Article 1 Change of Name 12-601 – 12-602
Article 2 Death by Wrongful Act 12-611 – 12-613
Article 3 Establishing Identity 12-621 – 12-622
Article 4 Motor Vehicle Subleasing 12-631 – 12-632
Article 5 Injury to Child or Ward 12-641
Article 6 Libel, Slander, and Invasion of Privacy 12-651 – 12-653
Article 6.1 Libel and Slander Correction and Resulting Damages 12-653.01 – 12-653.05
Article 7 Torts of Minors 12-661
Article 8 Insufficient Funds Check 12-671
Article 9 Product Liability 12-681 – 12-689
Article 10 Shoplifting 12-691 – 12-694
Article 11 Drug and Pharmaceuticals 12-701
Article 12 Miscellaneous 12-711 – 12-722
Article 13 Interception or Disclosure of Wire, Oral or Electronic Communications 12-731
Article 15 Public Participation in Government 12-751 – 12-752
Article 16 Right of Publicity 12-761
Article 17 Declaration of Innocence 12-771 – 12-773
Article 18 Firearms Storage and Transportation 12-781
Article 19 Asbestos Exposure Related Personal Injury Claims 12-782

Terms Used In Arizona Laws > Title 12 > Chapter 6 - Special Actions and Proceedings by Individual Persons

  • Actual malice: means that state of mind arising from personal spite, hatred, or ill will toward the plaintiff, but such a state of mind occasioned by a good faith belief on the part of the defendant in the truth of the libelous publication or broadcast at the time it is published or broadcast shall not constitute actual malice. See Arizona Laws 12-653.01
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Associate director: means the associate director of the division. See Arizona Laws 3-1201
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Beef: includes veal. See Arizona Laws 3-1231
  • Beef products: includes veal products. See Arizona Laws 3-1231
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Building code: means the construction codes that were in force at time of building construction, including plumbing and mechanical codes, electric codes, residential construction codes, energy conservation codes and existing building construction codes, and includes any property maintenance codes, neighborhood preservation codes, anti-blight codes or other similar codes, however denominated. See
  • Buyer: means a person who buys or hires a motor vehicle under a retail installment contract. See Arizona Laws 12-631
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Council: means the Arizona beef council. See Arizona Laws 3-1231
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Defense attorney: Represent defendants in criminal matters.
  • Department: means the Arizona department of agriculture. See Arizona Laws 3-101
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Direct loan agreement: means an agreement between a lender and a purchaser by which the lender has advanced monies pursuant to a loan secured by a motor vehicle which the purchaser has purchased. See Arizona Laws 12-631
  • Director: means the director of the department. See Arizona Laws 3-101
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Division: means the animal services division of the Arizona department of agriculture. See Arizona Laws 3-1201
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Exemplary damages: means damages which may, in the discretion of the court or jury, be recovered in addition to general and special damages for the sake of example and by way of punishing a defendant who has made the publication or broadcast with actual malice. See Arizona Laws 12-653.01
  • Exercise of the right of petition: means any written or oral statement that falls within the constitutional protection of free speech and that is made as part of an initiative, referendum or recall effort or that is all of the following:

    (a) Made before or submitted to a legislative or executive body or any other governmental proceeding. See Arizona Laws 12-751

  • Exterior inspection: means the visual inspection of any portion of a residential dwelling unit that can be seen from a public street or other right-of-way, or that can be seen from an adjacent property if a complaint or consent is received from the adjacent property owner, lawful resident or lawful tenant. See
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Food product: means any product that is grown, prepared, provided, served or sold and that is primarily intended for human consumption and nourishment. See Arizona Laws 12-681
  • Governmental proceeding: means any proceeding, other than a judicial proceeding, by an officer, official or body of this state and any political subdivision of this state, including boards and commissions, or by an officer, official or body of the federal government. See Arizona Laws 12-751
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Interior inspection: means a physical or visual inspection of the interior of a residential rental dwelling unit and other portions of a residential rental dwelling unit that are not visible from a public street, right-of-way or neighboring property that is made for the purpose of looking for building code violations. See
  • Jurisprudence: The study of law and the structure of the legal system.
  • Landowner: means any owner of a legal or equitable interest in real property, including the heirs, devisees, successors, assigns and personal representative of the owner, or a representative authorized by a landowner to submit to a city or town a development application for a property for approval. See Arizona Laws 9-1201
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Lease contract: means a contract for or in contemplation of the lease for the use of a motor vehicle, and the purchase of services incidental to the lease, by a natural person for a term exceeding four months primarily for personal, family, household, business or commercial purposes, whether or not it is agreed that the lessee bears the risk of the motor vehicle's depreciation. See Arizona Laws 12-631
  • Legal action: means any action, claim, cross-claim or counterclaim for damages that is based on the defendant's exercise of the right of petition. See Arizona Laws 12-751
  • Lessee: includes a bailee and means a natural person who leases, offers to lease or is offered the lease of a motor vehicle under a lease contract. See Arizona Laws 12-631
  • Lessor: includes a bailor and means a person who is engaged in the business of leasing, offering to lease or arranging the lease of a motor vehicle under a lease contract. See Arizona Laws 12-631
  • Livestock: means cattle, equine, sheep, goats and swine, except feral pigs. See Arizona Laws 3-1201
  • Manufacturer: means a person or entity that designs, assembles, fabricates, produces, constructs or otherwise prepares a product or component part of a product before its sale to a user or consumer, including a seller owned in whole or significant part by the manufacturer or a seller owning the manufacturer in whole or significant part. See Arizona Laws 12-681
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Month: means a calendar month unless otherwise expressed. See Arizona Laws 1-215
  • Motor vehicle: means a motor vehicle which is required to be registered under Title 28, Chapter 7. See Arizona Laws 12-631
  • newspaper: means any publication which may be mailed at the second-class rates established by the United States post office. See Arizona Laws 12-653.01
  • Owner: means the person, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, limited partnership, trust or real estate investment trust shown on the lawfully recorded title to the property. See
  • Peace officers: means sheriffs of counties, constables, marshals, policemen of cities and towns, commissioned personnel of the department of public safety, personnel who are employed by the state department of corrections and the department of juvenile corrections and who have received a certificate from the Arizona peace officer standards and training board, peace officers who are appointed by a multicounty water conservation district and who have received a certificate from the Arizona peace officer standards and training board, police officers who are appointed by community college district governing boards and who have received a certificate from the Arizona peace officer standards and training board, police officers who are appointed by the Arizona board of regents and who have received a certificate from the Arizona peace officer standards and training board, police officers who are appointed by the governing body of a public airport pursuant to section 28-8426 and who have received a certificate from the Arizona peace officer standards and training board, peace officers who are appointed by a private postsecondary institution pursuant to section 15-1897 and who have received a certificate from the Arizona peace officer standards and training board and special agents from the office of the attorney general, or of a county attorney, and who have received a certificate from the Arizona peace officer standards and training board. See Arizona Laws 1-215
  • Person: means an individual, corporation, partnership, trust, association, cooperative association and any other business unit or organization. See Arizona Laws 3-1231
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Producer: means a person who owns or acquires ownership of cattle. See Arizona Laws 3-1231
  • Product: means the individual product or any component part of the product that is the subject of a product liability action. See Arizona Laws 12-681
  • Product liability action: means any action brought against a manufacturer or seller of a product for damages for bodily injury, death or property damage caused by or resulting from the manufacture, construction, design, formula, installation, preparation, assembly, testing, packaging, labeling, sale, use or consumption of any product, the failure to warn or protect against a danger or hazard in the use or misuse of the product or the failure to provide proper instructions for the use or consumption of any product. See Arizona Laws 12-681
  • Product safety analysis or review: means any investigation, inquiry, review, evaluation or other means by which a person or entity seeks to determine, calculate, predict, estimate, evaluate or report the safety or health effects of the use of any of its products, systems, services or processes. See Arizona Laws 12-681
  • Property: means all real property subject to zoning regulations and restrictions by a city or town. See Arizona Laws 9-1201
  • Protected development right: means the right to undertake and complete the development and use of property under the terms and conditions of a protected development right plan and this article, without compliance with subsequent changes in zoning regulations and development standards, except as provided by section 9-1204. See Arizona Laws 9-1201
  • Protected development right plan: means a plan submitted by a landowner to a city or town, that, if approved by the legislative body of the city or town and if identified as a protected development right plan at the time it is submitted, grants the landowner, for a specified period of time, a protected development right to undertake and complete the development as shown on the plan. See Arizona Laws 9-1201
  • Range: means every character of lands, enclosed or unenclosed, outside of cities and towns, upon which livestock is permitted by custom, license or permit to roam and feed. See Arizona Laws 3-1201
  • Range livestock: means livestock customarily permitted to roam upon the ranges of the state, whether public domain or in private control, and not in the immediate actual possession or control of the owner although occasionally placed in enclosures for temporary purposes. See Arizona Laws 3-1201
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Reasonable remedial measures: means actions taken as a result of a product safety analysis or review and intended to improve the safety of products, systems, services or processes or to lessen the likelihood of a safety-related accident. See Arizona Laws 12-681
  • Residential dwelling unit: means a building or structure or part of a building or structure that is used for a home or residence by one or more persons who maintain a household. See
  • Residential rental dwelling unit: means a dwelling unit that is leased or rented to one or more tenants. See
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Seller: means a person engaged in the business of selling or leasing motor vehicles under a retail installment contract. See Arizona Laws 12-631
  • Seller: means a person or entity, including a wholesaler, distributor, retailer or lessor, that is engaged in the business of leasing any product or selling any product for resale, use or consumption. See Arizona Laws 12-681
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Special damages: means all damages which the plaintiff alleges and proves he has suffered in respect only to his property, business, trade, profession or occupation. See Arizona Laws 12-653.01
  • State of the art: means the technical, mechanical and scientific knowledge of manufacturing, designing, testing or labeling the same or similar products that was in existence and reasonably feasible for use at the time of manufacture. See Arizona Laws 12-681
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writ: means an order or precept in writing issued in the name of the state or by a court or judicial officer. See Arizona Laws 1-215
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.