Article 240 Offenses Against Public Order 240.00 – 240.77
Article 241 Harassment of Rent Regulated Tenants 241.00 – 241.05
Article 242 Offenses Against Service Animals and Handlers 242.00 – 242.15
Article 245 Offenses Against Public Sensibilities 245.00 – 245.15
Article 250 Offenses Against the Right to Privacy 250.00 – 250.65

Terms Used In New York Laws > Penal > Part 3 > Title N - Offenses Against Public Order, Public Sensibilities and the Right to Privacy

  • Accused: shall mean a person accused of a violation who has not yet entered an institution's judicial or conduct process. See N.Y. Education Law 6439
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Biological agent: means any micro-organism, virus, infectious substance, or biological product that may be engineered as a result of biotechnology, or any naturally occurring or bioengineered component of

    any such micro-organism, virus, infectious substance, or biological product, capable of causing:

    (a) death, disease, or other biological malfunction in a human, an animal, a plant, or another living organism;

    (b) deterioration of food, water, equipment, supplies, or material of any kind; or

    (c) deleterious alteration of the environment. See N.Y. Penal Law 490.05

  • Biological weapon: means any biological agent, toxin, vector, or delivery system or combination thereof. See N.Y. Penal Law 490.05
  • Board: shall mean the board of trustees of the New York state higher education services corporation. See N.Y. Education Law 651
  • Bystander: shall mean a person who observes a crime, impending crime, conflict, potentially violent or violent behavior, or conduct that is in violation of rules or policies of an institution. See N.Y. Education Law 6439
  • Capital offense: A crime punishable by death.
  • certified ESL school: shall mean a language school conducted for-profit which provides instruction in English as a second language and which accepts no public funds and is certified pursuant to paragraph f of subdivision four of this section; and

    c. See N.Y. Education Law 5001

  • Chemical weapon: means the following, together or separately:

    (a) a toxic chemical or its precursors;

    (b) a munition or device specifically designed to cause death or other harm through the toxic properties of a toxic chemical or its precursors, which would be released as a result of the employment of such munition or device;

    (c) any equipment specifically designed for use directly in connection with the employment of munitions or devices; or

    (d) any device that is designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human life. See N.Y. Penal Law 490.05

  • Code of conduct: shall mean the written policies adopted by an institution governing student behavior, rights, and responsibilities while such student is matriculated in the institution. See N.Y. Education Law 6439
  • Commissioner of finance: means the commissioner of finance of the city;

    6. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 11-601

  • Community garden: shall mean public or private lands upon which citizens of the state have the opportunity to garden on lands which they do not individually own. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Corporation: shall mean the New York state higher education services corporation. See N.Y. Education Law 651
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Delivery system: means :

    (a) any apparatus, equipment, device, or means of delivery specifically designed to deliver or disseminate a biological agent, toxin, or vector; or

    (b) any vector. See N.Y. Penal Law 490.05

  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal student aid programs: shall mean the programs of the United States government making financial aid available to pay for the cost of attending post-secondary institutions and established under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of nineteen hundred sixty-five, as amended, or any successor statute. See N.Y. Education Law 651
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
    • You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
    • The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
    • The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Garden: shall mean a piece or parcel of land appropriate for the cultivation of herbs, fruits, flowers, nuts, honey, poultry for egg production, maple syrup, ornamental or vegetable plants, nursery products, or vegetables. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • gifted pupils: shall mean those pupils who show evidence of high performance capability and exceptional potential in areas such as general intellectual ability, special academic aptitude and outstanding ability in visual and performing arts. See N.Y. Education Law 4452
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Housing accommodations: shall mean housing accommodations which are subject to the regulations and control of residential rents and evictions pursuant to the emergency housing rent control law, the local emergency housing rent control act, the emergency tenant protection act of nineteen seventy-four, the New York city rent and rehabilitation law or the New York city rent stabilization law of nineteen hundred sixty-nine. See N.Y. Penal Law 241.00
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Institution: shall mean any college or university chartered by the regents or incorporated by special act of the legislature that maintains a campus in New York. See N.Y. Education Law 6439
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Lend: shall include one or more of the following services: the origination, disbursement, servicing, and/or collection of any student or parent education loan made by or on behalf of a lending institution a government entity, or an institution of higher education for the purpose of paying for higher education expenses as well as serving as a secondary market for these loans. See N.Y. Education Law 651
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • Material support or resources: means currency or other financial securities, financial services, lodging, training, safehouses, false documentation or identification, communications equipment, facilities, weapons, lethal substances, explosives, personnel, transportation, and other physical assets, except medicine or religious materials. See N.Y. Penal Law 490.05
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Municipality: shall mean any county, town, village, city, school district, board of cooperative educational services, other special district, or any office or agency thereof. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Office: shall mean the office of community gardens. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
  • online education marketplace: shall mean a website or other internet-based online technology tool with which a licensed private career school or certified ESL school contracts for marketing or advertising services, or services in connection with the collection of tuition and/or fees, to the extent authorized in subdivision three of section five thousand four of this article. See N.Y. Education Law 5001
  • Owner: shall mean an owner, lessor, sublessor, assignee, net lessee, or a proprietary lessee of a housing accommodation in a structure or premises owned by a cooperative corporation or association, or an owner of a condominium unit or the sponsor of such cooperative corporation or association or condominium development, or any other person or entity receiving or entitled to receive rent for the use or occupation of any housing accommodation, or an agent of or any person acting on behalf of any of the foregoing. See N.Y. Penal Law 241.00
  • ownership or control interest: means : with respect to a school that is organized as or owned by a corporation, a position as an officer or director of such corporation; or, with respect to a school that is organized as or owned by a partnership, a position as a partner; or any other interest totaling ten percent or more, whether direct or indirect, in the total equity or assets of such school. See N.Y. Education Law 5001
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • police retired employee: shall mean any person who was retired for service on or after June fifth, nineteen hundred sixty and prior to May first, nineteen hundred sixty-three and receives, as a result of such retirement, a retirement allowance or pension from a retirement or pension system or plan of the city for members of the uniformed force of the police department. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 13-662
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Precursor: means any chemical reactant that takes part at any stage in the production by whatever method of a toxic chemical, including any key component of a binary or multicomponent chemical system, and includes precursors which have been identified for application of verification measures under article VI of the convention in schedules contained in the annex on chemicals of the chemical weapons convention. See N.Y. Penal Law 490.05
  • President: shall mean the president of the corporation. See N.Y. Education Law 651
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Rent regulated tenant: shall mean a person occupying a housing accommodation or any lawful successor to the tenancy which is subject to the regulations and control of residential rents and evictions pursuant to the emergency housing rent control law, the local emergency housing rent control act, the emergency tenant protection act of nineteen seventy-four, the New York city rent and rehabilitation law or the New York city rent stabilization law of nineteen hundred sixty-nine, and such person is either a party to a lease or rental agreement for such housing accommodation, a statutory tenant or a person who lawfully occupies such housing accommodation with such party to a lease or rental agreement or with such statutory tenant. See N.Y. Penal Law 241.00
  • Respondent: shall mean a person accused of a violation who has entered an institution's judicial or conduct process. See N.Y. Education Law 6439
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • State agency: shall mean any department, bureau, commission, board, public authority or other agency of the state, including any public benefit corporation of which any member of whose board is appointed by the governor. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Taxpayer: means any corporation, association or other entity or individual subject to tax under this chapter;

    2. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 11-601

  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Title IX Coordinator: shall mean the Title IX Coordinator and/or his or her designee or designees. See N.Y. Education Law 6439
  • Toxic chemical: means any chemical which through its chemical action on life processes can cause death, serious physical injury or permanent harm to humans or animals, including all such chemicals, regardless of their origin or of their method of production, and regardless of whether they are produced in facilities, in munitions or elsewhere, and includes toxic chemicals which have been identified by the commissioner of health and included on the list of toxic chemicals pursuant to subdivision twenty of § 206 of the public health law. See N.Y. Penal Law 490.05
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Use: shall mean to avail oneself of or to employ without conveyance of title gardens on vacant public lands by any individual or organization. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
  • Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
  • Vacant public land: shall mean any land owned by the state or a public corporation including a municipality that is not in use for a public purpose, is otherwise unoccupied, idle or not being actively utilized for a period of at least six months and is suitable for garden use. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 31-G
  • Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
  • Vector: means a living organism, or molecule, including a recombinant molecule, or biological product that may be engineered as a result of biotechnology, capable of carrying a biological agent or toxin to a host. See N.Y. Penal Law 490.05
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.