Article 400 Licensing and Other Provisions Relating to Firearms
Article 405 Licensing and Other Provisions Relating to Fireworks
Article 410 Seizure and Forfeiture of Equipment Used in Promoting Pornography
Article 415 Seizure and Forfeiture of Vehicles, Vessels and Aircraft Used to Transport or Conceal Gambling Records
Article 420 Seizure and Destruction of Unauthorized Recordings of Sound and Forfeiture of Equipment Used in the Production Thereof
Article 450 Disposal of Stolen Property

Terms Used In New York Laws > Penal > Part 4 > Title W - Provisions Relating to Firearms, Fireworks, Pornography Equipment and Vehicles Used in the Transportation of Gambling Records

  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Adulterated: means the same as set forth in section two hundred of this chapter. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Z-21
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Animal: means cattle, swine, sheep, goats, horses and other large domesticated mammals. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
  • Animal: means any animal, domestic or feral, or any domesticated bird. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • auction: means a public sale of cattle, swine or horses to the highest bidder. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
  • auctioneer: means a person who sells, or makes a business of selling cattle, swine or horses, at auction. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
  • Authority: shall mean the New York job development authority created by subdivision one of section eighteen hundred two of this title. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Authorized agency: shall mean an authorized agency as defined in the social services law and, for the purpose of this article, shall include such corporations incorporated or organized under the laws of this state as may be specifically authorized by their certificates of incorporation to receive children for purposes of adoption. See
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • camelid: means the entire family of camelidae. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
  • Carcass: means all parts, including viscera of a slaughtered animal, that are capable of being used for human food. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
  • cattle: means the entire family of bovidae. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
  • Chairman: means the chairman of the dormitory authority. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1695
  • commissioner: means the commissioner of agriculture and markets of the state of New York. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 71-U
  • Commissioner: means the commissioner of agriculture and markets. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Compounding: means the combining, admixing, mixing, diluting, pooling, reconstituting, or otherwise altering of a drug or bulk drug substance to create a drug. See
  • Comptroller: shall mean the comptroller of the state. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • county: shall mean any county in this state, except a county wholly within a city. See N.Y. Tax Law 1215
  • Custom slaughtered meat: means meat from animals which have been slaughtered by a custom slaughterer for the owner exclusively for use, in the household of such owner, by him and members of his household and his non-paying guests and employees. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
  • Custom slaughterer: means a person, firm, corporation or association who or which operates a place or establishment where animals are delivered by the owner thereof for slaughter exclusively for use, in the household of such owner, by him and members of his household and his non-paying guests and employees, provided, that such custom slaughterer does not engage in the business of buying or selling any carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat or meat products of any animal. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
  • dairy product: means all milk and milk products defined by the definitions and standards of identity promulgated pursuant to section forty-six-a of this chapter and such other food products derived from milk as the commissioner shall designate by regulation. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 71-U
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Decharacterization: means the uniform application of sufficient quantities of dye, charcoal, malodorous fish oil, acid, or any other agent approved by the commissioner upon and into the freely slashed flesh of meat or meat product not being rendered so as to unequivocally preclude its use for human food. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • deer: means any member of the family of cervidae. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the department of agriculture and markets. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Disposal plant: means the premises or place where bodies, carcasses or portions thereof of dead, dying, diseased, disabled or condemned animals or inedible meat are received and held for the purpose of burning, processing or rendering or otherwise obtaining the hides, skins, grease or meat therefrom in any manner whatsoever. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
  • Dog: means any member of the species canis familiaris. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 108
  • domestic animals: as used in this article shall mean domesticated sheep, horses, cattle, swine and goats. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 105-D
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • ear tag: means a unique, tamper-resistant device which, when affixed to the ears of cattle, deer, swine or camelid, identifies and distinguishes such animals. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Farm dressed meat: means meat from animals slaughtered by a bona fide farmer who, as an incident of such farm operation, slaughters his own domestic animals on his own premises exclusively for use, in his household, by him and members of his household and his non-paying guests and employees. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
  • Federal agency: shall mean the United States of America, and any officer, department, board, commissioner, bureau, division, corporation, agency or instrumentality thereof. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Federal inspection: means the meat inspection maintained by the United States department of agriculture. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
  • Federal inspection: means the poultry and poultry products inspection maintained by the United States department of agriculture. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Z-21
  • Federal law: means the federal meat inspection act and all acts amendatory thereof and supplementary thereto. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • fire retired employee: shall mean any person who was retired for service on or after April eighth, nineteen hundred sixty and prior to May first, nineteen hundred and sixty-three, or retired for disability on or after April eighth, nineteen hundred sixty and prior to May first, nineteen hundred sixty-four and receives, as a result of such retirement, a retirement allowance or pension from a retirement or pension system or plan of the city for members of the uniformed force of the fire department. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 13-671
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • foreign dairy product: means any dairy product produced, processed or manufactured outside the United States. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 71-U
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Game or wild game: means any deer or big game, or portions thereof, as defined in section 11-0103 of the environmental conservation law, taken by lawful hunting. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 71-Y
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • horse: means the entire family of equidae. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Inedible meat: means meat and meat products derived from dead, dying, disabled, diseased or condemned animals, and meat or meat products, regardless of origin, which are adulterated within the meaning of section two hundred of this chapter. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Inspection legend: means a mark or a statement authorized by the provisions of the federal law, on a carcass, meat, meat by-product, or meat food product indicating the product has been inspected and passed. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Judge: shall mean a judge of the family court of any county in the state. See
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Lawful custody: shall mean a custody (a) specifically authorized by statute or (b) pursuant to judgment, decree or order of a court or (c) otherwise authorized by law. See
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Licensed pharmacist: means a person licensed to practice pharmacy pursuant to article one hundred thirty-seven of this title. See
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Loan: shall mean (i) a mortgage loan evidenced by a bond, note or other obligation of a local development corporation secured by a mortgage on a project, defined in subdivision fourteen (i) and (ii) of this section, made by a local development corporation, a project occupant or other person, firm or corporation; (ii) a loan evidenced by a bond, note or other obligation of a local development corporation, a project occupant, or other person, firm or corporation secured by a loan agreement, contract or such other instrument deemed necessary or

    convenient on a project defined in subdivision fourteen (iii) of this section; (iii) a loan evidenced by a bond, note or other obligation of a local development corporation, a project occupant, or other person, firm or corporation secured by a security interest in machinery and equipment as provided in section eighteen hundred fourteen; and (iv) an employee ownership assistance loan made pursuant to paragraph (v) of subdivision fourteen of this section. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801

  • Local development corporation: shall mean a non-profit corporation incorporated or reincorporated under the laws of this state, regardless of its particular name, which shall meet the additional requirements of section eighteen hundred twenty-five of this title. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Meat: means the edible part of the muscle of cattle, swine, sheep, goats, horses and other large domesticated animals which is skeletal or which is found in the tongue, in the diaphragm, in the heart or in the esophagus, with or without the accompanying or overlying fat, and the portions of bone, skin, nerve and blood vessels which normally accompany the muscle tissue and which are not separated from it in the process of dressing. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
  • Meat: means the entire bodies, carcasses or portions thereof of animals or birds. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
  • Meat by-product: means any edible part other than meat which has been derived from cattle, swine, sheep, goats, horses and other large domesticated animals. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
  • Meat food product: means any product capable of use as human food which is made wholly or in part from any meat or other portion of the carcass of any animal, excepting products which contain meat or other portions of such carcasses only in a relatively small proportion or historically have not been considered by consumers as products of the meat food industry, and which are exempted from definition as a meat food product by the commissioner under such conditions as he may prescribe to assure that the meat or other portions of such carcasses contained in such product are not adulterated and that such products are not represented as meat food products. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
  • Meat label: means a display of written, printed, or graphic matter authorized by the provisions of the federal law on a container indicating the meat, meat by-products, or meat food products contained therein have been inspected and passed. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
  • Meat product: means any product which is made or derived wholly or in part from the body, carcass or portions thereof of animals or birds. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • mortgage: shall include housing loans as defined below. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 2402
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • Municipality: shall mean any county, city, town or village in the state. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • official backtag: means a unique device which, when affixed to cattle, deer, swine or camelid, identifies and distinguishes such animals. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: means any person, firm, corporation, or association. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-G
  • Person: means any person, firm, corporation, or association. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Z-21
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Pharmacy intern: means a person practicing under a limited permit pursuant to section sixty-eight hundred six of this title. See
  • Plant: shall mean real property, the buildings, improvements and structures thereon and the fixtures thereon other than machinery or equipment used by a project occupant in its operations. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • population: shall mean the number of people in the particular taxing jurisdiction as shown by the latest federal census. See N.Y. Tax Law 1215
  • poultry: means a domesticated fowl including chickens, turkeys, waterfowl, guinea fowl and game birds commonly used for the production of meat and eggs. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
  • Poultry: means any domesticated bird, whether live or dead. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Z-21
  • poultry dealer: means any person who buys or sells poultry as a business enterprise. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
  • Poultry product: means any poultry carcass, or part thereof; or any product which is made wholly or in part from any poultry carcass or part thereof, excepting products which contain poultry ingredients only in a relative small portion or historically have not been considered by consumers as products of the poultry food industry, and which are exempted by the commissioner from definition as a poultry product under such conditions as the commissioner may prescribe to assure that the poultry ingredients in such products are not adulterated and that such products are not represented as poultry products. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Z-21
  • poultry transporter: means any person who transports poultry as a business enterprise. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Private-placement adoption: shall mean any adoption other than that of a minor who has been placed for adoption by an authorized agency. See
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Processing: means any method whereby meat or meat products derived from animals are cut, boned, mixed, blended, canned, cured or otherwise prepared for purposes other than for human consumption. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
  • Project: shall mean (i) the construction of a new industrial or manufacturing plant, a new research and development building or other new eligible business facility, (ii) the acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement of a former or existing industrial or manufacturing plant, of a former or existing building to be used for research and development, of a former or existing other eligible business facility, (iii) the construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement of pollution control facilities, (iv) the purchase of machinery and equipment, for which financial assistance from the authority is sought, or (v) assistance to employees under an employee ownership assistance loan agreement made pursuant to subtitle six of this title; provided, however, that any such plant, building, facility or machinery and equipment therefore shall not be primarily used in making retail sales of goods or services to customers who personally visit such facilities to obtain such goods or services, or used primarily as a hotel, apartment house or other place of business which furnishes dwelling space or accommodations to either residents or transients. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Project cost: shall mean the aggregate costs incurred to finance the construction, acquisition, rehabilitation, or improvement of a project, and which are determined by the authority to be or to have been reasonably necessary therefor, including, without intending thereby to limit the generality of such costs: the cost of acquiring real property therefor; the cost of constructing or reconstructing buildings and improvements thereon, including, to the extent such costs are not borne by the municipality or other taxing district within which the project is located, the cost of constructing means of access to and from such project; the cost of constructing extensions to the project site of existing utility systems if such costs are customarily borne by the consumer; insurance premiums, financing charges, interest costs, commitment fees and the like incurred prior to or during the period of construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement; any fees or charges imposed by the authority in respect of an application for a mortgage loan; the cost of preparing project specifications, maps, plans, surveys, estimates, applications and other documents, including costs related to determination of the feasibility of the project in the planning stages; and all such other costs, charges, fees, and expenses, including labor costs, overhead costs, the costs of materials and supplies, and engineering, accounting and legal expenses, as may be reasonably incident to the construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement of the project; provided, however, that the term "project

    cost" except when used in subtitle III of this title shall not include the cost of any machinery or equipment (other than fixtures) or personal property to be used by the project occupant in its operations or any expenses related to the installation, replacement or rehabilitation thereof. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801

  • Project occupant: shall mean the business enterprise which proposes to use a project after construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • registration number: means the number assigned to and that identifies a particular domestic animal, which number and the identifying characteristics of such domestic animal are set forth in a registry maintained by a breed association recognized by the department. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Rendering: means the method by which animal bodies, carcasses or portions thereof, and meat or meat product are melted down and the fat or grease extracted therefrom. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • sheep: means any member of the genus ovis. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
  • Small business: means a business which is independently owned and operated, and which is not dominant in the field of operation. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1695
  • State: shall mean the state of New York. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • State agency: shall mean any officer, department, board, commission,

    bureau, division, public corporation, agency or instrumentality of the state. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801

  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Surrogate: shall mean the surrogate of any county in the state and any other judicial officer while acting in the capacity of surrogate. See
  • swine: means the entire super family of suidoidae, both feral and domestic. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 90-B
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Transportation service: means the operation within the state of a vehicle or vehicles by a person not otherwise licensed to operate a disposal plant, for the purpose of transporting for hire unprocessed animal bodies, carcasses or portions thereof, and meat or meat products which are not intended for eventual use for human consumption. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • True bill: Another word for indictment.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
  • Vehicle: means a conveyance or any piece of equipment whatsoever used in transportation service. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 96-Y
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.