Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 6 > Chapter 1
- Access device: means any card, plate, code, account number, or other means of access, including point of sale devices, that can be used, alone or in conjunction with another access device, to obtain payments, allotments, benefits, money, goods, or other things of value, or that can be used to initiate a transfer of funds under this chapter. See 20 USC 6439
- Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
- A verdict of "not guilty."
- Adjournment sine die: The end of a legislative session "without day." These adjournments are used to indicate the final adjournment of an annual or the two-year session of legislature.
- Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- agency: has the meaning given that term in section 551(1) of title 5. See 10 USC 949l
- agricultural products: means agricultural, horticultural, viticultural, and dairy products, livestock and the products thereof, the products of poultry and bee raising, the edible products of forestry, and any and all products raised or produced on farms and processed or manufactured products thereof, transported or intended to be transported in interstate and/or foreign commerce. See 16 USC 3839aa-25
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- Allotment: means the total value of benefits a household is authorized to receive during each month. See 20 USC 6439
- Allowable medical expenses: means expenditures for (1) medical and dental care, (2) hospitalization or nursing care (including hospitalization or nursing care of an individual who was a household member immediately prior to entering a hospital or nursing home), (3) prescription drugs when prescribed by a licensed practitioner authorized under State law and over-the-counter medication (including insulin) when approved by a licensed practitioner or other qualified health professional, (4) health and hospitalization insurance policies (excluding the costs of health and accident or income maintenance policies), (5) medicare premiums related to coverage under title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U. See 20 USC 6439
- alternative trading system: means an organization, association, or group of persons that--
(A) is registered as a broker or dealer pursuant to section 15(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U. See 10 USC 2502
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- apples: means fresh whole apples, whether or not the apples have been in storage. See 19 USC 3358
- Appraisal: A determination of property value.
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 19 USC 2295
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- Auction market: means a market or place to which tobacco is delivered by the producers thereof, or their agents, for sale at auction through a warehouseman or commission merchant. See 19 USC 2315
- Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
- Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
- benefit: means the value of supplemental nutrition assistance provided to a household by means of--
(1) an electronic benefit transfer under section 2016(i) of this title. See 20 USC 6439
- Bequest: Property gifted by will.
- Board: means the Merit Systems Protection Board under chapter 12 of title 5. See 10 USC 2255
- Board: means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. See 10 USC 2502
- board of trade: means any organized exchange or other trading facility. See 10 USC 2502
- Calendar of Business: A Senate publication sent to each lawmaker's office (and other offices) every day the Senate is in session. It contains information on, for instance, measures reported from the various standing committees, bills in conference, and the status of appropriation bills.
- Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts.
- Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
- Certification period: means the period for which households shall be eligible to receive benefits. See 20 USC 6439
- Chambers: A judge's office.
- Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
- cleared swap: means any swap that is, directly or indirectly, submitted to and cleared by a derivatives clearing organization registered with the Commission. See 10 USC 2502
- Clerk of court: An officer appointed by the court to work with the chief judge in overseeing the court's administration, especially to assist in managing the flow of cases through the court and to maintain court records.
- client: means any person or entity that employs or retains another person for financial or other compensation to conduct lobbying activities on behalf of that person or entity. See 10 USC 949l
- Commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 19 USC 2315
- commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 10 USC 2922h
- commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 20 USC 1070g-3
- commerce: means commerce between any State or the District of Columbia and any place outside thereof, or between points within the same State or the District of Columbia but through any place outside thereof, or within the District of Columbia. See 10 USC 2876
- commercialization: means the stage in the development or advancement of a technology at which point private enterprise is willing to invest in a full-scale production facility. See 20 USC 1070d-37
- Commission: means the Commodity Futures Trading Commission established under section 2(a)(2) of this title. See 10 USC 2502
- commodity: means wheat, cotton, rice, corn, oats, barley, rye, flaxseed, grain sorghums, mill feeds, butter, eggs, Solanum tuberosum (Irish potatoes), wool, wool tops, fats and oils (including lard, tallow, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, and all other fats and oils), cottonseed meal, cottonseed, peanuts, soybeans, soybean meal, livestock, livestock products, and frozen concentrated orange juice, and all other goods and articles, except onions (as provided by section 13-1 of this title) and motion picture box office receipts (or any index, measure, value, or data related to such receipts), and all services, rights, and interests (except motion picture box office receipts, or any index, measure, value or data related to such receipts) in which contracts for future delivery are presently or in the future dealt in. See 10 USC 2502
- commodity pool: means any investment trust, syndicate, or similar form of enterprise operated for the purpose of trading in commodity interests, including any--
(i) commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 10 USC 2502
- commodity pool operator: means any person--
(i) engaged in a business that is of the nature of a commodity pool, investment trust, syndicate, or similar form of enterprise, and who, in connection therewith, solicits, accepts, or receives from others, funds, securities, or property, either directly or through capital contributions, the sale of stock or other forms of securities, or otherwise, for the purpose of trading in commodity interests, including any--
(I) commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 10 USC 2502
- commodity trading advisor: means any person who--
(i) for compensation or profit, engages in the business of advising others, either directly or through publications, writings, or electronic media, as to the value of or the advisability of trading in--
(I) any contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 10 USC 2502
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- Conference committee: A temporary, ad hoc panel composed of conferees from both chamber of a legislature which is formed for the purpose of reconciling differences in legislation that has passed both chambers. Conference committees are usually convened to resolve bicameral differences on major and controversial legislation.
- Congressional Record: The substantially verbatim account of daily proceedings in Congress. It is printed for each day Congress is in session. At the back of each daily issue is the "Daily Digest," which summarizes the day's floor and committee activities.
- Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
- Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
- contract of sale: includes sales, agreements of sale, and agreements to sell. See 10 USC 2502
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- cooperative association of producers: means any cooperative association, corporate, or otherwise, not less than 75 percent in good faith owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by producers of agricultural products and otherwise complying with sections 291 and 292 of this title, including any organization acting for a group of such associations and owned or controlled by such associations, except that business done for or with the United States, or any agency thereof, shall not be considered either member or nonmember business in determining the compliance of any such association with this chapter. See 10 USC 2502
- cotton: means cotton of any variety produced within the continental United States, including linters. See 10 USC 2876
- Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
- county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 19 USC 2292
- Coupon: means any coupon, stamp, type of certificate, authorization card, cash or check issued in lieu of a coupon. See 20 USC 6439
- covered employee: means any employee of an employing office. See 10 USC 2255
- covered executive branch official: means --
(A) the President. See 10 USC 949l
- covered legislative branch official: means --
(A) a Member of Congress. See 10 USC 949l
- Cross examine: Questioning of a witness by the attorney for the other side.
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- Decedent: A deceased person.
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Department of Agriculture: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 10 USC 2881a
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- derivatives clearing organization: means a clearinghouse, clearing association, clearing corporation, or similar entity, facility, system, or organization that, with respect to an agreement, contract, or transaction--
(i) enables each party to the agreement, contract, or transaction to substitute, through novation or otherwise, the credit of the derivatives clearing organization for the credit of the parties. See 10 USC 2502
- Devise: To gift property by will.
- Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
- Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
- Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
- Donor: The person who makes a gift.
- Drug addiction or alcoholic treatment and rehabilitation program: means any such program conducted by a private nonprofit organization or institution, or a publicly operated community mental health center, under part B of title XIX of the Public Health Service Act (42 U. See 20 USC 6439
- EBT card: means an electronic benefit transfer card issued under section 2016(i) of this title. See 20 USC 6439
- Elderly or disabled member: means a member of a household who--
(1) is sixty years of age or older. See 20 USC 6439
- Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
- electronic trading facility: means a trading facility that--
(A) operates by means of an electronic or telecommunications network. See 10 USC 2502
- eligible commercial entity: means , with respect to an agreement, contract or transaction in a commodity--
(A) an eligible contract participant described in clause (i), (ii), (v), (vii), (viii), or (ix) of paragraph (18)(A) that, in connection with its business--
(i) has a demonstrable ability, directly or through separate contractual arrangements, to make or take delivery of the underlying commodity. See 10 USC 2502
- eligible contract participant: means --
(A) acting for its own account--
(i) a financial institution. See 10 USC 2502
- Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
- employee: includes an applicant for employment and a former employee. See 10 USC 2255
- employee: means any individual who is an officer, employee, partner, director, or proprietor of a person or entity, but does not include--
(A) independent contractors. See 10 USC 949l
- employee of the Senate: includes any employee whose pay is disbursed by the Secretary of the Senate, but not any such individual employed by any entity listed in subparagraphs (C) through (I) of paragraph (3). See 10 USC 454
- employing office: means --
(A) each office, agency, or other component of the Executive Office of the President. See 10 USC 2255
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
- excluded commodity: means --
(i) an interest rate, exchange rate, currency, security, security index, credit risk or measure, debt or equity instrument, index or measure of inflation, or other macroeconomic index or measure. See 10 USC 2502
- Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
- Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
- export elevator: means any grain elevator, warehouse, or other storage or handling facility in the United States as determined by the Secretary, from which grain is shipped from the United States to an area outside thereof. See 10 USC 2881a
- export grain: means grain for shipment from the United States to any place outside thereof. See 10 USC 2881a
- export port location: means a commonly recognized port of export in the United States or Canada, as determined by the Secretary, from which grain produced in the United States is shipped to any place outside the United States. See 10 USC 2881a
- Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
- Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
- Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
- financial institution: means --
(A) a corporation operating under the fifth undesignated paragraph of section 25 of the Federal Reserve Act (12 U. See 10 USC 2502
- Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
- You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
- The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
- The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
- floor broker: means any person--
(i) who, in or surrounding any pit, ring, post, or other place provided by a contract market for the meeting of persons similarly engaged, shall purchase or sell for any other person--
(I) any commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 10 USC 2502
- floor trader: means any person--
(i) who, in or surrounding any pit, ring, post, or other place provided by a contract market for the meeting of persons similarly engaged, purchases, or sells solely for such person's own account--
(I) any commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 10 USC 2502
- Food: means (1) any food or food product for home consumption except alcoholic beverages, tobacco, hot foods or hot food products ready for immediate consumption other than those authorized pursuant to clauses (3), (4), (5), (7), (8), and (9) of this subsection, and any deposit fee in excess of the amount of the State fee reimbursement (if any) required to purchase any food or food product contained in a returnable bottle or can, regardless of whether the fee is included in the shelf price posted for the food or food product, (2) seeds and plants for use in gardens to produce food for the personal consumption of the eligible household, (3) in the case of those persons who are sixty years of age or over or who receive supplemental security income benefits or disability or blindness payments under title I, II, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act [42 U. See 20 USC 6439
- food products: means flour (excluding flour second clears not used for human consumption as determined by the Secretary), semolina, farina, bulgur, beverage, and any other product composed wholly or partly of wheat which the Secretary may determine to be a food product. See 20 USC 6315
- food products: means flour (excluding flour second clears not used for human consumption as determined by the Secretary), semolina, farina, bulgur, beverage, and any other product composed wholly or partly of wheat which the Secretary may determine to be a food product. See 20 USC 6645
- food security: means access by all people at all times to sufficient food and nutrition for a healthy and productive life. See 10 USC 2692
- Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
- foreign entity: means a foreign principal (as defined in section 1(b) of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 (22 U. See 10 USC 949l
- foreign exchange forward: means a transaction that solely involves the exchange of 2 different currencies on a specific future date at a fixed rate agreed upon on the inception of the contract covering the exchange. See 10 USC 2502
- foreign exchange swap: means a transaction that solely involves--
(A) an exchange of 2 different currencies on a specific date at a fixed rate that is agreed upon on the inception of the contract covering the exchange. See 10 USC 2502
- foreign futures authority: means any foreign government, or any department, agency, governmental body, or regulatory organization empowered by a foreign government to administer or enforce a law, rule, or regulation as it relates to a futures or options matter, or any department or agency of a political subdivision of a foreign government empowered to administer or enforce a law, rule, or regulation as it relates to a futures or options matter. See 10 USC 2502
- Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- futures commission merchant: means an individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust--
(aa) engaged in soliciting or in accepting orders for--
(AA) the purchase or sale of a commodity for future delivery. See 10 USC 2502
- Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
- Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance.
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- grain: means corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, flaxseed, sorghum, soybeans, mixed grain, and any other food grains, feed grains, and oilseeds for which standards are established under section 76 of this title. See 10 USC 2881a
- Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
- Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
- grapes: means vinifera species table grapes, European type, whether or not they have been in storage. See 20 USC 1033
- Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
- Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
- Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
- honeybee: means all life stages and the germ plasm of honeybees of the genus Apis, except honeybee semen. See 16 USC 460nnn-52
- Household: means --
(A) an individual who lives alone or who, while living with others, customarily purchases food and prepares meals for home consumption separate and apart from the others. See 20 USC 6439
- hybrid instrument: means a security having one or more payments indexed to the value, level, or rate of, or providing for the delivery of, one or more commodities. See 10 USC 2502
- Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
- Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
- Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
- individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 19 USC 2297
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- Inspector: means any person employed, licensed, or authorized by the Secretary to determine and certify the type, grade, condition, or other characteristics of tobacco. See 19 USC 2315
- Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
- Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
- interested person: means any person having a contract or other financial interest in grain as the owner, seller, purchaser, warehouseman, or carrier, or otherwise. See 10 USC 2881a
- Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
- interstate commerce: means commerce--
(A) between any State, territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 10 USC 2502
- interstate or foreign commerce: means commerce from any State to or through any other State, or to or through any foreign country. See 10 USC 2881a
- introducing broker: means any person (except an individual who elects to be and is registered as an associated person of a futures commission merchant)--
(I) is engaged in soliciting or in accepting orders for--
(aa) the purchase or sale of any commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 10 USC 2502
- Irrevocable trust: A trust arrangement that cannot be revoked, rescinded, or repealed by the grantor.
- Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
- Joint meeting: An occasion, often ceremonial, when the House and Senate each adopt a unanimous consent agreement
- Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
- Juror: A person who is on the jury.
- laboratory: means any facility or vehicle that is owned by an individual or a public or private entity and is equipped and operated for the purpose of carrying out pesticide residue analysis on agricultural products for commercial purposes. See 12 USC 4542
- Law clerk: Assist judges with research and drafting of opinions.
- Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- live poultry dealer: means any person engaged in the business of obtaining live poultry by purchase or under a poultry growing arrangement for the purpose of either slaughtering it or selling it for slaughter by another, if poultry is obtained by such person in commerce, or if poultry obtained by such person is sold or shipped in commerce, or if poultry products from poultry obtained by such person are sold or shipped in commerce. See 20 USC 1070g-3
- livestock: means cattle, sheep, swine, horses, mules, or goats--whether live or dead. See 20 USC 1070g-3
- livestock products: means all products and byproducts (other than meats and meat food products) of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry derived in whole or in part from livestock. See 20 USC 1070g-3
- lobbying activities: means lobbying contacts and efforts in support of such contacts, including preparation and planning activities, research and other background work that is intended, at the time it is performed, for use in contacts, and coordination with the lobbying activities of others. See 10 USC 949l
- lobbying contact: means any oral or written communication (including an electronic communication) to a covered executive branch official or a covered legislative branch official that is made on behalf of a client with regard to--
(i) the formulation, modification, or adoption of Federal legislation (including legislative proposals). See 10 USC 949l
- lobbying firm: means a person or entity that has 1 or more employees who are lobbyists on behalf of a client other than that person or entity. See 10 USC 949l
- lobbyist: means any individual who is employed or retained by a client for financial or other compensation for services that include more than one lobbying contact, other than an individual whose lobbying activities constitute less than 20 percent of the time engaged in the services provided by such individual to that client over a 3-month period. See 10 USC 949l
- lot: means a specific quantity of grain identified as such. See 10 USC 2881a
- Magistrate judges: Judicial officers who assist U.S. district judges in getting cases ready for trial, who may decide some criminal and civil trials when both parties agree to have the case heard by a magistrate judge instead of a judge.
- major security-based swap participant: has the meaning given the term in section 3(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See 10 USC 2502
- major swap participant: means any person who is not a swap dealer, and--
(i) maintains a substantial position in swaps for any of the major swap categories as determined by the Commission, excluding--
(I) positions held for hedging or mitigating commercial risk. See 10 USC 2502
- Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
- Majority whip: See Whips.
- Markup: The process by which congressional committees and subcommittees debate, amend, and rewrite proposed legislation.
- marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 19 USC 2296
- meat food products: means all products and byproducts of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry--if edible. See 20 USC 1070g-3
- media organization: means a person or entity engaged in disseminating information to the general public through a newspaper, magazine, other publication, radio, television, cable television, or other medium of mass communication. See 10 USC 949l
- member: means , with respect to a registered entity or derivatives transaction execution facility, an individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust--
(A) owning or holding membership in, or admitted to membership representation on, the registered entity or derivatives transaction execution facility. See 10 USC 2502
- Member of Congress: means a Senator or a Representative in, or Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, the Congress. See 10 USC 949l
- Member of the House of Representatives: means a Representative in, or a Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, the Congress. See 10 USC 628
- Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
- Minority whip: See Whips.
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- narrow-based security index: means an index--
(i) that has 9 or fewer component securities. See 10 USC 2502
- National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
- native: means hydrocarbon-containing plants and other agricultural crops of strategic and industrial importance which may be cultured in North America, especially plants which are members of the genus Parthenium known as Guayule. See 20 USC 1070d-37
- Naval stores: means spirits of turpentine and rosin. See 10 USC 2922h
- Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
- oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 19 USC 2291
- official agency: means any State or local governmental agency, or any person, designated by the Secretary pursuant to subsection (f) of section 79 of this title for the conduct of official inspection (other than appeal inspection), or subsection (c) of section 79a of this title for the conduct of official weighing or supervision of weighing (other than appeal weighing). See 10 USC 2881a
- official grade designation: means a numerical or sample grade designation, specified in the standards relating to kind, class, quality, and condition of grain, provided for in this chapter. See 10 USC 2881a
- official inspection: means the determination (by original inspection, and when requested, reinspection and appeal inspection) and the certification, by official inspection personnel of the kind, class, quality, or condition of grain, under standards provided for in this chapter, or the condition of vessels and other carriers or receptacles for the transportation of grain insofar as it may affect the quality or condition of such grain. See 10 USC 2881a
- official inspection personnel: means persons licensed or otherwise authorized by the Secretary pursuant to section 84 of this title to perform all or specified functions involved in official inspection, official weighing, or supervision of weighing, or in the supervision of official inspection, official weighing or supervision of weighing. See 10 USC 2881a
- official mark: means any symbol prescribed by regulations of the Secretary to show the official determination of official inspection or official weighing. See 10 USC 2881a
- official sample: means a sample obtained from a lot of grain by, and submitted for official inspection by, official inspection personnel (the term "official sampling" shall be construed accordingly). See 10 USC 2881a
- official sampling: shall be construed accordingly). See 10 USC 2881a
- official weighing: means the determination and certification by official inspection personnel of the quantity of a lot of grain under standards provided for in this chapter, based on the actual performance of weighing or the physical supervision thereof, including the physical inspection and testing for accuracy of the weights and scales and the physical inspection of the premises at which the weighing is performed and the monitoring of the discharge of grain into the elevator or conveyance (the terms "officially weigh" and "officially weighed" shall be construed accordingly). See 10 USC 2881a
- officially inspected: shall be construed accordingly). See 10 USC 2881a
- officially weighed: shall be construed accordingly). See 10 USC 2881a
- option: means an agreement, contract, or transaction that is of the character of, or is commonly known to the trade as, an "option" "privilege" "indemnity" "bid" "offer" "put" "call" "advance guaranty" or "decline guaranty". See 10 USC 2502
- Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
- organization: means a person or entity other than an individual. See 10 USC 949l
- organized exchange: means a trading facility that--
(A) permits trading--
(i) by or on behalf of a person that is not an eligible contract participant. See 10 USC 2502
- Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
- Package: means any container of naval stores, and includes barrel, tank, tank car, or other receptacle. See 10 USC 2922h
- packer: means any person engaged in the business (a) of buying livestock in commerce for purposes of slaughter, or (b) of manufacturing or preparing meats or meat food products for sale or shipment in commerce, or (c) of marketing meats, meat food products, or livestock products in an unmanufactured form acting as a wholesale broker, dealer, or distributor in commerce. See 20 USC 1099a
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- performance: may be construed to mean "exercise". See 10 USC 1764
- person: as used in this chapter shall be held to embrace also any partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity. See
- Person: includes partnerships, associations, and corporations, as well as individuals. See 19 USC 2315
- Person: includes partnerships, associations, and corporations, as well as individuals. See 10 USC 2922h
- person: includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. See 19 USC 3358
- person: includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. See 20 USC 1033
- person: includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. See 20 USC 1070g-3
- person: includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. See 20 USC 1070c-1
- person: import s the plural or singular, and includes individuals, associations, partnerships, corporations, and trusts. See 10 USC 2502
- person: import s the plural or the singular, as the case demands, and includes an individual, a partnership, a corporation, or two or more persons having a joint or common interest. See 10 USC 2876
- person: means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other business entity. See 10 USC 2881a
- person or entity: means any individual, corporation, company, foundation, association, labor organization, firm, partnership, society, joint stock company, group of organizations, or State or local government. See 10 USC 949l
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- pesticide: means any substance that alone, in chemical combination, or in any formulation with one or more substances, is defined as a pesticide in section 136(u) of this title. See 12 USC 4542
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
- Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
- plums: means both European and Japanese type, whether or not they have been in storage, but does not mean Italian-type prunes, nor damson-type plums. See 20 USC 1033
- poultry: means chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and other domestic fowl. See 20 USC 1070g-3
- poultry grower: means any person engaged in the business of raising and caring for live poultry for slaughter by another, whether the poultry is owned by such person or by another, but not an employee of the owner of such poultry. See 20 USC 1070g-3
- poultry growing arrangement: means any growout contract, marketing agreement, or other arrangement under which a poultry grower raises and cares for live poultry for delivery, in accord with another's instructions, for slaughter. See 20 USC 1070g-3
- Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
- prudential regulator: means --
(A) the Board in the case of a swap dealer, major swap participant, security-based swap dealer, or major security-based swap participant that is--
(i) a State-chartered bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve System. See 10 USC 2502
- Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
- Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
- public official: means any elected official, appointed official, or employee of--
(A) a Federal, State, or local unit of government in the United States other than--
(i) a college or university. See 10 USC 949l
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
- Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
- registered entity: means --
(A) a board of trade designated as a contract market under section 7 of this title. See 10 USC 2502
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
- Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
- Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
- Reservation: means the geographically defined area or areas over which a tribal organization exercises governmental jurisdiction. See 20 USC 6439
- Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
- Retail food store: means --
(1) an establishment or house-to-house trade route that sells food for home preparation and consumption and--
(A) offers for sale, on a continuous basis, a variety of at least 7 foods in each of the 4 categories of staple foods specified in subsection (r)(1), including perishable foods in at least 3 of the categories. See 20 USC 6439
- Revocable trust: A trust agreement that can be canceled, rescinded, revoked, or repealed by the grantor (person who establishes the trust).
- Rosin: includes gum rosin and wood rosin. See 10 USC 2922h
- Sampler: means any person employed, licensed, or authorized by the Secretary to select, tag, and seal official samples of tobacco. See 19 USC 2315
- Secretaries: means the Secretary of Agriculture and/or the Secretary of Commerce acting each separately or jointly. See 20 USC 1070d-37
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See 19 USC 2315
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 20 USC 1033
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 12 USC 4542
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 20 USC 1070g-3
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 20 USC 1070c-1
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 20 USC 6439
- Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury. See 10 USC 2502
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States or delegates of the Secretary. See 10 USC 2881a
- Secretary of Agriculture: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See 19 USC 3358
- security: means a security as defined in section 2(a)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U. See 10 USC 2502
- security future: means a contract of sale for future delivery of a single security or of a narrow-based security index, including any interest therein or based on the value thereof, except an exempted security under section 3(a)(12) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U. See 10 USC 2502
- security futures product: means a security future or any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege on any security future. See 10 USC 2502
- security-based swap: has the meaning given the term in section 3(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See 10 USC 2502
- security-based swap dealer: has the meaning given the term in section 3(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See 10 USC 2502
- Sentencing guidelines: A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Source: U.S. Courts
- Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
- significant price discovery contract: means an agreement, contract, or transaction subject to section 2(h)(5) of this title. See 10 USC 2502
- Spirits of turpentine: includes gum spirits of turpentine and wood turpentine. See 10 USC 2922h
- staple foods: means foods in the following categories:
(A) Meat, poultry, or fish. See 20 USC 6439
- State: includes Territory, the District of Columbia, possession of the United States, and foreign nations. See 19 USC 2315
- State: means the fifty States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the reservations of an Indian tribe whose tribal organization meets the requirements of this chapter for participation as a State agency. See 20 USC 6439
- State: means each of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 20 USC 1070d-37
- State: means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. See 10 USC 949l
- State: includes the District of Columbia. See 10 USC 1722a
- State: means any one of the States (including Puerto Rico) or territories or possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia). See 10 USC 2881a
- State agency: means (1) the agency of State government, including the local offices thereof, which has the responsibility for the administration of the federally aided public assistance programs within such State, and in those States where such assistance programs are operated on a decentralized basis, the term shall include the counterpart local agencies administering such programs, and (2) the tribal organization of an Indian tribe determined by the Secretary to be capable of effectively administering a food distribution program under section 2013(b) of this title or a supplemental nutrition assistance program under section 2020(d) of this title. See 20 USC 6439
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
- stockyard: means any place, establishment, or facility commonly known as stockyards, conducted, operated, or managed for profit or nonprofit as a public market for livestock producers, feeders, market agencies, and buyers, consisting of pens, or other inclosures, and their appurtenances, in which live cattle, sheep, swine, horses, mules, or goats are received, held, or kept for sale or shipment in commerce. See 20 USC 1134d
- submitted sample: means a sample submitted by or for an interested person for official inspection, other than an official sample. See 10 USC 2881a
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 19 USC 2291
- Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- supervision of weighing: means such supervision by official inspection personnel of the grain-weighing process as is determined by the Secretary to be adequate to reasonably assure the integrity and accuracy of the weighing and of certificates which set forth the weight of the grain and such physical inspection by such personnel of the premises at which the grain weighing is performed as will reasonably assure that all the grain intended to be weighed has been weighed and discharged into the elevator or conveyance. See 10 USC 2881a
- Supplemental nutrition assistance program: means the program operated pursuant to this chapter. See 20 USC 6439
- swap: includes a master agreement that provides for an agreement, contract, or transaction that is a swap under subparagraph (A), together with each supplement to any master agreement, without regard to whether the master agreement contains an agreement, contract, or transaction that is not a swap pursuant to subparagraph (A). See 10 USC 2502
- swap data repository: means any person that collects and maintains information or records with respect to transactions or positions in, or the terms and conditions of, swaps entered into by third parties for the purpose of providing a centralized recordkeeping facility for swaps. See 10 USC 2502
- swap dealer: means any person who--
(i) holds itself out as a dealer in swaps. See 10 USC 2502
- swap execution facility: means a trading system or platform in which multiple participants have the ability to execute or trade swaps by accepting bids and offers made by multiple participants in the facility or system, through any means of interstate commerce, including any trading facility, that--
(A) facilitates the execution of swaps between persons. See 10 USC 2502
- swine contractor: means any person engaged in the business of obtaining swine under a swine production contract for the purpose of slaughtering the swine or selling the swine for slaughter, if--
(A) the swine is obtained by the person in commerce. See 20 USC 1070g-3
- swine production contract: means any growout contract or other arrangement under which a swine production contract grower raises and cares for the swine in accordance with the instructions of another person. See 20 USC 1070g-3
- swine production contract grower: means any person engaged in the business of raising and caring for swine in accordance with the instructions of another person. See 20 USC 1070g-3
- Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Thrifty food plan: means the diet required to feed a family of four persons consisting of a man and a woman twenty through fifty, a child six through eight, and a child nine through eleven years of age, determined in accordance with the Secretary's calculations. See 20 USC 6439
- Tobacco: means tobacco in its unmanufactured form. See 19 USC 2315
- Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
- trading facility: means a person or group of persons that constitutes, maintains, or provides a physical or electronic facility or system in which multiple participants have the ability to execute or trade agreements, contracts, or transactions--
(i) by accepting bids or offers made by other participants that are open to multiple participants in the facility or system. See 10 USC 2502
- Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Tribal organization: means the recognized governing body of an Indian tribe (including the tribally recognized intertribal organization of such tribes), as the term "Indian tribe" is defined in the Indian Self-Determination Act (25 U. See 20 USC 6439
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- United States: means the States (including Puerto Rico) and the territories and possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia). See 10 USC 2881a
- Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
- User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
- vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 19 USC 2294
- Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
- vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 19 USC 2293
- Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
- Weigher: means any person employed, licensed, or authorized by the Secretary to weigh and certify the weight of tobacco. See 19 USC 2315
- Whips: Assistants to the floor leaders who are also elected by their party conferences. The Majority and Minority Whips (and their assistants) are responsible for mobilizing votes within their parties on major issues. In the absence of a party floor leader, the whip often serves as acting floor leader.
- whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 19 USC 2291
- Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
- Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
- writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 19 USC 2291