Texas Government Code > Title 4 > Subtitle D – History, Culture, and Education
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Terms Used In Texas Government Code > Title 4 > Subtitle D - History, Culture, and Education
- Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
- Affidavit: means a statement in writing of a fact or facts signed by the party making it, sworn to before an officer authorized to administer oaths, and officially certified to by the officer under his seal of office. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- Appraisal: A determination of property value.
- Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
- Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
- Bequest: Property gifted by will.
- Committee membership: Legislators are assigned to specific committees by their party. Seniority, regional balance, and political philosophy are the most prominent factors in the committee assignment process.
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- Comptroller: means the state comptroller of public accounts. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Decedent: A deceased person.
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Department of Public Safety: means the Department of Public Safety of the State of Texas. See Texas Transportation Code 1.004
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- Devise: To gift property by will.
- Dextromethorphan: means any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any detectable amount of that substance, including its salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers. See Texas Health and Safety Code 488.001
- Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
- District office: means an office of the federal or state government that is not voted on statewide. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Donor: The person who makes a gift.
- Effects: includes all personal property and all interest in that property. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Election official: means :
(A) a county clerk;
(B) a permanent or temporary deputy county clerk;
(C) an elections administrator;
(D) a permanent or temporary employee of an elections administrator;
(E) an election judge;
(F) an alternate election judge;
(G) an early voting clerk;
(H) a deputy early voting clerk;
(I) an election clerk;
(J) the presiding judge of an early voting ballot board;
(K) the alternate presiding judge of an early voting ballot board;
(L) a member of an early voting ballot board;
(M) the chair of a signature verification committee;
(N) the vice chair of a signature verification committee;
(O) a member of a signature verification committee;
(P) the presiding judge of a central counting station;
(Q) the alternate presiding judge of a central counting station;
(R) a central counting station manager;
(S) a central counting station clerk;
(T) a tabulation supervisor;
(U) an assistant to a tabulation supervisor; and
(V) a chair of a county political party holding a primary election or a runoff primary election. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
- Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
- Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
- Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
- Final canvass: means the canvass from which the official result of an election is determined. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
- General election: means an election, other than a primary election, that regularly recurs at fixed dates. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- General election for state and county officers: means the general election at which officers of the federal, state, and county governments are elected. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
- Independent candidate: means a candidate in a nonpartisan election or a candidate in a partisan election who is not the nominee of a political party. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
- Irrevocable trust: A trust arrangement that cannot be revoked, rescinded, or repealed by the grantor.
- Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
- Justice: when applied to a magistrate, means justice of the peace. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Law: means a constitution, statute, city charter, or city ordinance. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- Measure: means a question or proposal submitted in an election for an expression of the voters' will. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
- Oath: includes affirmation. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
- Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
- Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- Political subdivision: means a county, city, or school district or any other governmental entity that:
(A) embraces a geographic area with a defined boundary;
(B) exists for the purpose of discharging functions of government; and
(C) possesses authority for subordinate self-government through officers selected by it. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Population: means the population shown by the most recent federal decennial census. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
- Primary election: means an election held by a political party under Chapter Texas Election Code 1.005
- Probate: Proving a will
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- Proposition: means the wording appearing on a ballot to identify a measure. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Registered voter: means a person registered to vote in this state whose registration is effective. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Residence address: means the street address and any apartment number, or the address at which mail is received if the residence has no address, and the city, state, and zip code that correspond to a person's residence. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Sale: includes a conveyance, exchange, barter, or trade. See Texas Health and Safety Code 488.001
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
- Signature: includes the mark of a person unable to write, and "subscribe" includes the making of such a mark. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Special election: means an election that is not a general election or a primary election. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- Succeeding: means immediately following. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Swear: includes affirm. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- sworn: includes affirm or affirmed. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Uniform election date: means an election date prescribed by Section Texas Election Code 1.005
- Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
- Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
- Voting year: means the 12-month period beginning January 1 of each year. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Week: means seven consecutive days. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.