|Article 265||Firearms and Other Dangerous Weapons|
|Article 270||Other Offenses Relating to Public Safety|
|Article 275||Offenses Relating to Unauthorized Recording|
Terms Used In New York Laws > Penal > Part 3 > Title P
- Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
- A verdict of "not guilty."
- Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
- adoptor: shall mean a person adopting and "adoptive child" or "adoptee" shall mean a person adopted. See N.Y. Domestic Relations Law 109
- Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
- Animal: means cattle, swine, sheep, goats, horses and other large domesticated mammals. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
- Animal: means any animal, domestic or feral, or any domesticated bird. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Antique firearm: means :
Any unloaded muzzle loading pistol or revolver with a matchlock, flintlock, percussion cap, or similar type of ignition system, or a pistol or revolver which uses fixed cartridges which are no longer available in the ordinary channels of commercial trade. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appraisal: A determination of property value.
- Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
- Armor piercing ammunition: means any ammunition capable of being used in pistols or revolvers containing a projectile or projectile core, or a projectile or projectile core for use in such ammunition, that is constructed entirely (excluding the presence of traces of other substances) from one or a combination of any of the following: tungsten alloys, steel, iron, brass, bronze, beryllium copper, or uranium. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- Assault weapon: means
(a) a semiautomatic rifle that has an ability to accept a detachable magazine and has at least one of the following characteristics:
(i) a folding or telescoping stock;
(ii) a pistol grip that protrudes conspicuously beneath the action of the weapon;
(iii) a thumbhole stock;
(iv) a second handgrip or a protruding grip that can be held by the non-trigger hand;
(v) a bayonet mount;
(vi) a flash suppressor, muzzle break, muzzle compensator, or threaded barrel designed to accommodate a flash suppressor, muzzle break, or muzzle compensator;
(vii) a grenade launcher; or
(b) a semiautomatic shotgun that has at least one of the following characteristics:
(i) a folding or telescoping stock;
(ii) a thumbhole stock;
(iii) a second handgrip or a protruding grip that can be held by the non-trigger hand;
(iv) a fixed magazine capacity in excess of seven rounds;
(v) an ability to accept a detachable magazine; or
(c) a semiautomatic pistol that has an ability to accept a detachable magazine and has at least one of the following characteristics:
(i) a folding or telescoping stock;
(ii) a thumbhole stock;
(iii) a second handgrip or a protruding grip that can be held by the non-trigger hand;
(iv) capacity to accept an ammunition magazine that attaches to the pistol outside of the pistol grip;
(v) a threaded barrel capable of accepting a barrel extender, flash suppressor, forward handgrip, or silencer;
(vi) a shroud that is attached to, or partially or completely encircles, the barrel and that permits the shooter to hold the firearm with the non-trigger hand without being burned;
(vii) a manufactured weight of fifty ounces or more when the pistol is unloaded; or
(viii) a semiautomatic version of an automatic rifle, shotgun or firearm;
(d) a revolving cylinder shotgun;
(e) a semiautomatic rifle, a semiautomatic shotgun or a semiautomatic pistol or weapon defined in subparagraph (v) of paragraph (e) of subdivision twenty-two of section 265. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- Assisted project: shall mean any project in respect of which the authority has granted a loan or guaranteed a loan. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- auction: means a public sale of cattle, swine or horses to the highest bidder. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
- auctioneer: means a person who sells, or makes a business of selling cattle, swine or horses, at auction. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
- Authority: shall mean the New York job development authority created by subdivision one of section eighteen hundred two of this title. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Authorized agency: shall mean an authorized agency as defined in the social services law and, for the purpose of this article, shall include such corporations incorporated or organized under the laws of this state as may be specifically authorized by their certificates of incorporation to receive children for purposes of adoption. See N.Y. Domestic Relations Law 109
- Automatic knife: includes a stiletto, a switchblade knife, a cane sword, a pilum ballistic knife, and a metal knuckle knife. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- balance sheet liability contribution: when used in relation to the New York city employees' retirement system, shall mean a payment of contribution which is required by the provisions of item (iv) of subparagraph (a) of paragraph one of subdivision b of section 13-127 of the administrative code of the city of New York to be made to such retirement system with respect to any fiscal year of the city preceding July first, nineteen hundred ninety. See N.Y. Education Law 6202
- Bequest: Property gifted by will.
- Binary trigger system: means any device that, when installed in or attached to a semi-automatic firearm rifle, or shotgun causes that weapon to fire once when the trigger is pulled and again when the trigger is released. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- board: means the board of higher education of the city of New York. See N.Y. Education Law 6250
- board of trustees: means the board of trustees of the city university of New York. See N.Y. Education Law 6202
- Bump stock: means any device or instrument that increases the rate of fire achievable with a semi-automatic firearm, rifle or shotgun by using energy from the recoil of the weapon to generate a reciprocating action that facilitates repeated activation of the trigger. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Burst trigger system: means any device that, when installed in or attached to a semi-automatic firearm, rifle, or shot gun, allows that weapon to discharge two or more shots with a single pull or the trigger by altering the trigger reset. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- camelid: means the entire family of camelidae. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
- Cane Sword: means a cane or swagger stick having concealed within it a blade that may be used as a sword or stilletto. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Carcass: means all parts, including viscera of a slaughtered animal, that are capable of being used for human food. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
- cattle: means the entire family of bovidae. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
- Chairman: means the chairman of the dormitory authority. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1695
- Chuka stick: means any device designed primarily as a weapon, consisting of two or more lengths of a rigid material joined together by a thong, rope or chain in such a manner as to allow free movement of a portion of the device while held in the hand and capable of being rotated in such a manner as to inflict serious injury upon a person by striking or choking. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- city: shall mean the city of New York. See N.Y. Education Law 6250
- city university: shall mean the city university of New York, including each senior college and each community college. See N.Y. Education Law 6202
- city university: means the city university of New York under the jurisdiction of the board of higher education of the city of New York. See N.Y. Education Law 6250
- Commissioner: means the commissioner of agriculture and markets. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
- committee: means the state committee for perfusion created by section sixty-six hundred thirty-four of this article. See N.Y. Education Law 6630
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- Community garden: shall mean public or private lands upon which citizens of the state have the opportunity to garden on lands which they do not individually own. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- Comptroller: shall mean the comptroller of the state. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- comptroller: shall mean the comptroller of the city of New York. See N.Y. Education Law 6250
- Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
- Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
- Custom slaughtered meat: means meat from animals which have been slaughtered by a custom slaughterer for the owner exclusively for use, in the household of such owner, by him and members of his household and his non-paying guests and employees. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
- Custom slaughterer: means a person, firm, corporation or association who or which operates a place or establishment where animals are delivered by the owner thereof for slaughter exclusively for use, in the household of such owner, by him and members of his household and his non-paying guests and employees, provided, that such custom slaughterer does not engage in the business of buying or selling any carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat or meat products of any animal. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- Decedent: A deceased person.
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- deer: means any member of the family of cervidae. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
- Deface: means to remove, deface, cover, alter or destroy the manufacturer's serial number or any other distinguishing number or identification mark. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Department: means the department of agriculture and markets. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- Devise: To gift property by will.
- Disguised gun: means any weapon or device capable of being concealed on the person from which a shot can be discharged through the energy of an explosive and is designed and intended to appear to be something other than a gun. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
- Disposal plant: means the premises or place where bodies, carcasses or portions thereof of dead, dying, diseased, disabled or condemned animals or inedible meat are received and held for the purpose of burning, processing or rendering or otherwise obtaining the hides, skins, grease or meat therefrom in any manner whatsoever. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
- Dispose of: means to dispose of, give, give away, lease, loan, keep for sale, offer, offer for sale, sell, transfer and otherwise dispose of. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- ear tag: means a unique, tamper-resistant device which, when affixed to the ears of cattle, deer, swine or camelid, identifies and distinguishes such animals. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
- electing employee: shall mean any eligible employee who exercises his election pursuant to this article to come under the optional retirement program. See N.Y. Education Law 6250
- Eligible business facility: shall mean any type of business facility to be used or occupied by any person in an enterprise deemed to offer a reasonable likelihood for promoting the creation or retention of job opportunities in the state, and includes, but is not limited to, industrial or manufacturing plants, facilities for research and development purposes, facilities for conducting wholesale, receiving and distributing operations, facilities for conducting office operations, warehousing operations, or any other operation dealing in the exchange of goods, wares, services or other types of property of any type or description. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- eligible employees: means members of the instructional staffs of the colleges administered by the board of higher education in the city of New York pursuant to the provisions of article one hundred twenty-five of the education law, who are employed in the following titles: president, dean, director, professor, associate professor, assistant professor, instructor, tutor, fellow, lecturer, librarian, associate librarian, assistant librarian, library assistant, registrar, assistant registrar, registrar's assistant, principal, first assistant, supervisor, assistant teacher, critic teacher, teacher, college science assistant, college science technician, college engineering technician, and any other members of the instructional staffs of such colleges as defined in section sixty-two hundred six, subdivision 1b of the education law, and such other titles as the board in its discretion may add thereto, by reason of their close relationship to the educational purposes required to carry on the functions of the city university. See N.Y. Education Law 6250
- Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
- Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
- Farm dressed meat: means meat from animals slaughtered by a bona fide farmer who, as an incident of such farm operation, slaughters his own domestic animals on his own premises exclusively for use, in his household, by him and members of his household and his non-paying guests and employees. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
- Federal agency: shall mean the United States of America, and any officer, department, board, commissioner, bureau, division, corporation, agency or instrumentality thereof. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Federal inspection: means the meat inspection maintained by the United States department of agriculture. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
- Federal law: means the federal meat inspection act and all acts amendatory thereof and supplementary thereto. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
- fire retired employee: shall mean any person who was retired for service on or after April eighth, nineteen hundred sixty and prior to May first, nineteen hundred and sixty-three, or retired for disability on or after April eighth, nineteen hundred sixty and prior to May first, nineteen hundred sixty-four and receives, as a result of such retirement, a retirement allowance or pension from a retirement or pension system or plan of the city for members of the uniformed force of the fire department. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 13-671
- Firearm: means (a) any pistol or revolver; or (b) a shotgun having one or more barrels less than eighteen inches in length; or (c) a rifle having one or more barrels less than sixteen inches in length; or (d) any weapon made from a shotgun or rifle whether by alteration, modification, or otherwise if such weapon as altered, modified, or otherwise has an overall length of less than twenty-six inches; or (e) an assault weapon. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Firearm silencer: means any instrument, attachment, weapon or appliance for causing the firing of any gun, revolver, pistol or other firearms to be silent, or intended to lessen or muffle the noise of the firing of any gun, revolver, pistol or other firearms. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- Garden: shall mean a piece or parcel of land appropriate for the cultivation of herbs, fruits, flowers, nuts, honey, poultry for egg production, maple syrup, ornamental or vegetable plants, nursery products, or vegetables. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
- Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
- Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
- Gunsmith: means any person, firm, partnership, corporation or company who engages in the business of repairing, altering, assembling, manufacturing, cleaning, polishing, engraving or trueing, or who performs any mechanical operation on, any firearm, large capacity ammunition feeding device or machine-gun. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- horse: means the entire family of equidae. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
- Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
- Inedible meat: means meat and meat products derived from dead, dying, disabled, diseased or condemned animals, and meat or meat products, regardless of origin, which are adulterated within the meaning of section two hundred of this chapter. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- Inspection legend: means a mark or a statement authorized by the provisions of the federal law, on a carcass, meat, meat by-product, or meat food product indicating the product has been inspected and passed. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
- insurer: shall mean a life insurance corporation, or other corporation subject to supervision by the department of financial services of the state of New York. See N.Y. Education Law 6250
- Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
- Judge: shall mean a judge of the family court of any county in the state. See N.Y. Domestic Relations Law 109
- Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- Kung Fu star: means a disc-like object with sharpened points on the circumference thereof and is designed for use primarily as a weapon to be thrown. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Large capacity ammunition feeding device: means a magazine, belt, drum, feed strip, or similar device, that (a) has a capacity of, or that can be readily restored or converted to accept, more than ten rounds of ammunition, or * (b) contains more than seven rounds of ammunition, or (c) is obtained after the effective date of the chapter of the laws of two thousand thirteen which amended this subdivision and has a capacity of, or that can be readily restored or converted to accept, more than seven rounds of ammunition
* NB Suspended and NOT Effective per ch 1/2013 § 58, as amended by ch 57/2013 Pt. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Lawful custody: shall mean a custody (a) specifically authorized by statute or (b) pursuant to judgment, decree or order of a court or (c) otherwise authorized by law. See N.Y. Domestic Relations Law 109
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- Licensing officer: means in the city of New York the police commissioner of that city; in the county of Nassau the commissioner of police of that county; in the county of Suffolk the sheriff of that county except in the towns of Babylon, Brookhaven, Huntington, Islip and Smithtown, the commissioner of police of that county; for the purposes of section 400. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- Loaded firearm: means any firearm loaded with ammunition or any firearm which is possessed by one who, at the same time, possesses a quantity of ammunition which may be used to discharge such firearm. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Loan: shall mean (i) a mortgage loan evidenced by a bond, note or other obligation of a local development corporation secured by a mortgage on a project, defined in subdivision fourteen (i) and (ii) of this section, made by a local development corporation, a project occupant or other person, firm or corporation; (ii) a loan evidenced by a bond, note or other obligation of a local development corporation, a project occupant, or other person, firm or corporation secured by a loan agreement, contract or such other instrument deemed necessary or
convenient on a project defined in subdivision fourteen (iii) of this section; (iii) a loan evidenced by a bond, note or other obligation of a local development corporation, a project occupant, or other person, firm or corporation secured by a security interest in machinery and equipment as provided in section eighteen hundred fourteen; and (iv) an employee ownership assistance loan made pursuant to paragraph (v) of subdivision fourteen of this section. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Loan guarantee: shall mean the guaranteeing by the authority of a loan made by a banking organization on a project as defined in subdivision fourteen of this section. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Local development corporation: shall mean a non-profit corporation incorporated or reincorporated under the laws of this state, regardless of its particular name, which shall meet the additional requirements of section eighteen hundred twenty-five of this title. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Machine-gun: means a weapon of any description, irrespective of size, by whatever name known, loaded or unloaded, from which a number of shots or bullets may be rapidly or automatically discharged from a magazine with one continuous pull of the trigger and includes a sub-machine gun. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- mayor: shall mean the mayor of the city of New York. See N.Y. Education Law 6202
- Meat: means the edible part of the muscle of cattle, swine, sheep, goats, horses and other large domesticated animals which is skeletal or which is found in the tongue, in the diaphragm, in the heart or in the esophagus, with or without the accompanying or overlying fat, and the portions of bone, skin, nerve and blood vessels which normally accompany the muscle tissue and which are not separated from it in the process of dressing. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
- Meat: means the entire bodies, carcasses or portions thereof of animals or birds. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
- Meat by-product: means any edible part other than meat which has been derived from cattle, swine, sheep, goats, horses and other large domesticated animals. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
- Meat food product: means any product capable of use as human food which is made wholly or in part from any meat or other portion of the carcass of any animal, excepting products which contain meat or other portions of such carcasses only in a relatively small proportion or historically have not been considered by consumers as products of the meat food industry, and which are exempted from definition as a meat food product by the commissioner under such conditions as he may prescribe to assure that the meat or other portions of such carcasses contained in such product are not adulterated and that such products are not represented as meat food products. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
- Meat label: means a display of written, printed, or graphic matter authorized by the provisions of the federal law on a container indicating the meat, meat by-products, or meat food products contained therein have been inspected and passed. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
- Meat product: means any product which is made or derived wholly or in part from the body, carcass or portions thereof of animals or birds. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
- Metal knuckle knife: means a weapon that, when closed, cannot function as a set of plastic knuckles or metal knuckles, nor as a knife and when open, can function as both a set of plastic knuckles or metal knuckles as well as a knife. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- Municipality: shall mean any county, town, village, city, school district, board of cooperative educational services, other special district, or any office or agency thereof. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
- Municipality: shall mean any county, city, town or village in the state. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- Office: shall mean the office of community gardens. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
- official backtag: means a unique device which, when affixed to cattle, deer, swine or camelid, identifies and distinguishes such animals. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
- optional retirement program: means the retirement program established pursuant to this article. See N.Y. Education Law 6250
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- perfusion: means the provision of extracorporeal or intracorporeal patient care services to support or replace the circulatory or respiratory function of a patient, including the administration of pharmacological and therapeutic agents, and blood products, and the management, treatment and monitoring of the physiological status of a patient during the operation of extracorporeal circulation equipment or intracorporeal equipment that replaces or support circulatory or respiratory functions. See N.Y. Education Law 6630
- perfusionist: means a person who is licensed to practice perfusion pursuant to this article. See N.Y. Education Law 6630
- Person: means any person, firm, corporation, or association. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Petitioner: means a person who seeks enforcement of an order for return of a child under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction or enforcement of a child custody determination. See N.Y. Domestic Relations Law 77
- Pilum ballistic knife: means any knife which has a blade which can be projected from the handle by hand pressure applied to a button, lever, spring or other device in the handle of the knife. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Plant: shall mean real property, the buildings, improvements and structures thereon and the fixtures thereon other than machinery or equipment used by a project occupant in its operations. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
- poultry: means a domesticated fowl including chickens, turkeys, waterfowl, guinea fowl and game birds commonly used for the production of meat and eggs. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
- poultry dealer: means any person who buys or sells poultry as a business enterprise. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
- poultry transporter: means any person who transports poultry as a business enterprise. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- Private-placement adoption: shall mean any adoption other than that of a minor who has been placed for adoption by an authorized agency. See N.Y. Domestic Relations Law 109
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- Processing: means any method whereby meat or meat products derived from animals are cut, boned, mixed, blended, canned, cured or otherwise prepared for purposes other than for human consumption. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
- Project: shall mean (i) the construction of a new industrial or manufacturing plant, a new research and development building or other new eligible business facility, (ii) the acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement of a former or existing industrial or manufacturing plant, of a former or existing building to be used for research and development, of a former or existing other eligible business facility, (iii) the construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement of pollution control facilities, (iv) the purchase of machinery and equipment, for which financial assistance from the authority is sought, or (v) assistance to employees under an employee ownership assistance loan agreement made pursuant to subtitle six of this title; provided, however, that any such plant, building, facility or machinery and equipment therefore shall not be primarily used in making retail sales of goods or services to customers who personally visit such facilities to obtain such goods or services, or used primarily as a hotel, apartment house or other place of business which furnishes dwelling space or accommodations to either residents or transients. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Project occupant: shall mean the business enterprise which proposes to use a project after construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Rapid-fire modification device: means any bump stock, trigger crank, binary trigger system, burst trigger system, or any other device that is designed to accelerate the rate of fire of a semi-automatic firearm, rifle or shotgun. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Real property: shall mean lands, waters, rights in lands or waters, structures, franchises and interests in land, including lands under water and riparian rights, and any and all other things and rights usually included within the said term and includes also any and all interests in such property less than full title, such as easements permanent or temporary, rights-of-way, uses, leases, licenses and all other incorporeal hereditaments in every estate, interest or right, legal or equitable. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
- registration number: means the number assigned to and that identifies a particular domestic animal, which number and the identifying characteristics of such domestic animal are set forth in a registry maintained by a breed association recognized by the department. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Rendering: means the method by which animal bodies, carcasses or portions thereof, and meat or meat product are melted down and the fat or grease extracted therefrom. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
- Respondent: means a person against whom a proceeding has been commenced for enforcement of an order for return of a child under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction or enforcement of a child custody determination. See N.Y. Domestic Relations Law 77
- Rifle: means a weapon designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to be fired from the shoulder and designed or redesigned and made or remade to use the energy of the explosive in a fixed metallic cartridge to fire only a single projectile through a rifled bore for each single pull of the trigger. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- salary: means all amounts paid by or for the city of New York as compensation for services rendered by an eligible employee. See N.Y. Education Law 6250
- Semiautomatic: means any repeating rifle, shotgun or pistol, regardless of barrel or overall length, which utilizes a portion of the energy of a firing cartridge or shell to extract the fired cartridge case or spent shell and chamber the next round, and which requires a separate pull of the trigger to fire each cartridge or shell. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- senior college: shall mean an institution of higher education in the city of New York, which is governed and administered by the board of trustees, including, but not limited to, a professional or graduate institution, an institution for research, an administrative institution, and, except as otherwise provided, Medgar Evers college, New York city college of technology (formerly known as "New York city technical college" and "New York city community college"), and the college of Staten Island, but not including a community college. See N.Y. Education Law 6202
- Serious offense: means (a) any of the following offenses defined in the former penal law as in force and effect immediately prior to September first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven: illegally using, carrying or possessing a pistol or other dangerous weapon; making or possessing burglar's instruments; buying or receiving stolen property; unlawful entry of a building; aiding escape from prison; that kind of disorderly conduct defined in subdivisions six and eight of section seven hundred twenty-two of such former penal law; violations of sections four hundred eighty-three, four hundred eighty-three-b, four hundred eighty-four-h and article one hundred six of such former penal law; that kind of criminal sexual act or rape which was designated as a misdemeanor; violation of section seventeen hundred forty-seven-d and seventeen hundred forty-seven-e of such former penal law; any violation of any provision of article thirty-three of the public health law relating to narcotic drugs which was defined as a misdemeanor by section seventeen hundred fifty-one-a of such former penal law, and any violation of any provision of article thirty-three-A of the public health law relating to depressant and stimulant drugs which was defined as a misdemeanor by section seventeen hundred forty-seven-b of such former penal law. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
- sheep: means any member of the genus ovis. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
- Shotgun: means a weapon designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to be fired from the shoulder and designed or redesigned and made or remade to use the energy of the explosive in a fixed shotgun shell to fire through a smooth bore either a number of ball shot or a single projectile for each single pull of the trigger. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Small business: means a business which is independently owned and operated, and which is not dominant in the field of operation. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1695
- State: shall mean the state of New York. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- State agency: shall mean any department, bureau, commission, board, public authority or other agency of the state, including any public benefit corporation of which any member of whose board is appointed by the governor. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
- State agency: shall mean any officer, department, board, commission,
bureau, division, public corporation, agency or instrumentality of the state. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- Surrogate: shall mean the surrogate of any county in the state and any other judicial officer while acting in the capacity of surrogate. See N.Y. Domestic Relations Law 109
- swine: means the entire super family of suidoidae, both feral and domestic. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
- Switchblade knife: means any knife which has a blade which opens automatically by hand pressure applied to a button, spring or other device in the handle of the knife. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
- Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
- Transportation service: means the operation within the state of a vehicle or vehicles by a person not otherwise licensed to operate a disposal plant, for the purpose of transporting for hire unprocessed animal bodies, carcasses or portions thereof, and meat or meat products which are not intended for eventual use for human consumption. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- True bill: Another word for indictment.
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- Undetectable knife: means any knife or other instrument, which does not utilize materials that are detectable by a metal detector or magnetometer when set at a standard calibration, that is capable of ready use as a stabbing or cutting weapon and was commercially manufactured to be used as a weapon. See N.Y. Penal Law 265.00
- Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
- Use: shall mean to avail oneself of or to employ without conveyance of title gardens on vacant public lands by any individual or organization. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
- Vacant public land: shall mean any land owned by the state or a public corporation including a municipality that is not in use for a public purpose, is otherwise unoccupied, idle or not being actively utilized for a period of at least six months and is suitable for garden use. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
- Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
- Vehicle: means a conveyance or any piece of equipment whatsoever used in transportation service. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
- Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.