Sections
Chapter 51 Provisions Generally Applicable to Higher Education 51.001 – 51.978
Chapter 51 Provisions Generally Applicable to Higher Education 51.001 – 51.978
Chapter 51A Online Institution Resumes for Institutions of Higher Education 51A.001 – 51A.153
Chapter 52 Student Loan Program 52.01 – 52.91
Chapter 53 Higher Education Facility Authorities for Public Schools 53.01 – 53.48
Chapter 53A Higher Education Facility Authorities for Private Schools 53A.01 – 53A.49
Chapter 53B Higher Education Loan Authorities 53B.01 – 53B.48
Chapter 54 Tuition and Fees 54.001 – 54.917
Chapter 55 Financing Permanent Improvements 55.01 – 55.41
Chapter 56 Student Financial Assistance 56.001 – 56.493
Chapter 57 Guaranteed Student Loans 57.011 – 57.49
Chapter 58 Compensation of Resident Physicians 58.002 – 58.010
Chapter 58A Programs Supporting Graduate Medical Education 58A.001 – 58A.081
Chapter 59 Health Care Professional Malpractice Coverage for Certain Institutions 59.01 – 59.28

Terms Used In Texas Education Code > Title 3 > Subtitle A

  • Abstract of judgment: In a federal criminal proceeding, A certification from a U.S. District Court clerk that a judgment of restitution was entered against the defendant owing to the victim. If the defendant inherits, owns, or sells real property or holdings, these assets can then be attached at the state and local levels as well.
  • Accident and health insurance: means contracts that incorporate morbidity risk and provide protection against economic loss resulting from accident, sickness, or medical conditions and as may be specified in the valuation manual. See Texas Insurance Code 425.052
  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Affiliate: means a person who controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with another person. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annual percentage rate: The cost of credit at a yearly rate. It is calculated in a standard way, taking the average compound interest rate over the term of the loan so borrowers can compare loans. Lenders are required by law to disclose a card account's APR. Source: FDIC
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appointed actuary: means a qualified actuary who is appointed in accordance with the valuation manual to prepare the actuarial opinion required by Section Texas Insurance Code 425.052
  • Appraised value: means the value determined as provided by Chapter 23 of this code. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assessed value: means , for the purposes of assessment of property for taxation, the amount determined by multiplying the appraised value by the applicable assessment ratio, but, for the purposes of determining the debt limitation imposed by Article III, Section Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Assessor: means the officer or employee responsible for assessing property taxes as provided by Chapter 26 of this code for a taxing unit by whatever title he is designated. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Asset forfeiture: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Associate: when used to indicate a relationship with a person, means:
    (A) a domestic or foreign entity or organization for which the person:
    (i) is an officer or governing person; or
    (ii) beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, either individually or through an affiliate, 10 percent or more of a class of voting ownership interests or similar securities of the entity or organization;
    (B) a trust or estate in which the person has a substantial beneficial interest or for which the person serves as trustee or in a similar fiduciary capacity;
    (C) the person's spouse or a relative of the person related by consanguinity or affinity who resides with the person; or
    (D) a governing person or an affiliate or officer of the person. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Association: means an entity governed as an association under Title 6 or 7. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Assumed name: means a name adopted for use by a person. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • Bailiff: a court officer who enforces the rules of behavior in courtrooms.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Board: means the governing body of a district. See Texas Water Code 49.001
  • Board: means the navigation board. See Texas Water Code 62.001
  • Board: means the navigation board. See Texas Water Code 63.001
  • Board: means the Texas Medical Board. See Texas Occupations Code 151.002
  • Business: means a trade, occupation, profession, or other commercial activity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Capital offense: A crime punishable by death.
  • Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts.
  • Certificate of formation: means :
    (A) the document required to be filed with the filing officer under Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Charge to the jury: The judge's instructions to the jury concerning the law that applies to the facts of the case on trial.
  • Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
  • Claims: includes :
    (1) liabilities of a decedent that survive the decedent's death, including taxes, regardless of whether the liabilities arise in contract or tort or otherwise;
    (2) funeral expenses;
    (3) the expense of a tombstone;
    (4) expenses of administration;
    (5) estate and inheritance taxes; and
    (6) debts due such estates. See Texas Estates Code 22.005
  • Clerical error: means an error:
    (A) that is or results from a mistake or failure in writing, copying, transcribing, entering or retrieving computer data, computing, or calculating; or
    (B) that prevents an appraisal roll or a tax roll from accurately reflecting a finding or determination made by the chief appraiser, the appraisal review board, or the assessor; however, "clerical error" does not include an error that is or results from a mistake in judgment or reasoning in the making of the finding or determination. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Close corporation: means a for-profit corporation that elects to be governed as a close corporation in accordance with Subchapter O, Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Collector: means the officer or employee responsible for collecting property taxes for a taxing unit by whatever title he is designated. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Commission: means the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. See Texas Water Code 49.001
  • Commission: means the navigation and canal commission. See Texas Water Code 62.001
  • Commission: means the board of navigation and canal commissioners. See Texas Water Code 63.001
  • Commissioner: means a navigation and canal commissioner. See Texas Water Code 62.001
  • Commissioner: means a member of the commission. See Texas Water Code 63.001
  • Committee membership: Legislators are assigned to specific committees by their party. Seniority, regional balance, and political philosophy are the most prominent factors in the committee assignment process.
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Company: means an entity that:
    (A) has written, issued, or reinsured life insurance contracts, accident and health insurance contracts, or deposit-type contracts in this state and has at least one such policy in force or on claim; or
    (B) has written, issued, or reinsured life insurance contracts, accident and health insurance contracts, or deposit-type contracts in any state and is required to hold a certificate of authority to write life insurance, accident and health insurance, or deposit-type contracts in this state. See Texas Insurance Code 425.052
  • Comptroller: means the Comptroller of Public Accounts of the State of Texas. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Continuing threat to the public welfare: means a real danger to the health of a physician's patients or to the public from the acts or omissions of the physician caused through the physician's lack of competence, impaired status, or failure to care adequately for the physician's patients, as determined by:
    (A) the board;
    (B) a medical peer review committee in this state;
    (C) a physician licensed to practice medicine in this state or otherwise lawfully practicing medicine in this state;
    (D) a physician engaged in graduate medical education or training; or
    (E) a medical student. See Texas Occupations Code 151.002
  • Contribution: means a tangible or intangible benefit that a person transfers to an entity in consideration for an ownership interest in the entity or otherwise in the person's capacity as an owner or a member. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Conversion: means :
    (A) the continuance of a domestic entity as a non-code organization of any type;
    (B) the continuance of a non-code organization as a domestic entity of any type;
    (C) the continuance of a domestic entity of one type as a domestic entity of another type;
    (D) the continuance of a domestic entity of one type as a foreign entity of the same type that may be treated as a domestication, continuance, or transfer transaction under the laws of the jurisdiction of formation of the foreign entity; or
    (E) the continuance of a foreign entity of one type as a domestic entity of the same type that may be treated as a domestication, continuance, or transfer transaction under the laws of the jurisdiction of formation of the foreign entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Converted entity: means an organization resulting from a conversion. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Converting entity: means an organization as the organization existed before the organization's conversion. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • cooperative association: means an association governed as a cooperative association under Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Corporation: means an entity governed as a corporation under Title 2 or 7. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • County of jurisdiction: means the county in which the district or the greater amount of acreage of the district is located. See Texas Water Code 62.001
  • Court: means and includes:
    (1) a county court in the exercise of its probate jurisdiction;
    (2) a court created by statute and authorized to exercise original probate jurisdiction; and
    (3) a district court exercising original probate jurisdiction in a contested matter. See Texas Estates Code 22.007
  • Court reporter: A person who makes a word-for-word record of what is said in court and produces a transcript of the proceedings upon request.
  • Credit report: A detailed report of an individual's credit history prepared by a credit bureau and used by a lender in determining a loan applicant's creditworthiness. Source: OCC
  • Credit Score: A number, roughly between 300 and 800, that measures an individual's credit worthiness. The most well-known type of credit score is the FICO score. This score represents the answer from a mathematical formula that assigns numerical values to various pieces of information in your credit report. Source: OCC
  • Defense attorney: Represent defendants in criminal matters.
  • Department: means the Department of Agriculture. See Texas Agriculture Code 1.003
  • Department of Public Safety: means the Department of Public Safety of the State of Texas. See Texas Transportation Code 1.004
  • Director: means either a supervisor or director appointed or elected to the board. See Texas Water Code 49.001
  • Director: means an individual who serves on the board of directors of a foreign or domestic corporation. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • District: means any district or authority created by authority of either Sections Texas Water Code 49.001
  • District: means a navigation district operating under the provisions of Article XVI, Section Texas Water Code 62.001
  • District: means a self-liquidating navigation district. See Texas Water Code 63.001
  • District: means any district or authority created under Sections Texas Water Code 49.3181
  • District facility: means tangible real and personal property of the district, including any plant, equipment, means, recreational facility as defined by Section Texas Water Code 49.001
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Doctor of osteopathic medicine: includes a doctor of osteopathy, an osteopath, an osteopathic physician, and an osteopathic surgeon. See Texas Occupations Code 151.002
  • Domestic: means , with respect to an entity, that the entity is formed under this code or the entity's internal affairs are governed by this code. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Domestic entity: means an organization formed under or the internal affairs of which are governed by this code. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Effective date of this code: means January 1, 2006. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Electronic data system: means an electronic network or database. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
  • Electronic transmission: means a form of communication, including communication by use of or participation in one or more electronic data systems, that:
    (A) does not directly involve the physical transmission of paper;
    (B) creates a record that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by the recipient; and
    (C) may be directly reproduced in paper form by the recipient through an automated process. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Enrolled bill: The final copy of a bill or joint resolution which has passed both chambers in identical form. It is printed on parchment paper, signed by appropriate officials, and submitted to the President/Governor for signature.
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Entity: means a domestic entity or foreign entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Estate: means a decedent's property, as that property:
    (1) exists originally and as the property changes in form by sale, reinvestment, or otherwise;
    (2) is augmented by any accretions and other additions to the property, including any property to be distributed to the decedent's representative by the trustee of a trust that terminates on the decedent's death, and substitutions for the property; and
    (3) is diminished by any decreases in or distributions from the property. See Texas Estates Code 22.012
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executive director: means the executive director of the commission. See Texas Water Code 49.001
  • Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Filing entity: means a domestic entity that is a corporation, limited partnership, limited liability company, professional association, cooperative, or real estate investment trust. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Filing instrument: means an instrument, document, consent, or statement that is required or authorized by this code to be filed by or for an entity with the filing officer in accordance with Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Filing officer: means :
    (A) with respect to an entity other than a domestic real estate investment trust, the secretary of state; or
    (B) with respect to a domestic real estate investment trust, the county clerk of the county in which the real estate investment trust's principal office is located in this state. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Finance charge: The total cost of credit a customer must pay on a consumer loan, including interest. The Truth in Lending Act requires disclosure of the finance charge. Source: OCC
  • For-profit corporation: means a corporation governed as a for-profit corporation under Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Foreign: means , with respect to an entity, that the entity is formed under, and the entity's internal affairs are governed by, the laws of a jurisdiction other than this state. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Foreign entity: means an organization formed under, and the internal affairs of which are governed by, the laws of a jurisdiction other than this state. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Foreign filing entity: means a foreign entity, other than a foreign limited liability partnership, that registers or is required to register as a foreign entity under Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Foreign nonfiling entity: means a foreign entity that is not a foreign filing entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Fundamental business transaction: means a merger, interest exchange, conversion, or sale of all or substantially all of an entity's assets. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • General partner: means :
    (A) each partner in a general partnership; or
    (B) a person who is admitted to a limited partnership as a general partner in accordance with the governing documents of the limited partnership. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • General partnership: means a partnership governed as a general partnership under Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • General-law municipality: means a municipality designated by Chapter Texas Local Government Code 1.005
  • Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance.
  • Governing authority: means a person or group of persons who are entitled to manage and direct the affairs of an entity under this code and the governing documents of the entity, except that if the governing documents of the entity or this code divide the authority to manage and direct the affairs of the entity among different persons or groups of persons according to different matters, "governing authority" means the person or group of persons entitled to manage and direct the affairs of the entity with respect to a matter under the governing documents of the entity or this code. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Governing documents: means :
    (A) in the case of a domestic entity:
    (i) the certificate of formation for a domestic filing entity or the document or agreement under which a domestic nonfiling entity is formed; and
    (ii) the other documents or agreements adopted by the entity under this code to govern the formation or the internal affairs of the entity; or
    (B) in the case of a foreign entity, the instruments, documents, or agreements adopted under the law of its jurisdiction of formation to govern the formation or the internal affairs of the entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Governing person: means a person serving as part of the governing authority of an entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • Heir property: means real property:
    (A) owned by one or more individuals, at least one of whom claims the property as the individual's residence homestead; and
    (B) acquired by the owner or owners by will, transfer on death deed, or intestacy, regardless of whether the interests of the owners are recorded in the real property records of the county in which the property is located. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • holder of shares: means :
    (A) the person in whose name shares issued by a for-profit corporation, professional corporation, or real estate investment trust are registered in the share transfer records maintained by or on behalf of the for-profit corporation, professional corporation, or real estate investment trust; or
    (B) the beneficial owner of shares issued by a for-profit corporation, whose shares are held in a voting trust or by a nominee on the beneficial owner's behalf, to the extent of the rights granted by a nominee statement on file with the for-profit corporation in accordance with Sections Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Home-rule municipality: means a municipality designated by Chapter Texas Local Government Code 1.005
  • Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
  • Improvement: means :
    (A) a building, structure, fixture, or fence erected on or affixed to land;
    (B) a transportable structure that is designed to be occupied for residential or business purposes, whether or not it is affixed to land, if the owner of the structure owns the land on which it is located, unless the structure is unoccupied and held for sale or normally is located at a particular place only temporarily; or
    (C) for purposes of an entity created under Section Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • in writing: includes any representation of words, letters, or figures, whether by writing, printing, or other means. See Texas Government Code 312.011
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Independent executor: means the personal representative of an estate under independent administration as provided by Chapter Texas Estates Code 22.017
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Individual: means a natural person. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Insolvency: means the inability of a person to pay the person's debts as they become due in the usual course of business or affairs. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Insolvent: means a person who is unable to pay the person's debts as they become due in the usual course of business or affairs. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Intangible personal property: means a claim, interest (other than an interest in tangible property), right, or other thing that has value but cannot be seen, felt, weighed, measured, or otherwise perceived by the senses, although its existence may be evidenced by a document. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Interest exchange: means the acquisition of an ownership or membership interest in a domestic entity as provided by Subchapter B, Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Internal Revenue Code: means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Joint meeting: An occasion, often ceremonial, when the House and Senate each adopt a unanimous consent agreement
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Joint tenancy: A form of property ownership in which two or more parties hold an undivided interest in the same property that was conveyed under the same instrument at the same time. A joint tenant can sell his (her) interest but not dispose of it by will. Upon the death of a joint tenant, his (her) undivided interest is distributed among the surviving joint tenants.
  • Jurisdiction of formation: means :
    (A) in the case of a domestic filing entity, this state;
    (B) in the case of a foreign entity for which a certificate of formation or similar organizational instrument is filed in connection with its formation, the jurisdiction in which the entity's certificate of formation or similar organizational instrument is filed; or
    (C) in the case of a domestic nonfiling entity or a foreign entity for which a certificate of formation or similar organizational instrument is not filed in connection with its formation:
    (i) the jurisdiction the laws of which are chosen in the entity's governing documents to govern its internal affairs if that jurisdiction bears a reasonable relation to the owners or members or to the entity's business and affairs under the principles of this state that otherwise would apply to a contract among the owners or members; or
    (ii) if Subparagraph (i) does not apply, the jurisdiction in which the entity has its chief executive office. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Jurisprudence: The study of law and the structure of the legal system.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Law: means , unless the context requires otherwise, both statutory and common law. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Law of descent: The State statutes that specify how a deceased person
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Legal tender: coins, dollar bills, or other currency issued by a government as official money. Source: U.S. Mint
  • Legislative session: That part of a chamber's daily session in which it considers legislative business (bills, resolutions, and actions related thereto).
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • License: means a license, certificate of registration, or other legal authorization. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • lien: include :
    (1) a deed of trust;
    (2) a vendor's lien, a mechanic's, materialman's, or laborer's lien, an attachment or garnishment lien, and a federal or state tax lien;
    (3) a chattel mortgage;
    (4) a judgment; and
    (5) a pledge by hypothecation. See Texas Estates Code 22.024
  • Life estate: A property interest limited in duration to the life of the individual holding the interest (life tenant).
  • Life insurance: means contracts that incorporate mortality risk, including annuity and pure endowment contracts, and as may be specified in the valuation manual. See Texas Insurance Code 425.052
  • Limited liability company: means an entity governed as a limited liability company under Title 3 or 7. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Limited liability partnership: means a partnership governed as a limited liability partnership under Title 4. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Limited partner: means a person who has been admitted to a limited partnership as a limited partner as provided by:
    (A) in the case of a domestic limited partnership, Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Limited partnership: means a partnership that is governed as a limited partnership under Title 4 and that has one or more general partners and one or more limited partners. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Manager: means a person designated as a manager of a limited liability company that is not managed by members of the company. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Managerial official: means an officer or a governing person. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Market value: means the price at which a property would transfer for cash or its equivalent under prevailing market conditions if:
    (A) exposed for sale in the open market with a reasonable time for the seller to find a purchaser;
    (B) both the seller and the purchaser know of all the uses and purposes to which the property is adapted and for which it is capable of being used and of the enforceable restrictions on its use; and
    (C) both the seller and purchaser seek to maximize their gains and neither is in a position to take advantage of the exigencies of the other. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Markup: The process by which congressional committees and subcommittees debate, amend, and rewrite proposed legislation.
  • Medical records: means all records relating to the history, diagnosis, treatment, or prognosis of a patient. See Texas Occupations Code 151.002
  • Member: means :
    (A) in the case of a limited liability company, a person who is a member or has been admitted as a member in the limited liability company under its governing documents;
    (B) in the case of a nonprofit corporation, a person who has membership rights in the nonprofit corporation under its governing documents;
    (C) in the case of a cooperative association, a member of a nonshare or share association;
    (D) in the case of a nonprofit association, a person who has membership rights in the nonprofit association under its governing documents; or
    (E) in the case of a professional association, a person who has membership rights in the professional association under its governing documents. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Membership interest: means a member's interest in an entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Merger: means :
    (A) the division of a domestic entity into two or more new domestic entities or other organizations or into a surviving domestic entity and one or more new domestic or foreign entities or non-code organizations; or
    (B) the combination of one or more domestic entities with one or more domestic entities or non-code organizations resulting in:
    (i) one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations;
    (ii) the creation of one or more new domestic entities or non-code organizations; or
    (iii) one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations and the creation of one or more new domestic entities or non-code organizations. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • Municipality: means a general-law municipality, home-rule municipality, or special-law municipality. See Texas Local Government Code 1.005
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • National securities exchange: means an exchange registered as a national securities exchange under Section 6, Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • Non-code organization: means an organization other than a domestic entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Nonfiling entity: means a domestic entity that is not a filing entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Nonprofit corporation: means a corporation governed as a nonprofit corporation under Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Officer: means an individual elected, appointed, or designated as an officer of an entity by the entity's governing authority or under the entity's governing documents. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Official oath: means the oath required by Article XVI, Section Texas Government Code 312.011
  • Operation: means the application of surgery or the performance of surgical services. See Texas Occupations Code 151.002
  • Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
  • Organization: means a corporation, limited or general partnership, limited liability company, business trust, real estate investment trust, joint venture, joint stock company, cooperative, association, bank, insurance company, credit union, savings and loan association, or other organization, regardless of whether the organization is for-profit, nonprofit, domestic, or foreign. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Ownership interest: means an owner's interest in an entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Parliamentarian: The Parliamentarian is an advisor on the interpretation of legislative rules and procedures.
  • Partial exemption: means an exemption of part of the value of taxable property. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Partner: means a limited partner or general partner. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Partnership: means an entity governed as a partnership under Title 4. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Partnership interest: means a partner's interest in a partnership. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Party to the merger: means a domestic entity or non-code organization that under a plan of merger is divided or combined by a merger. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Per stirpes: The legal means by which the children of a decedent, upon the death of an ancestor at a level above that of the decedent, receive by right of representation the share of the ancestor
  • Person: means an individual or a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, business trust, trust, association, or other organization, estate, government or governmental subdivision or agency, or other legal entity, or a series of a domestic limited liability company or foreign entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Person: includes a natural person and a corporation. See Texas Estates Code 22.027
  • Person: means an individual, unless the term is expressly made applicable to a partnership, association, or corporation. See Texas Occupations Code 151.002
  • person interested: means :
    (1) an heir, devisee, spouse, creditor, or any other having a property right in or claim against an estate being administered; and
    (2) anyone interested in the welfare of an incapacitated person, including a minor. See Texas Estates Code 22.018
  • Personal property: means property that is not real property. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Personal property: includes an interest in:
    (1) goods;
    (2) money;
    (3) a chose in action;
    (4) an evidence of debt; and
    (5) a real chattel. See Texas Estates Code 22.028
  • personal representative: include :
    (1) an executor and independent executor;
    (2) an administrator, independent administrator, and temporary administrator; and
    (3) a successor to an executor or administrator listed in Subdivision (1) or (2). See Texas Estates Code 22.031
  • Petit jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
  • Physician: means a person licensed to practice medicine in this state. See Texas Occupations Code 151.002
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plan of conversion: means a document that conforms with the requirements of Section Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Plan of exchange: means a document that conforms with the requirements of Section Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Plan of merger: means a document that conforms with the requirements of Sections Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Plea agreement: An arrangement between the prosecutor, the defense attorney, and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for special considerations. Source:
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Policyholder behavior: means any action a policyholder, a contract holder, or any other person with the right to elect options, such as a certificate holder, may take under a policy or contract subject to this subchapter, including lapse, withdrawal, transfer, deposit, premium payment, loan, annuitization, or benefit elections prescribed by the policy or contract but excluding events of mortality or morbidity that result in benefits prescribed in their essential aspects by the terms of the policy or contract. See Texas Insurance Code 425.052
  • Possessory interest: means an interest that exists as a result of possession or exclusive use or a right to possession or exclusive use of a property and that is unaccompanied by ownership of a fee simple or life estate in the property. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Potable water: means water that has been treated for public drinking water supply purposes. See Texas Water Code 49.001
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • President: means the:
    (A) individual designated as president of an entity under the entity's governing documents; or
    (B) officer or committee of persons authorized to perform the functions of the principal executive officer of an entity without regard to the designated name of the officer or committee. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Principle-based valuation: means the valuation described by Section Texas Insurance Code 425.052
  • Pro se: A Latin term meaning "on one's own behalf"; in courts, it refers to persons who present their own cases without lawyers.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • Professional service: has the meaning assigned by Section Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Property: means any matter or thing capable of private ownership. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Property: includes tangible and intangible property and an interest in that property. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public defender: Represent defendants who can't afford an attorney in criminal matters.
  • Qualified actuary: means an individual who is qualified to sign the applicable statement of actuarial opinion in accordance with the American Academy of Actuaries' qualification standards for actuaries signing such statements and who meets the requirements specified in the valuation manual. See Texas Insurance Code 425.052
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Real estate investment trust: means an entity governed as a real estate investment trust under Title 5. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Real property: means :
    (A) land;
    (B) an improvement;
    (C) a mine or quarry;
    (D) a mineral in place;
    (E) standing timber; or
    (F) an estate or interest, other than a mortgage or deed of trust creating a lien on property or an interest securing payment or performance of an obligation, in a property enumerated in Paragraphs (A) through (E) of this subdivision. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Real property: includes estates and interests in land, whether corporeal or incorporeal or legal or equitable. See Texas Estates Code 22.030
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Remainderman: One entitled to the remainder of an estate after a particular reserved right or interest, such as a life tenancy, has expired.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Reserves: means reserve liabilities. See Texas Insurance Code 425.052
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Revolving credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or open-end credit.) Source: OCC
  • Right of rescission: Right to cancel, within three business days, a contract that uses the home of a person as collateral, except in the case of a first mortgage loan. There is no fee to the borrower, who receives a full refund of all fees paid. The right of rescission is guaranteed by the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). Source: OCC
  • Right of survivorship: The ownership rights that result in the acquisition of title to property by reason of having survived other co-owners.
  • Secretary: means the:
    (A) individual designated as secretary of an entity under the entity's governing documents; or
    (B) officer or committee of persons authorized to perform the functions of secretary of an entity without regard to the designated name of the officer or committee. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Share: means a unit into which the ownership interest in a for-profit corporation, professional corporation, real estate investment trust, or professional association is divided, regardless of whether the share is certificated or uncertificated. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Sidebar: A conference between the judge and lawyers held out of earshot of the jury and spectators.
  • Signature: means any symbol executed or adopted by a person with present intention to authenticate a writing. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Simple resolution: Designated "S. Res.," simple resolutions are used to express nonbinding positions of the Senate or to deal with the Senate's internal affairs, such as the creation of a special committee. They do not require action by the House of Representatives.
  • Social purposes: means one or more purposes of a for-profit corporation that are specified in the corporation's certificate of formation and consist of promoting one or more positive impacts on society or the environment or of minimizing one or more adverse impacts of the corporation's activities on society or the environment. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Special water authority: means a river authority as that term is defined in Section 30. See Texas Water Code 49.001
  • Special-law municipality: means a municipality designated by Chapter Texas Local Government Code 1.005
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • Subscriber: means a person who agrees with or makes an offer to an entity to purchase by subscription an ownership interest in the entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Subscription: means an agreement between a subscriber and an entity, or a written offer made by a subscriber to an entity before or after the entity's formation, in which the subscriber agrees or offers to purchase a specified ownership interest in the entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Subsidiary: means an organization for which another organization, either directly or indirectly through or with one or more of its other subsidiaries:
    (A) owns at least 50 percent of the outstanding ownership or membership interests of the organization; or
    (B) possesses at least 50 percent of the voting power of the owners or members of the organization. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Succeeding: means immediately following. See Texas Government Code 312.011
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Swear: includes affirm. See Texas Government Code 311.005
  • Tail risk: means a risk that occurs either where the frequency of low probability events is higher than expected under a normal probability distribution or where there are observed events of very significant size or magnitude. See Texas Insurance Code 425.052
  • Tangible personal property: means personal property that can be seen, weighed, measured, felt, or otherwise perceived by the senses, but does not include a document or other perceptible object that constitutes evidence of a valuable interest, claim, or right and has negligible or no intrinsic value. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Tax year: means the calendar year. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Taxable value: means the amount determined by deducting from assessed value the amount of any applicable partial exemption. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Taxing unit: means a county, an incorporated city or town (including a home-rule city), a school district, a special district or authority (including a junior college district, a hospital district, a district created by or pursuant to the Water Code, a mosquito control district, a fire prevention district, or a noxious weed control district), or any other political unit of this state, whether created by or pursuant to the constitution or a local, special, or general law, that is authorized to impose and is imposing ad valorem taxes on property even if the governing body of another political unit determines the tax rate for the unit or otherwise governs its affairs. See Texas Tax Code 1.04
  • Tenancy by the entirety: A type of joint tenancy between husband and wife that is recognized in some States. Neither party can sever the joint tenancy relationship; when a spouse dies, the survivor acquires full title to the property.
  • Tenancy in common: A type of property ownership in which two or more individuals have an undivided interest in property. At the death of one tenant in common, his (her) fractional percentage of ownership in the property passes to the decedent
  • Testate: To die leaving a will.
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Treasurer: means the:
    (A) individual designated as treasurer of an entity under the entity's governing documents; or
    (B) officer or committee of persons authorized to perform the functions of treasurer of an entity without regard to the designated name of the officer or committee. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Trustor: The person who makes or creates a trust. Also known as the grantor or settlor.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • Urban property: means land that:
    (A) has been subdivided into town lots, town lots and blocks, or small parcels of the same general nature as town lots or town lots and blocks and is designed, intended, or suitable for residential or other nonagricultural purposes, as distinguished from farm acreage, and includes streets, alleys, parkways, parks, and railroad property and rights-of-way within that subdivided land; and
    (B) is in a subdivision:
    (i) that is within the corporate limits or extraterritorial jurisdiction of a municipality that has subdivision approval jurisdiction under Chapter Texas Water Code 49.3181
  • Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
  • Valuation manual: means the manual of valuation instructions adopted by the commissioner by rule. See Texas Insurance Code 425.052
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • Water supply corporation: means a nonprofit water supply or sewer service corporation created or operating under Chapter Texas Water Code 49.001
  • Week: means seven consecutive days. See Texas Government Code 311.005
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
  • written: means an expression of words, letters, characters, numbers, symbols, figures, or other textual information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium that is retrievable in a perceivable form. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002