Sections
Chapter 21 Educators 21.001 – 21.806
Chapter 22 School District Employees and Volunteers 22.001 – 22.902

Terms Used In Texas Education Code > Title 2 > Subtitle D

  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Association: means an entity governed as an association under Title 6 or 7. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-at-law: A person who is legally qualified and licensed to practice law, and to represent and act for clients in legal proceedings.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • Bailiff: a court officer who enforces the rules of behavior in courtrooms.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Business: means a trade, occupation, profession, or other commercial activity. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Certificate of formation: means :
    (A) the document required to be filed with the filing officer under Chapter Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Commissioner: means the commissioner of agriculture. See Texas Education Code 66.82
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Conference committee: A temporary, ad hoc panel composed of conferees from both chamber of a legislature which is formed for the purpose of reconciling differences in legislation that has passed both chambers. Conference committees are usually convened to resolve bicameral differences on major and controversial legislation.
  • Conversion: means :
    (A) the continuance of a domestic entity as a non-code organization of any type;
    (B) the continuance of a non-code organization as a domestic entity of any type;
    (C) the continuance of a domestic entity of one type as a domestic entity of another type;
    (D) the continuance of a domestic entity of one type as a foreign entity of the same type that may be treated as a domestication, continuance, or transfer transaction under the laws of the jurisdiction of formation of the foreign entity; or
    (E) the continuance of a foreign entity of one type as a domestic entity of the same type that may be treated as a domestication, continuance, or transfer transaction under the laws of the jurisdiction of formation of the foreign entity. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Corporation: means an entity governed as a corporation under Title 2 or 7. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • Court reporter: A person who makes a word-for-word record of what is said in court and produces a transcript of the proceedings upon request.
  • Cross examine: Questioning of a witness by the attorney for the other side.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Department of Agriculture. See Texas Education Code 66.82
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Domestic: means , with respect to an entity, that the entity is formed under this code or the entity's internal affairs are governed by this code. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Effects: includes all personal property and all interest in that property. See Texas Government Code 312.011
  • Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Entity: means a domestic entity or foreign entity. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • For-profit corporation: means a corporation governed as a for-profit corporation under Chapter Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Foreign: means , with respect to an entity, that the entity is formed under, and the entity's internal affairs are governed by, the laws of a jurisdiction other than this state. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Governing authority: means a person or group of persons who are entitled to manage and direct the affairs of an entity under this code and the governing documents of the entity, except that if the governing documents of the entity or this code divide the authority to manage and direct the affairs of the entity among different persons or groups of persons according to different matters, "governing authority" means the person or group of persons entitled to manage and direct the affairs of the entity with respect to a matter under the governing documents of the entity or this code. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Governing documents: means :
    (A) in the case of a domestic entity:
    (i) the certificate of formation for a domestic filing entity or the document or agreement under which a domestic nonfiling entity is formed; and
    (ii) the other documents or agreements adopted by the entity under this code to govern the formation or the internal affairs of the entity; or
    (B) in the case of a foreign entity, the instruments, documents, or agreements adopted under the law of its jurisdiction of formation to govern the formation or the internal affairs of the entity. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Governing person: means a person serving as part of the governing authority of an entity. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Individual: means a natural person. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Joint meeting: An occasion, often ceremonial, when the House and Senate each adopt a unanimous consent agreement
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Joint session: When both chambers of a legislature adopt a concurrent resolution to meet together.
  • Jurisdiction of formation: means :
    (A) in the case of a domestic filing entity, this state;
    (B) in the case of a foreign entity for which a certificate of formation or similar organizational instrument is filed in connection with its formation, the jurisdiction in which the entity's certificate of formation or similar organizational instrument is filed; or
    (C) in the case of a domestic nonfiling entity or a foreign entity for which a certificate of formation or similar organizational instrument is not filed in connection with its formation:
    (i) the jurisdiction the laws of which are chosen in the entity's governing documents to govern its internal affairs if that jurisdiction bears a reasonable relation to the owners or members or to the entity's business and affairs under the principles of this state that otherwise would apply to a contract among the owners or members; or
    (ii) if Subparagraph (i) does not apply, the jurisdiction in which the entity has its chief executive office. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Land commissioner: means the Commissioner of the General Land Office. See Texas Government Code 312.011
  • Law: means , unless the context requires otherwise, both statutory and common law. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
  • Legislative session: That part of a chamber's daily session in which it considers legislative business (bills, resolutions, and actions related thereto).
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • License: means a license, certificate of registration, or other legal authorization. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Limited liability company: means an entity governed as a limited liability company under Title 3 or 7. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Limited liability partnership: means a partnership governed as a limited liability partnership under Title 4. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Managerial official: means an officer or a governing person. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Member: means :
    (A) in the case of a limited liability company, a person who is a member or has been admitted as a member in the limited liability company under its governing documents;
    (B) in the case of a nonprofit corporation, a person who has membership rights in the nonprofit corporation under its governing documents;
    (C) in the case of a cooperative association, a member of a nonshare or share association;
    (D) in the case of a nonprofit association, a person who has membership rights in the nonprofit association under its governing documents; or
    (E) in the case of a professional association, a person who has membership rights in the professional association under its governing documents. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Merger: means :
    (A) the division of a domestic entity into two or more new domestic entities or other organizations or into a surviving domestic entity and one or more new domestic or foreign entities or non-code organizations; or
    (B) the combination of one or more domestic entities with one or more domestic entities or non-code organizations resulting in:
    (i) one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations;
    (ii) the creation of one or more new domestic entities or non-code organizations; or
    (iii) one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations and the creation of one or more new domestic entities or non-code organizations. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Month: means a calendar month. See Texas Government Code 312.011
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • most recent federal census: means the United States decennial census immediately preceding the action in question. See Texas Government Code 312.011
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • Nonprofit association: means an association governed as a nonprofit association under Chapter Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Nonprofit corporation: means a corporation governed as a nonprofit corporation under Chapter Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Officer: means an individual elected, appointed, or designated as an officer of an entity by the entity's governing authority or under the entity's governing documents. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
  • Organization: means a corporation, limited or general partnership, limited liability company, business trust, real estate investment trust, joint venture, joint stock company, cooperative, association, bank, insurance company, credit union, savings and loan association, or other organization, regardless of whether the organization is for-profit, nonprofit, domestic, or foreign. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Ownership interest: means an owner's interest in an entity. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Partnership: means an entity governed as a partnership under Title 4. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Person: means an individual or a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, business trust, trust, association, or other organization, estate, government or governmental subdivision or agency, or other legal entity, or a series of a domestic limited liability company or foreign entity. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Petit jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Professional association: has the meaning assigned by Section Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Professional corporation: has the meaning assigned by Section Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Professional entity: has the meaning assigned by Section Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Professional individual: has the meaning assigned by Section Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Professional limited liability company: has the meaning assigned by Section Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Professional service: has the meaning assigned by Section Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Revolving credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or open-end credit.) Source: OCC
  • Secretary: means the:
    (A) individual designated as secretary of an entity under the entity's governing documents; or
    (B) officer or committee of persons authorized to perform the functions of secretary of an entity without regard to the designated name of the officer or committee. See Texas Government Code 30.00304
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Signature: includes the mark of a person unable to write, and "subscribe" includes the making of such a mark. See Texas Government Code 312.011
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Succeeding: means immediately following. See Texas Government Code 312.011
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Swear: includes affirm. See Texas Government Code 311.005
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.