§ 321.1 Definitions of words and phrases
§ 321.1A Presumption of residency
§ 321.2 Administration and enforcement
§ 321.3 Powers and duties of director
§ 321.4 Rules
§ 321.5 Duty to obey
§ 321.6 Reciprocal enforcement — patrol beats.
§ 321.7 Seal of department
§ 321.8 Director to prescribe forms
§ 321.9 Authority to administer oaths and acknowledge signatures
§ 321.10 Certified copies of records
§ 321.11 Records of department
§ 321.11A Personal information disclosure — exception.
§ 321.12 Destruction of records
§ 321.13 Authority to grant or refuse applications
§ 321.14 Seizure of documents and plates
§ 321.15 Publication of law
§ 321.16 Giving of notices
§ 321.17 Misdemeanor to violate registration provisions
§ 321.18 Vehicles subject to registration — exception.
§ 321.18A Records of implements of husbandry
§ 321.19 Exemptions — distinguishing plates — definitions of urban transit company and regional transit system.
§ 321.20 Application for registration and certificate of title
§ 321.20A Certificate of title and registration fees — commercial vehicles.
§ 321.20B Proof of security against liability — driving without liability coverage.
§ 321.21 Special mobile equipment plates
§ 321.22 Urban and regional transit equipment certificates and plates
§ 321.23 Titles to specially constructed and reconstructed vehicles, street rods, replica vehicles, and foreign vehicles
§ 321.23A Affidavit of correction
§ 321.24 Issuance of registration and certificate of title
§ 321.25 Application for registration and title — cards attached.
§ 321.26 Multiple registration periods and adjustments
§ 321.27 Implementation of twelve-month registration period
§ 321.28 Failure to register
§ 321.29 Renewal not permitted
§ 321.30 Grounds for refusing registration or title
§ 321.31 Records system
§ 321.32 Registration card carried and exhibited — exception.
§ 321.33 Exception
§ 321.34 Plates or validation sticker furnished — retained by owner — special plates.
§ 321.35 Plates — reflective material — bidding procedures.
§ 321.37 Display of plates
§ 321.38 Plates — method of attaching — imitations prohibited.
§ 321.39 Expiration of registration
§ 321.40 Application for renewal — notification — reasons for refusal.
§ 321.41 Change of address or name or fuel type
§ 321.42 Lost or damaged certificates, cards, and plates — replacements.
§ 321.43 New identifying numbers
§ 321.44 Rules governing change of engines, drivetrain assemblies, and related parts
§ 321.44A Voluntary contribution — anatomical gift public awareness and transplantation fund — amount retained by county treasurer.
§ 321.45 Title must be transferred with vehicle
§ 321.46 New title and registration upon transfer of ownership — credit.
§ 321.46A Change from apportioned registration — credit.
§ 321.47 Transfers by operation of law
§ 321.48 Vehicles acquired for resale
§ 321.49 Time limit — penalty — power of attorney.
§ 321.50 Security interest provisions
§ 321.51 Terminal rental adjustment clause — vehicle leases that are not sales or security interests.
§ 321.52 Out-of-state sales — junked, dismantled, wrecked, or salvage vehicles.
§ 321.52A Certificate of title surcharge — allocation of moneys.
§ 321.53 Nonresident owners of passenger vehicles and trucks
§ 321.54 Registration and financial liability coverage required of certain nonresident carriers
§ 321.55 Registration and financial liability coverage required for certain vehicles owned or operated by nonresidents
§ 321.56 Repair of out-of-state commercial motor vehicles — permits.
§ 321.57 Operation under special plates
§ 321.58 Application
§ 321.59 Issuance of certificate
§ 321.60 Issuance of special plates
§ 321.61 Expiration of special plates
§ 321.62 Records required
§ 321.63 Different places of business
§ 321.64 Implementation of multiyear licensing and issuance of special plates
§ 321.65 Garage record
§ 321.66 Duty to hold vehicles
§ 321.67 Certificate of title must be executed
§ 321.68 Sale in bulk
§ 321.69 Damage disclosure statement
§ 321.69A Disclosure of repairs to new vehicles
§ 321.70 Dealer vehicles
§ 321.71 Odometer requirements
§ 321.71A Counterfeit, nonfunctional, and unsafe air bags
§ 321.72 Report of stolen and recovered motor vehicles
§ 321.73 Reports by owners
§ 321.74 Action by department
§ 321.78 Injuring or tampering with vehicle
§ 321.79 Intent to injure
§ 321.81 Presumptive evidence
§ 321.84 Seizure of vehicles
§ 321.85 Stolen vehicles or component parts
§ 321.86 Notice by director
§ 321.87 Delivery to owner
§ 321.88 Failure of owner to claim
§ 321.89 Abandoned vehicles
§ 321.90 Disposal of abandoned motor vehicles
§ 321.91 Limitation on liability — penalty for abandonment.
§ 321.92 Altering or changing numbers
§ 321.93 Defense
§ 321.94 Test to determine true number
§ 321.95 Right of inspection
§ 321.96 Prohibited plates — certificates.
§ 321.97 Fraudulent applications
§ 321.98 Operation without registration
§ 321.99 Fraudulent use of registration
§ 321.100 False evidences of registration
§ 321.101 Suspension or revocation of registration or cancellation of certificate of title by department
§ 321.101A Revocation of registration by county treasurer
§ 321.102 Suspending or revoking special registration
§ 321.103 Owner to return evidences of registration and title
§ 321.104 Penal offenses against title law
§ 321.105 Annual registration fee required
§ 321.105A Fee for new registration
§ 321.106 Registration for fractional part of year
§ 321.109 Annual registration fee computed — transit fee.
§ 321.110 Rejecting fractional dollars
§ 321.111 Conversion of car — effect.
§ 321.112 Minimum motor vehicle fee
§ 321.113 Automatic reduction
§ 321.115 Antique vehicles — model year plates permitted.
§ 321.115A Replica vehicles and street rods — model year plates permitted — penalty.
§ 321.116 Battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric motor vehicle fees
§ 321.117 Motorcycle, autocycle, ambulance, and hearse fees
§ 321.118 Corn shellers and feed grinders
§ 321.119 Church buses
§ 321.120 Business-trade trucks
§ 321.121 Special trucks for farm use
§ 321.122 Trucks, truck tractors, and road tractors — fees.
§ 321.123 Trailers
§ 321.124 Motor homes, multipurpose vehicles, and motorsports recreational vehicles — fees.
§ 321.125 Effect of exemption
§ 321.126 Refunds of annual registration fees
§ 321.127 Payment of refund
§ 321.128 Payment authorized
§ 321.129 When fees returnable
§ 321.130 Fees in lieu of taxes
§ 321.131 Lien of fee
§ 321.132 When lien attaches
§ 321.133 Methods of collection
§ 321.134 Monthly penalty
§ 321.135 When fees delinquent
§ 321.145 Disposition of moneys and fees
§ 321.148 Monthly estimate
§ 321.149 Supplies
§ 321.150 Time limit
§ 321.151 Duty and liability of treasurer
§ 321.152 Collection fees retained by county
§ 321.153 Treasurer’s report to department.
§ 321.154 Reports by department
§ 321.155 Duty of treasurer of state
§ 321.156 Audit by department
§ 321.157 Schedule of prices and weights
§ 321.158 Registration dependent on schedule
§ 321.159 Exceptional cases — annual registration fee.
§ 321.160 Department to maintain statement
§ 321.161 Department to fix values and weight
§ 321.162 Method of fixing value and weight
§ 321.165 Manufacture by state
§ 321.166 Vehicle plate specifications
§ 321.167 Delivery of plates, stickers, and emblems
§ 321.168 Additional deliveries
§ 321.169 Account of plates
§ 321.170 Plates for exempt vehicles
§ 321.171 Title of plates
§ 321.174 Operators licensed — operation of commercial motor vehicles.
§ 321.174A Operation of motor vehicle with expired license
§ 321.176 Persons exempt from driver’s licensing requirements.
§ 321.176A Persons exempt from commercial driver’s license requirements.
§ 321.176B Persons exempt by rule from commercial driver’s license requirements.
§ 321.177 Persons not to be licensed
§ 321.178 Driver education — restricted license — reciprocity.
§ 321.178A Driver education — teaching parent.
§ 321.179 Motorcycle rider education fund
§ 321.180 Instruction permits, commercial learner’s permits, and chauffeur’s instruction permits.
§ 321.180A Special instruction permit
§ 321.180B Graduated driver’s licenses for persons aged fourteen through seventeen.
§ 321.181 Temporary permit
§ 321.182 Application
§ 321.183 Application for driver’s license or nonoperator’s identification card — selective service registration.
§ 321.184 Applications of unmarried minors
§ 321.185 Death of person signing application — effect.
§ 321.186 Examination of new or incompetent operators
§ 321.186A Vision report in lieu of vision test
§ 321.187 Examiners
§ 321.188 Commercial driver’s license requirements.
§ 321.189 Driver’s license — content.
§ 321.189A Driver’s license for undercover law enforcement officers — fee — penalties.
§ 321.190 Issuance of nonoperator’s identification cards — fee.
§ 321.191 Fees for driver’s licenses.
§ 321.192 Waivers or refunds of fees
§ 321.193 Restrictions on licenses — penalty.
§ 321.194 Special minor’s licenses.
§ 321.195 Replacement of driver’s licenses and nonoperator’s identification cards.
§ 321.196 Expiration of license — renewal.
§ 321.198 Military service exception
§ 321.199 Driver’s license records.
§ 321.200 Conviction and accident file
§ 321.200A Convictions based upon fraud
§ 321.201 Cancellation and return of license — prohibition from issuance of commercial driver’s license for false information.
§ 321.203 Suspending privileges of nonresidents
§ 321.204 Certification of conviction — notification of commercial driver’s disqualification.
§ 321.205 Conviction or administrative decision in another jurisdiction
§ 321.206 Surrender of license — duty of court.
§ 321.207 Downgrade of commercial driver’s license or commercial learner’s permit.
§ 321.208 Disqualification from operation of commercial motor vehicles — noncommercial driver’s license — temporary license or permit.
§ 321.208A Operation in violation of out-of-service order — penalties.
§ 321.209 Mandatory revocation
§ 321.210 Suspension
§ 321.210A Suspension for failure to pay fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs
§ 321.210B Installment agreement
§ 321.210C Probation period
§ 321.210D Vehicular homicide suspension — termination upon revocation of license — reopening of suspension.
§ 321.211 Notice and hearing — appropriation.
§ 321.211A Appeal of extended suspension or revocation
§ 321.212 Period of suspension or revocation — surrender of license.
§ 321.213 License suspensions or revocations due to violations by juvenile drivers
§ 321.213A License suspension for juveniles adjudicated delinquent for certain drug or alcohol offenses
§ 321.213B Suspension for failure to attend
§ 321.215 Temporary restricted license
§ 321.216 Unlawful use of license or nonoperator’s identification card — penalty.
§ 321.216A Falsifying driver’s licenses, nonoperator’s identification cards, or forms.
§ 321.216B Use of driver’s license or nonoperator’s identification card by underage person to obtain alcohol.
§ 321.216C Use of driver’s license or nonoperator’s identification card by underage person to obtain tobacco, tobacco products, alternative nicotine products, vapor products, or cigarettes.
§ 321.217 Perjury
§ 321.218 Operating without valid driver’s license or when disqualified — penalties.
§ 321.218A Civil penalty — disposition — reinstatement.
§ 321.219 Permitting unauthorized minor to drive
§ 321.220 Permitting unauthorized person to drive
§ 321.221 Employing unlicensed chauffeur
§ 321.222 Renting motor vehicle to another
§ 321.223 Driver’s license inspection for motor vehicle rental.
§ 321.224 Record kept
§ 321.228 Provisions refer to highways — exceptions.
§ 321.229 Obedience to peace officers
§ 321.230 Public officers not exempt
§ 321.231 Authorized emergency vehicles and police bicycles
§ 321.232 Speed detection jamming devices — penalty.
§ 321.233 Road workers exempted
§ 321.234 Bicycles, animals, or animal-drawn vehicles
§ 321.234A All-terrain vehicles — highway use.
§ 321.235 Provisions uniform
§ 321.235A Electric personal assistive mobility devices
§ 321.236 Powers of local authorities
§ 321.237 Signs — requirement — notice.
§ 321.238 Use of electronic devices while driving — preemption of local legislation.
§ 321.239 Counties may restrict parking of vehicles
§ 321.240 Altering center of gravity of vehicle
§ 321.241 Regulation of taxicabs by local authorities — limits.
§ 321.247 Golf cart operation on city streets
§ 321.248 Parks and cemeteries
§ 321.249 School zones
§ 321.250 Discriminations
§ 321.251 Rights of owners of real property — manufactured home communities or mobile home parks.
§ 321.252 Department to adopt sign manual
§ 321.253 Department to erect signs
§ 321.253A Directional signs relating to historic sites on land owned or managed by state agencies
§ 321.253B Metric signs restricted
§ 321.254 Local authorities restricted
§ 321.255 Local traffic-control devices
§ 321.256 Obedience to official traffic-control devices
§ 321.257 Official traffic-control signal
§ 321.258 Arrangement of lights on official traffic-control signals
§ 321.259 Unauthorized signs, signals, or markings
§ 321.260 Interference with devices, signs, or signals — unlawful possession — traffic signal preemption devices.
§ 321.261 Death or personal injuries
§ 321.262 Leaving scene of traffic accident prohibited — vehicle damage only —removal of vehicles.
§ 321.263 Information and aid — leaving scene of personal injury accident.
§ 321.264 Striking unattended vehicle
§ 321.265 Striking fixtures upon a highway
§ 321.266 Reporting accidents
§ 321.267 Supplemental reports
§ 321.267A Traffic accidents involving certified law enforcement officers or other emergency responders — reports.
§ 321.268 Driver unable to report
§ 321.269 Accident report forms
§ 321.271 Reports confidential — without prejudice — exceptions.
§ 321.272 Tabulation of reports
§ 321.273 City may require reports
§ 321.274 Accidents in cities over 15,000
§ 321.275 Operation of motorcycles and motorized bicycles
§ 321.276 Use of electronic communication device while driving
§ 321.277 Reckless driving
§ 321.277A Careless driving
§ 321.278 Drag racing prohibited
§ 321.279 Eluding or attempting to elude pursuing law enforcement vehicle
§ 321.280 Assaults and homicide
§ 321.281 Actions against bicyclists
§ 321.284 Open containers in motor vehicles — drivers.
§ 321.284A Open containers in motor vehicles — passengers.
§ 321.285 Speed restrictions
§ 321.288 Control of vehicle — reduced speed.
§ 321.289 Speed signs — duty to install.
§ 321.290 Special restrictions
§ 321.291 Information or notice
§ 321.292 Civil action unaffected
§ 321.293 Local authorities may alter limits
§ 321.294 Minimum speed regulation
§ 321.295 Limitation on bridge or elevated structures
§ 321.297 Driving on right-hand side of roadway — exceptions.
§ 321.298 Meeting and turning to right
§ 321.299 Overtaking a vehicle
§ 321.302 Overtaking and passing
§ 321.303 Limitations on overtaking on the left
§ 321.304 Prohibited passing
§ 321.305 One-way roadways and rotary traffic islands
§ 321.306 Roadways laned for traffic
§ 321.307 Following too closely
§ 321.308 Motor trucks and towed vehicles — distance requirements.
§ 321.309 Towing
§ 321.310 Towing four-wheeled trailers
§ 321.311 Turning at intersections
§ 321.312 Turning on curve or crest of grade
§ 321.313 Starting parked vehicle
§ 321.314 When signal required
§ 321.315 Signal continuous
§ 321.316 Stopping
§ 321.317 Signals by hand and arm or signal device
§ 321.318 Method of giving hand and arm signals
§ 321.319 Entering intersections from different highways
§ 321.320 Left turns — yielding.
§ 321.321 Entering through highways
§ 321.322 Vehicles entering stop or yield intersection
§ 321.323 Moving vehicle backward on highway
§ 321.323A Approaching certain stationary vehicles
§ 321.324 Operation on approach of emergency vehicles
§ 321.324A Funeral processions
§ 321.325 Pedestrians subject to signals
§ 321.326 Pedestrians on left
§ 321.327 Pedestrians’ right-of-way.
§ 321.328 Crossing at other than crosswalk
§ 321.329 Duty of driver — pedestrians crossing or working on highways.
§ 321.330 Use of crosswalks
§ 321.331 Pedestrians soliciting rides
§ 321.332 White canes restricted to blind persons
§ 321.333 Duty of drivers
§ 321.334 Penalties
§ 321.340 Driving through safety zone
§ 321.341 Obedience to signal indicating approach of railroad train or railroad track equipment
§ 321.342 Stop at certain railroad crossings — posting warning.
§ 321.343 Certain vehicles must stop
§ 321.343A Employer violations — penalty.
§ 321.344 Heavy equipment at crossing
§ 321.344A Reported violations for failure to stop at a railroad crossing — citations.
§ 321.344B Immediate safety threat — penalty.
§ 321.345 Stop or yield at highways
§ 321.346 Cost of signs
§ 321.347 Exceptions
§ 321.348 Limitations on cities
§ 321.349 Exceptions
§ 321.350 Primary roads as through highways
§ 321.352 Additional signs — cost.
§ 321.353 Stop before crossing sidewalk — right-of-way.
§ 321.354 Stopping on traveled way
§ 321.355 Disabled vehicle
§ 321.356 Officers authorized to remove
§ 321.357 Removed from bridge
§ 321.358 Stopping, standing, or parking
§ 321.359 Moving other vehicle
§ 321.360 Theaters, hotels, and auditoriums
§ 321.361 Additional parking regulations
§ 321.362 Unattended motor vehicle
§ 321.363 Obstruction to driver’s view.
§ 321.364 Preventing contamination of food by hazardous material
§ 321.365 Coasting prohibited
§ 321.366 Acts prohibited on fully controlled-access facilities
§ 321.367 Following fire apparatus
§ 321.368 Crossing fire hose
§ 321.369 Putting debris on highway
§ 321.370 Removing injurious material
§ 321.371 Clearing up wrecks
§ 321.372 Discharging pupils — stopping requirements — penalties.
§ 321.372A Prompt investigation of reported violation of failing to obey school bus warning devices — citation issued to driver or owner.
§ 321.373 Required construction — rules adopted.
§ 321.374 Inspection — seal of approval.
§ 321.375 School bus drivers — qualifications — grounds for suspension.
§ 321.376 License — authorization — instruction requirement.
§ 321.377 Regional transit system transportation
§ 321.378 Applicability
§ 321.379 Violations
§ 321.380 Enforcement
§ 321.381 Movement of unsafe or improperly equipped vehicles
§ 321.381A Operation of low-speed vehicles
§ 321.382 Upgrade pulls — minimum speed.
§ 321.383 Exceptions — slow vehicles identified.
§ 321.384 When lighted lamps required
§ 321.385 Headlamps on motor vehicles
§ 321.385A Citation for unlighted headlamp, rear lamp, or rear registration plate light
§ 321.386 Headlamps on motorcycles and motorized bicycles
§ 321.387 Rear lamps
§ 321.388 Illuminating plates
§ 321.389 Reflector required
§ 321.390 Reflector requirements
§ 321.391 Approval of reflectors
§ 321.392 Clearance and identification lights
§ 321.393 Color and mounting
§ 321.394 Lamp or flag on projecting load
§ 321.395 Lamps on parked vehicles
§ 321.396 Exception
§ 321.397 Lamps on bicycles
§ 321.398 Lamps on other vehicles and equipment
§ 321.402 Spot lamps
§ 321.403 Auxiliary driving lamps
§ 321.404 Signal lamps and signal devices
§ 321.404A Light-restricting devices prohibited
§ 321.405 Self-illumination
§ 321.406 Cowl lamps
§ 321.408 Back-up lamps
§ 321.409 Mandatory lighting equipment
§ 321.415 Required usage of lighting devices
§ 321.417 Single-beam road-lighting equipment
§ 321.418 Alternate road-lighting equipment
§ 321.419 Number of driving lamps required or permitted
§ 321.420 Number of lamps lighted
§ 321.421 Special restrictions on lamps
§ 321.422 Red light in front — rear lights.
§ 321.423 Flashing lights
§ 321.428
§ 321.429
§ 321.430 Brake, hitch, and control requirements
§ 321.431 Performance ability
§ 321.432 Horns and warning devices
§ 321.433 Sirens, whistles, and bells prohibited
§ 321.434 Bicycle sirens or whistles
§ 321.435 Motorcycles equipped with detachable stabilizing wheels
§ 321.436 Mufflers, prevention of noise
§ 321.437 Mirrors
§ 321.438 Windshields and windows
§ 321.439 Windshield wipers
§ 321.440 Restrictions as to tire equipment
§ 321.441 Metal tires prohibited
§ 321.442 Projections on wheels
§ 321.443 Exceptions
§ 321.444 Safety glass
§ 321.445 Safety belts and safety harnesses — use required.
§ 321.446 Child restraint devices
§ 321.449 Motor carrier safety rules
§ 321.449A Rail crew transport drivers
§ 321.449B Texting or using a mobile telephone while operating a commercial motor vehicle
§ 321.450 Hazardous materials transportation regulations
§ 321.451 Emergency vehicles — certificate of designation.
§ 321.452 Scope and effect
§ 321.453 Exceptions
§ 321.454 Width of vehicles
§ 321.455 Projecting loads on passenger vehicles
§ 321.456 Height of vehicles
§ 321.457 Maximum length
§ 321.458 Loading beyond front
§ 321.459 Dual axle requirement
§ 321.460 Spilling loads on highways
§ 321.461 Trailers and towed vehicles
§ 321.462 Drawbars and safety chains
§ 321.463 Maximum gross weight — exceptions — penalties.
§ 321.464 Investigation as to safety
§ 321.465 Weighing vehicles and removal of excess
§ 321.466 Increased loading capacity — reregistration.
§ 321.467 Retractable axles
§ 321.471 Local authorities may restrict
§ 321.472 Signs posted
§ 321.473 Limitations on trucks by local authorities
§ 321.474 Department may restrict
§ 321.475 Liability for damage — rules.
§ 321.476 Weighing vehicles by department
§ 321.477 Employees as peace officers — maximum age.
§ 321.478 Bond
§ 321.479 Badge of authority
§ 321.480 Limitation on expense
§ 321.481 No impairment of other authority
§ 321.482 Violations — simple misdemeanors unless otherwise provided.
§ 321.482A Violations resulting in injury or death — additional penalties.
§ 321.483 Felony penalty — class “D” felony.
§ 321.484 Offenses by owners
§ 321.485 Notice to appear — promise to appear.
§ 321.486 Authorized bond forms
§ 321.487 Violation of promise to appear
§ 321.488 Procedure not exclusive
§ 321.489 Record inadmissible in a civil action
§ 321.490 Conviction not to affect credibility
§ 321.491 Convictions and recommendations for suspension to be reported
§ 321.492 Peace officers’ authority.
§ 321.492A Quotas on citations prohibited
§ 321.492B Use of unmanned aerial vehicle for traffic law enforcement prohibited
§ 321.493 Liability for damages
§ 321.498 Legal effect of use and operation
§ 321.499 “Person” defined
§ 321.500 Original notice — form.
§ 321.501 Manner of service
§ 321.502 Notification to nonresident — form.
§ 321.504 Optional notification
§ 321.505 Proof of service
§ 321.506 Actual service within this state
§ 321.507 Venue of actions
§ 321.508 Continuances
§ 321.509 Duty of director
§ 321.510 Expenses and attorney fees
§ 321.511 Dismissal — effect.
§ 321.512 Action against insurance
§ 321.513 Nonresident traffic violator compact
§ 321.514 Definitions
§ 321.515 Operation
§ 321.516 Insurance
§ 321.517 Accidents
§ 321.518 On-demand driverless-capable vehicle network
§ 321.519 Authority
§ 321.555 Habitual offender defined
§ 321.556 Notice and hearing — findings and order.
§ 321.560 Period of revocation — temporary restricted licenses.
§ 321.561 Punishment for violation
§ 321.562 Rule of construction

Terms Used In Iowa Code > Chapter 321

  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Child: includes child by adoption. See Iowa Code 4.1
  • clerk: means clerk of the court in which the action or proceeding is brought or is pending; and the words "clerk's office" mean the office of that clerk. See Iowa Code 4.1
  • Clerk of court: An officer appointed by the court to work with the chief judge in overseeing the court's administration, especially to assist in managing the flow of cases through the court and to maintain court records.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • following: when used by way of reference to a chapter or other part of a statute mean the next preceding or next following chapter or other part. See Iowa Code 4.1
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Internet: means the federated international system that is composed of allied electronic communication networks linked by telecommunication channels, that uses standardized protocols, and that facilitates electronic communication services, including but not limited to use of the world wide web; the transmission of electronic mail or messages; the transfer of files and data or other electronic information; and the transmission of voice, image, and video. See Iowa Code 4.1
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Irrevocable trust: A trust arrangement that cannot be revoked, rescinded, or repealed by the grantor.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Livestock: includes but is not limited to an animal classified as an ostrich, rhea, or emu. See Iowa Code 4.1
  • Magistrate: means a judicial officer appointed under chapter 602, article 6, part 4. See Iowa Code 4.1
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • month: means a calendar month, and the word "year" and the abbreviation "A. See Iowa Code 4.1
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • oath: includes affirmation in all cases where an affirmation may be substituted for an oath, and in like cases the word "swear" includes "affirm". See Iowa Code 4.1
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • person: means individual, corporation, limited liability company, government or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership or association, or any other legal entity. See Iowa Code 4.1
  • personal property: include money, goods, chattels, evidences of debt, and things in action. See Iowa Code 4.1
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • property: includes personal and real property. See Iowa Code 4.1
  • real property: include lands, tenements, hereditaments, and all rights thereto and interests therein, equitable as well as legal. See Iowa Code 4.1
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • road: include public bridges, and may be held equivalent to the words "county way" "county road" "common road" and "state road". See Iowa Code 4.1
  • Rule: includes "regulation". See Iowa Code 4.1
  • seal: shall include an impression upon the paper alone, or upon wax, a wafer affixed to the paper, or an official stamp of a notarial officer as provided in chapter 9B. See Iowa Code 4.1
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Signature: includes an electronic signature as defined in section 554D. See Iowa Code 4.1
  • state: when applied to the different parts of the United States, includes the District of Columbia and the territories, and the words "United States" may include the said district and territories. See Iowa Code 4.1
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Testate: To die leaving a will.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • United States: includes all the states. See Iowa Code 4.1
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • year: means twelve consecutive months. See Iowa Code 4.1