was or is a resident at the time of such child's placement in the care and custody of a public agency. See
  • School district of residence: shall mean the public school district in which the child was or is living at the time a public agency is considering placement of the child in a child care institution, or at the time a child is placed with the division for youth. See
  • Security: shall mean :

    (a) Any instrument issued by a corporation or public corporation or any entry on the books and records of such corporation or public corporation evidencing an obligation to make any payment of the principal amount of a debt or of any increment due or to become due thereon; or

    (b) Any instrument issued by a corporation to evidence a proprietary interest therein or any intangible interest in a corporation as evidenced by the books and records of the corporation except:

    (i) A policy of insurance issued by a mutual insurance corporation, or

    (ii) A share issued by a savings and loan association, a building and loan association, or a credit union. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500

  • Security: shall include :

    (a) Any instrument issued by a corporation or public issuer to evidence an obligation to make any payment of the principal amount of a debt or of any increment due or to become due thereon, or

    (b) Any instrument issued by a corporation to evidence a proprietary interest therein except:

    (i) A policy of insurance issued by a mutual insurance corporation, or

    (ii) A share issued by a savings and loan association, a building and loan association, or a credit union. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510

  • senior college: shall mean an institution of higher education in the city of New York, which is governed and administered by the board of trustees, including, but not limited to, a professional or graduate institution, an institution for research, an administrative institution, and, except as otherwise provided, Medgar Evers college, New York city college of technology (formerly known as "New York city technical college" and "New York city community college"), and the college of Staten Island, but not including a community college. See
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Small business: means a business which is independently owned and operated, and which is not dominant in the field of operation. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1695
  • Special act school district: shall mean those school districts enumerated in chapter five hundred sixty-six of the laws of nineteen hundred sixty-seven as amended. See
  • specialist assistant: means a person who is registered pursuant to this article as a specialist assistant for a particular medical specialty as defined by regulations promulgated by the commissioner of health pursuant to section thirty-seven hundred eleven of the public health law. See
  • State: shall mean the state of New York. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • State: means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-A
  • State agency: shall mean any department, bureau, commission, board, public authority or other agency of the state, including any public benefit corporation of which any member of whose board is appointed by the governor. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
  • State agency: shall mean any officer, department, board, commission,

    bureau, division, public corporation, agency or instrumentality of the state. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801

  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Student-athlete: means an individual who engages in, is eligible to engage in, may be eligible in the future to engage in or was eligible in the past thirty days to engage in any intercollegiate or interscholastic sport. See N.Y. General Business Law 899-A
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Superintendent: shall mean the superintendent of the department of financial services. See N.Y. General Business Law 1300
  • Supplier: means any person who provides collectibles to a dealer specifically for the purposes of re-sale. See
  • Supported employment: means paid competitive work performed by individuals with severe disabilities who require intensive support services to obtain such employment and extended support to sustain such employment, and which is performed in an integrated setting which

    provides regular interactions with individuals who do not have disabilities, other than paid caregivers. See

  • Surrogate: shall mean the surrogate of any county in the state and any other judicial officer while acting in the capacity of surrogate. See
  • Taxpayer: means any corporation, association or other entity or individual subject to tax under this chapter;

    2. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 11-601

  • Teachers: shall mean all full-time members of the teaching and supervisory staff of each school district of the state, including, if employed in such district, the superintendent of schools, associate, district or other superintendents, members of the board of examiners, directors,

    inspectors,

    supervisors, principals, administrative assistants, first assistants, teachers, school psychologists, social workers in a city having a population of over one million, lecturers and special instructors, except employees holding the positions enumerated in subdivisions one and two of section thirty-one hundred six of this article. See

  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Textbook: means any textbook that is adopted for a course, as determined by the faculty member or members or entity charged with choosing that textbook. See
  • this state: means the state of New York;

    3. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 11-601

  • Title IX Coordinator: shall mean the Title IX Coordinator and/or his or her designee or designees. See
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Treasury shares: means shares which have been issued, have been subsequently acquired, and are retained uncancelled by the corporation. See
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • True bill: Another word for indictment.
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • tuition: as used in this article and in the provisions of chapter ten hundred sixty of the laws of nineteen hundred seventy-four shall mean the per pupil cost of all instructional services, supplies, equipment and the operation of instructional facilities as determined by the commissioner. See
  • Tuition: shall mean the per pupil cost of all instructional services, supplies and equipment, and the operation of instructional facilities as determined by the commissioner. See
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • United States: means any officer, agency, department or instrumentality of the United States of America, other than a court, and any corporation organized under its laws. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 1214
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • Use: shall mean to avail oneself of or to employ without conveyance of title gardens on vacant public lands by any individual or organization. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
  • Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
  • Vacant public land: shall mean any land owned by the state or a public corporation including a municipality that is not in use for a public purpose, is otherwise unoccupied, idle or not being actively utilized for a period of at least six months and is suitable for garden use. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
  • Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • Vocational rehabilitation services: means :

    a. See

  • Wages: shall include moneys payable, under contract or otherwise, for services rendered to a domestic or foreign corporation or fiduciary, including but not limited to payment of salaries, commissions, royalties, expenses, employee benefits, and insurance benefits payable by a corporation pursuant to a self-insurance plan, less lawful deductions. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 500
  • Wages: shall include moneys payable, under contract or otherwise, for services rendered to a broker or dealer, less lawful deductions. See N.Y. Abandoned Property Law 510
  • Wages: means any compensation within the meaning of section 219(f)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code that is received by an enrollee from a participating employer during the calendar year. See N.Y. General Business Law 1300
  • Workshop: means a place where any manufacture or handiwork is carried on and which is operated for the principle purpose of providing gainful employment to severely handicapped persons (a) as an interim step in the rehabilitation process for those who cannot be absorbed in the competitive labor market; or (b) during such time as employment opportunities for them in the competitive labor market do not exist. See
  • Year of service: shall mean the number of years which a teacher has served in the school district in which he is employed including the year for which a determination for salary purposes is made. See