Terms Used In Texas Business Organizations Code Chapter 21 - For-Profit Corporations
- Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
- A verdict of "not guilty."
- Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
- Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
- Affiliate: means a person who controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with another person. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
- Annual percentage rate: The cost of credit at a yearly rate. It is calculated in a standard way, taking the average compound interest rate over the term of the loan so borrowers can compare loans. Lenders are required by law to disclose a card account's APR. Source: FDIC
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- Appraisal: A determination of property value.
- Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
- Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- Asset forfeiture: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- Associate: when used to indicate a relationship with a person, means:
(A) a domestic or foreign entity or organization for which the person:
(i) is an officer or governing person; or
(ii) beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, either individually or through an affiliate, 10 percent or more of a class of voting ownership interests or similar securities of the entity or organization;
(B) a trust or estate in which the person has a substantial beneficial interest or for which the person serves as trustee or in a similar fiduciary capacity;
(C) the person's spouse or a relative of the person related by consanguinity or affinity who resides with the person; or
(D) a governing person or an affiliate or officer of the person. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Association: means an entity governed as an association under Title 6 or 7. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
- Bailiff: a court officer who enforces the rules of behavior in courtrooms.
- Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
- Bequest: Property gifted by will.
- Brewer: means a person engaged in the brewing of malt beverages, whether located inside or outside the state. See Texas Alcoholic Beverage Code 1.04
- Business: means a trade, occupation, profession, or other commercial activity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Certificate of formation: means :
(A) the document required to be filed with the filing officer under Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Charge to the jury: The judge's instructions to the jury concerning the law that applies to the facts of the case on trial.
- Charitable organization: means :
(1) a nonprofit corporation, trust, community chest, fund, foundation, or other entity that is:
(A) exempt from federal income tax under Section 501(a), Internal Revenue Code of 1986, by being described by Section 501(c)(3) of that code; and
(B) organized and operated exclusively for:
(i) religious, charitable, scientific, educational, or literary purposes;
(ii) testing for public safety;
(iii) preventing cruelty to children or animals; or
(iv) promoting amateur sports competition; or
(2) any other entity that is organized and operated exclusively for the purposes listed in Section 501(c)(3), Internal Revenue Code of 1986. See Texas Estates Code 22.003
- Close corporation: means a for-profit corporation that elects to be governed as a close corporation in accordance with Subchapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Commissioner: means the commissioner of agriculture. See Texas Agriculture Code 1.003
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- Comptroller: means the state comptroller of public accounts. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
- Conversion: means :
(A) the continuance of a domestic entity as a non-code organization of any type;
(B) the continuance of a non-code organization as a domestic entity of any type;
(C) the continuance of a domestic entity of one type as a domestic entity of another type;
(D) the continuance of a domestic entity of one type as a foreign entity of the same type that may be treated as a domestication, continuance, or transfer transaction under the laws of the jurisdiction of formation of the foreign entity; or
(E) the continuance of a foreign entity of one type as a domestic entity of the same type that may be treated as a domestication, continuance, or transfer transaction under the laws of the jurisdiction of formation of the foreign entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Converted entity: means an organization resulting from a conversion. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Converting entity: means an organization as the organization existed before the organization's conversion. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- Corporation: means an entity governed as a corporation under Title 2 or 7. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
- Court reporter: A person who makes a word-for-word record of what is said in court and produces a transcript of the proceedings upon request.
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- Decedent: A deceased person.
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Department: means the Department of Agriculture. See Texas Agriculture Code 1.003
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- Devise: To gift property by will.
- Director: means an individual who serves on the board of directors of a foreign or domestic corporation. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
- Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
- Distributee: means a person who is entitled to a part of the estate of a decedent under a lawful will or the statutes of descent and distribution. See Texas Estates Code 22.010
- Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
- Docket: means the probate docket. See Texas Estates Code 22.011
- Domestic: means , with respect to an entity, that the entity is formed under this code or the entity's internal affairs are governed by this code. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Domestic entity: means an organization formed under or the internal affairs of which are governed by this code. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Donee: The recipient of a gift.
- Donor: The person who makes a gift.
- Effective date of this code: means January 1, 2006. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Effects: includes all personal property and all interest in that property. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Electronic data system: means an electronic network or database. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Electronic transmission: means a form of communication, including communication by use of or participation in one or more electronic data systems, that:
(A) does not directly involve the physical transmission of paper;
(B) creates a record that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by the recipient; and
(C) may be directly reproduced in paper form by the recipient through an automated process. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
- Entity: means a domestic entity or foreign entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
- Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
- Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
- Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
- Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
- Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
- Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Filing instrument: means an instrument, document, consent, or statement that is required or authorized by this code to be filed by or for an entity with the filing officer in accordance with Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Filing officer: means :
(A) with respect to an entity other than a domestic real estate investment trust, the secretary of state; or
(B) with respect to a domestic real estate investment trust, the county clerk of the county in which the real estate investment trust's principal office is located in this state. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- For-profit corporation: means a corporation governed as a for-profit corporation under Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
- Foreign: means , with respect to an entity, that the entity is formed under, and the entity's internal affairs are governed by, the laws of a jurisdiction other than this state. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Foreign entity: means an organization formed under, and the internal affairs of which are governed by, the laws of a jurisdiction other than this state. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- Fundamental business transaction: means a merger, interest exchange, conversion, or sale of all or substantially all of an entity's assets. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Governing documents: means :
(A) in the case of a domestic entity:
(i) the certificate of formation for a domestic filing entity or the document or agreement under which a domestic nonfiling entity is formed; and
(ii) the other documents or agreements adopted by the entity under this code to govern the formation or the internal affairs of the entity; or
(B) in the case of a foreign entity, the instruments, documents, or agreements adopted under the law of its jurisdiction of formation to govern the formation or the internal affairs of the entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
- Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
- Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
- Heir: means a person who is entitled under the statutes of descent and distribution to a part of the estate of a decedent who dies intestate. See Texas Estates Code 22.015
- holder of shares: means :
(A) the person in whose name shares issued by a for-profit corporation, professional corporation, or real estate investment trust are registered in the share transfer records maintained by or on behalf of the for-profit corporation, professional corporation, or real estate investment trust; or
(B) the beneficial owner of shares issued by a for-profit corporation, whose shares are held in a voting trust or by a nominee on the beneficial owner's behalf, to the extent of the rights granted by a nominee statement on file with the for-profit corporation in accordance with Sections Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Hotel: means the premises of an establishment:
(A) where, in consideration of payment, travelers are furnished food and lodging;
(B) in which are located:
(i) at least 10 adequately furnished completely separate rooms with adequate facilities so comfortably disposed that persons usually apply for and receive overnight accommodations in the establishment, either in the course of usual and regular travel or as a residence; or
(ii) at least five rooms described by Subparagraph (i) if the building being used as a hotel is a historic structure as defined by Section Texas Alcoholic Beverage Code 1.04
- Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
- Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
- Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
- Individual: means a natural person. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- Insolvent: means a person who is unable to pay the person's debts as they become due in the usual course of business or affairs. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
- Interest exchange: means the acquisition of an ownership or membership interest in a domestic entity as provided by Subchapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
- Internal Revenue Code: means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
- Irrevocable trust: A trust arrangement that cannot be revoked, rescinded, or repealed by the grantor.
- Jurisdiction of formation: means :
(A) in the case of a domestic filing entity, this state;
(B) in the case of a foreign entity for which a certificate of formation or similar organizational instrument is filed in connection with its formation, the jurisdiction in which the entity's certificate of formation or similar organizational instrument is filed; or
(C) in the case of a domestic nonfiling entity or a foreign entity for which a certificate of formation or similar organizational instrument is not filed in connection with its formation:
(i) the jurisdiction the laws of which are chosen in the entity's governing documents to govern its internal affairs if that jurisdiction bears a reasonable relation to the owners or members or to the entity's business and affairs under the principles of this state that otherwise would apply to a contract among the owners or members; or
(ii) if Subparagraph (i) does not apply, the jurisdiction in which the entity has its chief executive office. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Juror: A person who is on the jury.
- Justice: when applied to a magistrate, means justice of the peace. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Law: means , unless the context requires otherwise, both statutory and common law. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Limited partnership: means a partnership that is governed as a limited partnership under Title 4 and that has one or more general partners and one or more limited partners. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- Livestock: means cattle, horses, mules, asses, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, exotic livestock, including elk and elk hybrids, and hogs, unless otherwise defined. See Texas Agriculture Code 1.003
- Managerial official: means an officer or a governing person. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Member: means :
(A) in the case of a limited liability company, a person who has become, and has not ceased to be, a member in the limited liability company as provided by its governing documents or this code;
(B) in the case of a nonprofit corporation, a person who has membership rights in the nonprofit corporation under its governing documents;
(C) in the case of a cooperative association, a member of a nonshare or share association;
(D) in the case of a nonprofit association, a person who has membership rights in the nonprofit association under its governing documents; or
(E) in the case of a professional association, a person who has membership rights in the professional association under its governing documents. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Merger: means :
(A) the division of a domestic entity into two or more new domestic entities or other organizations or into a surviving domestic entity and one or more new domestic or foreign entities or non-code organizations; or
(B) the combination of one or more domestic entities with one or more domestic entities or non-code organizations resulting in:
(i) one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations;
(ii) the creation of one or more new domestic entities or non-code organizations; or
(iii) one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations and the creation of one or more new domestic entities or non-code organizations. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- Mixed beverage: means one or more servings of a beverage composed in whole or part of an alcoholic beverage in a sealed or unsealed container of any legal size for consumption on the premises where served or sold by the holder of a mixed beverage permit, the holder of certain nonprofit entity temporary event permits, the holder of a private club registration permit, or the holder of certain retailer late hours certificates. See Texas Alcoholic Beverage Code 1.04
- Month: means a calendar month. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- most recent federal census: means the United States decennial census immediately preceding the action in question. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
- National securities exchange: means an exchange registered as a national securities exchange under Section 6, Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
- Non-code organization: means an organization other than a domestic entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Nonprofit corporation: means a corporation governed as a nonprofit corporation under Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Officer: means an individual elected, appointed, or designated as an officer of an entity by the entity's governing authority or under the entity's governing documents. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Organization: means a corporation, limited or general partnership, limited liability company, business trust, real estate investment trust, joint venture, joint stock company, cooperative, association, bank, insurance company, credit union, savings and loan association, or other organization, regardless of whether the organization is for-profit, nonprofit, domestic, or foreign. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
- Partnership: means an entity governed as a partnership under Title 4. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Party to the merger: means a domestic entity or non-code organization that under a plan of merger is divided or combined by a merger. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Person: means an individual or a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, business trust, trust, association, or other organization, estate, government or governmental subdivision or agency, or other legal entity, or a series of a domestic limited liability company or foreign entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- person interested: means :
(1) an heir, devisee, spouse, creditor, or any other having a property right in or claim against an estate being administered; and
(2) anyone interested in the welfare of an incapacitated person, including a minor. See Texas Estates Code 22.018
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- Plan of conversion: means a document that conforms with the requirements of Section Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Plan of exchange: means a document that conforms with the requirements of Section Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Plan of merger: means a document that conforms with the requirements of Sections Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
- Plea agreement: An arrangement between the prosecutor, the defense attorney, and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for special considerations. Source:
- Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
- President: means the:
(A) individual designated as president of an entity under the entity's governing documents; or
(B) officer or committee of persons authorized to perform the functions of the principal executive officer of an entity without regard to the designated name of the officer or committee. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- Property: includes tangible and intangible property and an interest in that property. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- Real estate investment trust: means an entity governed as a real estate investment trust under Title 5. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
- Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
- Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
- Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
- Right of rescission: Right to cancel, within three business days, a contract that uses the home of a person as collateral, except in the case of a first mortgage loan. There is no fee to the borrower, who receives a full refund of all fees paid. The right of rescission is guaranteed by the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). Source: OCC
- Right of survivorship: The ownership rights that result in the acquisition of title to property by reason of having survived other co-owners.
- Secretary: means the:
(A) individual designated as secretary of an entity under the entity's governing documents; or
(B) officer or committee of persons authorized to perform the functions of secretary of an entity without regard to the designated name of the officer or committee. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
- Share: means a unit into which the ownership interest in a for-profit corporation, professional corporation, real estate investment trust, or professional association is divided, regardless of whether the share is certificated or uncertificated. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Signature: includes the mark of a person unable to write, and "subscribe" includes the making of such a mark. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Signature: means any symbol executed or adopted by a person with present intention to authenticate a writing. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Social purposes: means one or more purposes of a for-profit corporation that are specified in the corporation's certificate of formation and consist of promoting one or more positive impacts on society or the environment or of minimizing one or more adverse impacts of the corporation's activities on society or the environment. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- Subscriber: means a person who agrees with or makes an offer to an entity to purchase by subscription an ownership interest in the entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Subscription: means an agreement between a subscriber and an entity, or a written offer made by a subscriber to an entity before or after the entity's formation, in which the subscriber agrees or offers to purchase a specified ownership interest in the entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Subsidiary: means an organization for which another organization, either directly or indirectly through or with one or more of its other subsidiaries:
(A) owns at least 50 percent of the outstanding ownership or membership interests of the organization; or
(B) possesses at least 50 percent of the voting power of the owners or members of the organization. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Succeeding: means immediately following. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- Swear: includes affirm. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- United States: includes a department, bureau, or other agency of the United States of America. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
- Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
- Week: means seven consecutive days. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
- written: means an expression of words, letters, characters, numbers, symbols, figures, or other textual information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium that is retrievable in a perceivable form. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002