Terms Used In New York Laws > Penal > Part 4 > Title Y
Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
Commercial feed: means all materials except unmixed whole seeds or physically altered entire unmixed seeds, when not adulterated within the meaning of subdivision one of section one hundred thirty-two of this article, which are distributed for use as feed or for mixing in feed, and includes pet food and specialty pet food. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 128
Commissioner: means the commissioner of education of the state of New York. See
Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
county: shall mean any county in this state, except a county wholly within a city. See N.Y. Tax Law 1215
crop seeds: include the seeds of grass, forage, cereal, field beans, and fiber crops, including "industrial hemp" as defined in section five hundred five of this chapter, or any other kinds of seeds commonly recognized within this state as agricultural seeds, lawn seeds, and mixtures of such seeds. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 136
Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
flower seeds: includes seeds of herbaceous plants grown for their blooms, ornamental foliage, or other ornamental parts and commonly known and sold under the name of flower seeds in this state. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 136
Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
kind: means one or more related species or subspecies which singly or collectively is known by one common name, for example, corn, oats, alfalfa, and timothy. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 136
labeling: refers to statements written or imprinted on the seed container itself or on a tag or label securely attached to it as specified in the label requirements of this law. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 136
Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
lot: means a definite quantity of seed which is identified by a lot number or other mark, and which has been so handled that each portion or container is representative of the whole quantity. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 136
Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
Mulch: means a protective covering of any suitable substance placed with seed which acts to retain sufficient moisture to support seed germination and sustain early seedling growth and aid in the prevention of the evaporation of soil moisture, the control of weeds, and the prevention of erosion. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 136
Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
Part: means each portion of a test for which a score is calculated. See
Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
percentage of germination: means the percentage of seeds, other than hard seeds, which are capable of producing normal seedlings under favorable conditions. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 136
person: shall be deemed to include, in addition to those mentioned hereinabove, all the officers, directors and persons having an interest in more than ten percent of the issued and outstanding stock of the owner as herein defined, as holder or beneficial owner thereof, if such person be a corporation other than a banking organization as defined in section two of the banking law, a national banking association, a federal savings and loan association, the mortgage facilities corporation, savings banks life insurance fund, the savings banks retirement system, an authorized insurer as defined in section one hundred seven of the insurance law, or a trust company or other corporation organized under the laws of this state all the capital stock of which is owned by at least twenty savings banks or by at least twenty savings and loan associations or a subsidiary corporation all of the capital stock of which is owned by such trust company or other corporation. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2004
Personal property: All property that is not real property.
population: shall mean the number of people in the particular taxing jurisdiction as shown by the latest federal census. See N.Y. Tax Law 1215
Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
Pure seed: means agricultural, vegetable, flower, tree, or shrub seeds exclusive of inert matter, weed seeds, and all other seeds distinguishable from the kinds, or kinds and varieties being considered. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 136
Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
Registrant: means any person who has registered a commercial feed manufacturing facility or brand of pet food or specialty pet food pursuant to the provisions of section one hundred twenty-nine of this article. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 128
Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
test: means any test that is given in New York at the expense of the test subject and designed for use and used in the process of selection for post-secondary or professional school admissions. See
Test agency: means any organization, association, corporation, partnership, or individual or person that develops, sponsors or administers a test. See
Test subject: means an individual to whom a test is administered. See
Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
treated: means that the seed has received an effective application of an approved substance or method designed to control or repel plant disease organisms, insects, or other pests; or has received some other treatment to improve its planting value. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 136
Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
variety: means a subdivision of a kind characterized by growth, yield, disease resistance, plant, flower, fruit, seed or other characteristics by which it may be differentiated under certain conditions from other plants of the same kind. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 136
vegetable seeds: includes seeds of those food crops which are grown in gardens and on truck farms and are generally known and sold under the name of vegetable or herb seeds in this state. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 136